Skip to main content

Full text of "Publications"

See other formats


Gc 

942.5702 
0x9 8ox 
v.39 
1388021 



GENEALOGY COLLECTION 



/ 



3 1833 00730 8965 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2014 



https://archive.org/details/publications39oxfo 



VOL. XXXIX. 



OXFORD TOPOGRAPHY 

HURST 



HORACE HART, PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY 



Oxford Topography . 



AN ESSAY 



HERBERT HURST, B.A. 



Forming a Companion Volume to the Portfolio 
containing A gas 's Map (1578-88) and other Old Plans of Oxford 
and incorporating Leonard Hutteris Dissertation on the 
Antiquities of Oxford {written about 1625-30) 



WITH SKETCH MAP 

PRINTED FOR THE OXFORD HIST ORICAL SOCI ETY 
AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

1899 



[ A 11 rights reserved} 



PREFATORY NOTE 



X u 0 <f & X 

Mr. Herbert Hurst has been good enough to undertake, 
at the request of the Committee of the Oxford Historical 
Society, a Commentary on Agas's Plan or View of Oxford, 
taking for his text the Perambulation by Leonard Hutten, 
already printed by the Society in Mr. Plummer's edition 
of Tracts relating to Elizabethan Oxford (O. H. S., vol. viii. 
pp. 83-104). Much still remains to be done before the 
topography of ancient Oxford can be regarded as satis- 
factorily investigated, but Mr. Hurst has been able to 
draw on a large amount of material, gathered chiefly by 
Brian Twyne, which has not been made use of since the 
seventeenth century. It is hoped that this Commentary, 
taken in connexion with the Portfolio of Plans of Old Oxford 
(vol. xxxviii) and Mr. Clark's new edition of Wood's History 
of the City (vols, xv, xvii, xxxvii, with two plans), will mark 
a real advance in the study of the topographical antiquities 
of the City and University. 

The contents of the two linked volumes now issued to 
members of the Society are as follows : — 

Vol. xxxviii. 

1. Agas's Plan of Old Oxford, from the unique copy (imperfect) 

in the Bodleian Library, made in 1578 and engraved in 1588, 
in eight sheets. 

2. Whittlesey's engraving of Agas's Plan, made in 1728 from 

a perfect copy : with engravings of Bereblock's Views of the 
Colleges, made in 1566: in four sheets. 

3. Hollar's Plan of Oxford, 1643 : in one sheet. 

4. Loggan's Plan of Oxford, from plate II of his Oxonia Illustrata, 

issued in 1675: in two sheets. 



vi 



PREFATORY NOTE 



Vol. xxxix. 

The topographical part of Leonard Hutten's Antiquities of Oxford, 
written in about 1625-1630, but describing the appearance of 
the city in the time of Elizabeth, and so forming a companion 
to Agas's Plan. Each section of this forms a lemma for a dis- 
sertation by Mr. Hurst, which criticizes and greatly extends 
Hutten's account. A sketch-map, and small figures in the 
inner top margin of each page indicating the sheets of Agas 
corresponding to the text, facilitate the joint use of the two 
volumes. The Index has been compiled by Mr. George Parker, 
of the Bodleian Library. 

[August, 1899.] 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

Introduction i 

i. Hincksey to Folly Bridge 13 

ii. Folly Bridge to the City Wali 24 

iii. Christ Church to Carfax 46 

iv. Carfax to Bocardo 58 

v. St. Aldate's to the Castle 70 

vi. North-west of the City 84 

vii. Osney and Rewley 92 

viii. St. Thomas's to St. Mary Magdalen 96 

ix. St. Mary Magdalen to St. Giles's 102 

x. St. Giles's to Godstow 115 

xi. Broad Street and the Fosse 120 

xii. Holywell 135 

xiii. Ship Street to St. Peter's in the East . . . . 138 

xiv. Market Street to All Souls 15 1 

xv. High Street: Carfax to All Saints' Church . . .170 

xvi. High Street: All Saints' Church to Cat Street . .174 

xvii. High Street : Cat Street to Queen's College . . .181 

xviii. High Street : Queen's College Lane to East Gate . . 188 

xix. Blue Boar Lane, Kybald Street, etc 193 

xx. Merton Street 202 

xxi. Magdalen College and East Oxford 205 

Appendix 209 

Index 215 



Sketch Map before 1 



AGAS'S PLAN 
AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY 



INTRODUCTION 

To any one who comprehends the bearing of this reproduction 
of Agas's Plan of Oxford upon the other publications of the Oxford 
Historical Society, it will be clear that it is not so much the man, 
his method of working, his connexion with other early draughtsmen 
of cities, that should be here noticed, as the value of this one per- 
formance, the intrinsic features of this relic of early planning. To 
those intimate with the historians of Oxford, the question is opened 
whether this was not the very map that Anthony Wood consulted 
when he condensed and arranged in his City the confused and 
voluminous collections made by Twyne and himself. Others, again, 
who have given attention to the annals of Oxford in the Parliamentary 
war, must welcome this opportunity of comparing an Elizabethan map 
of the city with one of Charles the Second's time, when almost all the 
castle had been ' slighted/ and the meadows around given up to 
the pioneer's pick, shovel, and barrow, or traversed with fresh dykes 
for the better • drowning ' of the lower ground on the south. That 
this one copy of the Oxford Plan should be still spared to the Bodleian, 
its natural keeper, that not another of the three copies known to 
Hearne in the early part of the eighteenth century should be left, is 
so very remarkable that one may fairly be allowed to call attention 
to the fact. From his diaries Hearne seems to have given some 
attention to the copies of this Plan, as he notes {Diary 107, p. 9) how 
Mr. Baker the wiredrawer of Cornmarket had secured one from 
Stanton Harcourt, and had been ten years in getting it, and {Diary 



2 AGAS'S PLAN AND IIUTTEN'S SURVEY 



109, p. 3) how an antiquarian friend had been pleased with it; and 
again how a second copy had passed from his friend Dr. Charlett's 
hands into those of Dr. Brathwaite. Warden of Winchester. Fortune 
has again been kind to us, in that Whittlesey furnishes us with a very 
fair reproduction of this Plan executed before the present gaps had 
been worn in it. This one copy only of the Oxford Plan, one of the 
Cambridge Plan, and two copies of the Map of London remain ; and 
the question naturally arises — What is the cause ? The life of maps on 
vellum appears to be fairly long, that substance being both durable and 
flexible, and being never varnished, an operation injurious to a material 
which requires to be rolled and unrolled, because the inflexibility of a 
hard coat of varnish upon a flexible ground tends to the cracking or 
rending of both ; an operation, too, that is decidedly perilous to a 
substance that has to be folded. But old maps or surveys printed on 
paper are extremely scarce, whether from being folded over and over 
again, or, as Overall suggests, from being so often suspended from walls. 
Forty years of ordinary use are often quite enough to destroy a modern 
map, even if on good paper carefully varnished and mounted on a roller 
not too small ; what the result of three hundred years of use and abuse 
would be, when, owing to their scarcity, such maps as existed were 
more frequently consulted than would now be the case, is best left to 
the imagination. If we could obtain particulars of Agas which would 
give us a true insight into his powers of drawing and engraving, we 
might judge more safely than is now possible how far the actual 
execution of this plan is his, and how far he had to trust to an 
assistant. This we cannot do, but we have his own rather exalted 
estimate of his powers and experience in surveying, platting, arithmetic, 
and minute writing, backed up by a little side-evidence that he had 
been engaged under Government upon the Fens. The whole of the 
documents about him known to exist can be read in Overall's edition 
of Agas's Map of London, and there is a fairly complete life in the Dic- 
tionary of National Biography ; but there is not in either a reference to 
sketching or engraving. His View of London, engraved on wood, is, 
as compared with that of Oxford, the rougher specimen of his work, 
and the verses from the Oxford 1 type/ commencing ' Neare tenn yeares 
paste,' may well imply that he was unable for want of royal permission, 
or from some other unknown cause, to print his Plan of London, and 
that he had completed that of Oxford to fill up the interval ; yet the 
peculiar dating of the one map and the absence of date in the other 
leave the question of priority in a very uncertain state. It is by 



INTRODUCTION 



3 



no means evident whether the ten years are to be counted from 1568 
or 1578. As to the third plan, that of Cambridge, which like that of 
Oxford is an engraving on metal, it is without Agas's name, and yet it 
has Ryther's name and another's as engravers. 

In his Plan of London, Agas indulged freely in the picture style 
of delineation ; in that of Oxford he appears somehow to have taken 
the accurate plot (plat, as it was then called) and made it the founda- 
tion of a comprehensive view. In the London View, which may fairly 
be regarded, in style at least, as the earlier, he must of course have 
adopted some system of measuring by which he adjusted the buildings 
to their proper position, but the scale and the implied measurements 
are absent ; but when we come to the Oxford Plan, the full apparatus 
of a scale with perches, paces, and ells, is conspicuously placed before 
us, and further attention is arrested by a figure of Mercury holding 
a formidable pair of compasses. The scale in the Cambridge Map, 
probably a production of his school, has a still more extensive appa- 
ratus for measuring. Mr. Willis Clark, in his Architectural History of 
the Cambridge Colleges, believes in the careful plotting in that plan, but 
thinks that the subsequent sketching of views from roofs, &c, was 
merely checked by some simple plan of pacing. It is not clear, from 
the Oxford Plan, whether Ryther worked in conjunction with Agas, 
or whether he became in 1588 simply the owner of the copyright, as 
we should now phrase it. The rivers in the Map are treated in 
a peculiar way, spotted irregularly with short lines easily made with 
a graver. When the engraving was done, the limner's art was called 
into play, gardens here and there had to be toned with green (they 
look very brown in the original, the colour being probably of vegetable 
origin and liable to change by age), the roofs had to be coloured 
mainly in red, a very few in grey, and the shields to be properly 
tinctured. This last operation, in the Bodleian copy, has been only 
begun by a careless or inexpert workman ; he makes the chevrons of 
Merton all red, and commits errors in other fields and charges ; there 
is a hasty application of black in the shields of Brasenose, Corpus 
Christi, Exeter, and Magdalen, and special carelessness in the last 
of these. Finally, open fields and roads were to be tinted white, in 
the application of which just south of Christ Church — above it on the 
i map — is a peculiar error or smear, which gives the impression of lines 
I having been added by the mounter of the map. To the praise of the 
I workman, if indeed he is not worthy of a higher title, let it be said 
I that no such patching took place, and that no portion throughout the 

b 2 

I 



AGAS'S PLAN AND IIUTTEN'S SURVEY 



map has been misplaced, the only weak point in his work being that 
the portions which make up the larger White Hall, facing the kitchen 
of Exeter College, have become extended. The ragged edges caused 
by folds must have given him an infinity of trouble ; here alone his 
patience has not been rewarded — the Hall has become too wide to be 
correct. The application of white is worth referring to, as it opens 
out a little field for inquiry. There are to the east of St. Alban Hall, 
and along under the south part of Merton College, two white strips 
— it should not be forgotten that the cardinal points are, as it were, 
inverted in the Plan- — should these be regarded as public ways or not ? 
The probability of the first being a continuation of what is now called 
Logic Lane, and of the second being part of the Via regia sub muro, 
the ' Under- wall ' of a later period, is great : they both appear in Hollar 
and in Loggan, but the former has become an orchard. Trees and water 
are nowhere coloured, nor are three of the fields : first, a triangular 
island in the stream (not the Swan's Nest) between the Castle and 
Blackfriars, which latter is written Graiefriars in the Plan, by error ; 
secondly, the middle section of the meadow often called Merton 
fields ; and thirdly, Magdalen water-meadow. As there were no rights 
of common over any of these, we may put this down to a desire of the 
painter to gain variety. There are no indications of lawns or fore- 
courts in St. Giles' Road, or of grass-land in Holywell, and no sign 
of Canditch, but these may not all be omissions. The bastion in 
the Canon's garden near the Chapter-house is omitted, a point worth 
attention, because of Agas's connexion with Corpus Christi College, 
the owners. The toning and colouring hide so much of the engraving, 
that we are not surprised to find Mr. Dodwell (Macray's Annals of 
the Bodleian, 2nd ed., p. 475) puzzled 'whether it was printed or not.' 
The few losses which the Oxford Plan has undergone can be 
supplied from the Whittlesey engraving which accompanies it. 

This production of Agas is certainly neither a plan nor a bird's- 
eye view, in the strict application of the term, for the word ' view,' 
as here applied, can scarcely be parted from the idea of perspective 
and vanishing points, and Agas gives us parallel lines only. Nothing 
better, one would say, could be devised than the old-fashioned term 
' bird's-flight view.' The town is drawn as it would unfold itself 
to any one passing over it, as in a balloon, at a height sufficient 
to abolish sharpness of perspective, and yet low enough to allow 
of distinct view of the scene beneath. Call it, if you will, a view- 
plan in isometrical projection; but 'a bird's-flight view' is simpler 



INTRODUCTION 



5 



English, more concise, and sufficiently accurate. Isometrical pro- 
jection serves its purpose best when the object is viewed angle-wise, 
not directly in front. Agas unfortunately stationed himself at the 
north of Oxford, a city whose streets intersect each other mainly 
at right angles, and towards the four cardinal points of the compass. 
As he had drawn London from the south because the north border 
of the Thames gave him the finest view, so now he took a view 
of Oxford from the north, and from that stand-point the majority of 
the buildings unluckily present only one face to the spectator. As 
a man skilled in the use of the rough instruments of observation 
of his day, the ' profitable staff and the improved theodolite/ he 
may have chosen the broad expanse of Beaumont fields — near to 
a well-known place of recreation, called Rome — and from it taken 
the positions of the taller objects in the City. He gives as his 
reason for choosing the north that it was the best and the best-known 
point of view. Almost any view not directly up one street and across 
another would have suited his mode of drawing better, because a 
quadrangular building with one face to the spectator shows but 
that one face ; then if the point of view is raised, a corresponding 
face of the range in the rear becomes visible, but the two sides are 
lost, their roofs alone being seen. A consciousness of this made 
Agas, or Ryther, his engraver, in some cases thrust out the lower 
parts of these invisible sides that they might show themselves, and 
in others treat that which should have been the sloping side of 
a roof (as in Magdalen, east side) as a wall pierced with windows ; 
this, however, in his days, would be no outrage upon prevailing 
fashion. In the corners of some quadrangles, as Merton and Christ 
Church, he represents towers as placed diagonally across the angle, 
and some of his towers, as St. Mary's and Carfax, seem to have spun 
round forty-five degrees to afford the spectator a view of two sides 
instead of one, and he has thus obtained the diagonal view which 
his point of observation denied him. Such peculiarities should be 
regarded as licences in perfect accordance with then existing fashion, 
rather than as examples of bad drawing. The insertion of false 
windows, and the making the heads of all to be circular or elliptical, 
should be ascribed to the same cause ; to have done otherwise 
would have been a sin against fashion, a mark of ignorance of what 
was required. This last defect runs through the otherwise able 
drawings of Bereblocke, done as a present for Queen Elizabeth some 
years before. In one point, and that not a trifling one, the drawing 



6 



AGAS'S PLAN AND IIUTTEN'S SURVEY 



powers of Agas have vindicated themselves completely. On the 
top of the Castle mount stood once a castle keep; its general 
contour being not unlike the sketch now hanging in the Christ 
Church bursary, minus the fashionable windows and crenellations. 
Now that a trustworthy representation has been found, those who 
ridiculed Agas are themselves in a similar plight. 

There are three dates to the Map. 1578 is on the title; on 
a small medallion at the bottom is 'Augustinus Ryther Anglus 
deliniavit 1588'; in the verses over the scale, we have ' . . . would 
make sheow, how it (London) was beste beseene | the thirtieth yeare, 
of our moste noble queene ' [1587-8] \ The payment by the University 
took place in 1578: there are, then, two sets of contradictory 
statements. The word * thirtieth ' in the verses shows no sign of 
having been tampered with ; but yet the medallion of Ryther, being 
of more delicate workmanship, may be an addition made when, as 
may have happened, the plates became his own property, and when he 
lived as a printseller near Leadenhall. The date is of no very great 
importance, whether 1578 or 1588; the Map was clearly executed 
after the large woodcut of London, and before the engraving of 
Cambridge, that bears John Hammond's name, with the date 1592. 
Dodd only, in his Connoisseur 's Repository, Pt. I (i2mo, Manchester, 
1825), speaks of a Cambridge Map by Agas dated 1578, probably 
concluding in haste that the two early maps of the Universities now 
in the Bodleian were by the same hand, and engraved in the same 
year. As Jesus College, Oxford, was established about 1571, it is sur- 
prising to find its site occupied by the two White Halls and very 
little else, but on the other hand Jesus College did not effect much 
in the way of building till 1580, when that part of Agas's task 
may have been accomplished. Setting aside the unverified pro- 
duction of 1578, it is worth noticing that Cambridge attained its 
first befitting plan within four years of the completion or publishing 
of the Oxford Map. This may be a kind of sequence to the dispute 
about the relative antiquity of the two Universities ; it may be, too, 
that the same plotter was employed by both. Certainly Agas's name 
does not occur on the Cambridge Plan, yet the execution and the 
colouring are so similar in both, that the best judges have set 
down the later one, some as belonging to a similar school, some 
as proceeding from the same school, and others as the genuine 

1 The lines ' Quae tibi mater erat &c.' and the shield bearing Sir Christopher 
Hatton's arms, encircled by the Garter, cannot be earlier than 1588, the year in 
which Hatton became Chancellor of the University. 



INTRODUCTION 



1 



work of Agas himself. The legend upon it is worth quoting in 
full, for it seems more like the utterance of a patron of another's 
production than a declaration by a simple surveyor or planner. It 
is this : — 

' Habes in hac Carta (spectator candide) novam Cantebrigiae 
descriptionem, quam per scalae mensuram multo quam antehac 
accuratius examinatam ad veros situs reduximus. Tu vero qua es 
humanitate aequi bonique consulas. Interim fruere et bene vale. 
Cantebrigiae ex aula Clarensi, die 22 mensis februarii 1592. Johanes 
Hamond.' 

In the fourteen, or possibly four, years that elapsed between the 
publication of the earlier and of the later map, Agas or Hammond, or 
rather those who worked under them, had made but little advance 
in plotting; but two lines added to the scale may indicate 
that measurement was more expected by the public, if not more 
carefully followed out, than previously. Mr. Willis Clark does not 
rate the accuracy of this Cambridge Map very high, nor can 
the present writer claim more for that of Oxford. To estimate 
with fairness the discrepancies between Agas's Plan and the actual 
measurements of the city streets, roads, &c, it seemed best to 
compare: (1) distances north and south; (2) distances east and 
west; (3) distances taken diagonally, and lastly to compare smaller 
dimensions and a few heights of buildings. When it was observed 
that Agas's scale of paces, each equal to five feet, gave the correct 
length of St. Mary the Virgin's Church, all seemed to promise well 
for his accuracy ; but it soon appeared that this measurement and 
another, also rather central, are the only two in which Agas is at 
all accurate. 



1 . Measurements north to south are : — 

By Agas. By Hoggar. 

Denchworth Bow to middle of Carfax .... 1505 ft. 1644 ft. 

South end of Catt Street to North face of Our Lady's Chapel 680 738 

North face of Bocardo to South fence of St. Giles' church- 
yard 1650 1839 

St. George's Tower (central) to NE. angle of Gloucester 

College 1090 1320 

Which gives an average in Agas of about 12 per cent, short measure. 

2. Measurements east to west are : — 

East of No. 1 Holywell to middle of Parks Road . . 990 1088 

Merton Street, extreme length . . . . . . 915 1011 

Oriel Lane (central) to Carfax (central) . . . . 725 849 



8 AGAS'S PLAN AND IIUTTEN'S SURVEY 



By Agas. By Hoggar. 

SE. angle of the old Church Street, St. Thomas, to 

Carfax (central) 2630 ft. 2352 ft. 

Here the measurements differ considerably, sometimes on one side, and sometimes 
on the other, though the totals happen to be nearly equal. 

3. Measurements diagonally are : — 

St. George's Tower to Carfax (both central) . . . 1150 1332 
Bocardo (central) to East of Castle Stream, at Rewley 

Stream junction 1695 1974 

Holywell Church (W. door) to SE. angle of roads at Carfax 2355 2709 
NW. angle of Merton Chapel (transept) to outside of 

angular bastion, New College gardens . . . 1515 1461 
SE. angle of Merton garden to North of Our Lady's 

Chapel 1 710 1683 

Three of which average about 1 2 per cent, short measure, one is nearly right, 
and one is about 10 per cent, in excess. 

4. Smaller distances, &c., result thus : — 

Length of Cathedral 167 144 

Length of St. Mary the Virgin ...... 180 180 

Length of West front of Oriel College . 165 165 

Length of South front of Oriel College . . . . 180 222 

St. John's College, old quadrangle, East to West . . 122 132 

Magdalen, old quadrangle, East to West .... 97 135 

Christ Church, main quadrangle, North to South . . 205 270 

Width of St. Giles' Road, South of the churchyard . . 222 252 



Two of which are correct, but yet the average is about 1 1 per cent, 
short. 

5. As to heights, it is more difficult to test Agas's accuracy, owing 
to mistakes in the mounting of the eight sheets of which the Map 
is composed. 

Magdalen Tower 125 ft, should be 145 ft. 
St. Mary's Spire 245 ,, 189 

Cathedral Spire 165 „ 144 

These give an excess of about 1 7 per cent. 

It is very surprising that the total errors in these measurements 
should be so great. The scale, five inches in length, is carefully 
drawn and fairly well divided, and makes us unwilling to suppose it has 
been drawn too long. The incorrect results seem, then, to result either 
from using too long a chain or rod, or from a rough system of 
measuring. Agas poses in one place as the improver of the steel chain 
of two poles length, and he could scarcely have gone wrong in that 
matter. We must therefore conclude that his measurements were badly 
taken; we can scarcely think, he being a cripple, that if he paced 
out measurements, two of his strides would measure more than the 
usual pace of five feet in length. Incorrect as the measurements 



INTRODUCTION 



9 



prove to be, there seems to be some truth in the idea that the streets 
were planned before the picture was made. 

Agas's Map not only aided Wood in his investigations, and perhaps, 
too, misled him in his description of two of the angles at Carfax {City, 
i. 127, 193), but was also of service to Loggan when he completed 
his book of Plates for the University, by adding the beautiful Sceno- 
graphia Oxoniensis. The following statement, as yet unpublished, 
but legibly written on Wood's copy of this Plan of Loggan's (now in 
Wood's MS. 276 b), explains the entire matter : ' Memorandum that 
this map or platforme of the University and Citie of Oxon was mostly 
drawne by the hande (with a pencil) of David Loggan the University 
Engraver an. 1673, engraven on a copper plate an. 1674 and 
published with the book of Maps of Colleges and Halls an. 1675. 
The said Dav. Loggan using my direction in the matter and an 
old map of Oxon that I have in my hands, he in gratitude gave me 
the map in Aprill an. 1675. Ant. a Bosco/ Twyne, writing about 
1630 (Tw. 23, 548), also refers to the Map in a criticizing manner: 
'In the examination of one Richard Pawmer a.d. 1574 there is 
mention made of a lane called Sommeners lane leadinge from Exceter 
Coll. to Smythgate. Whereby may be gathered the extent of that 
lane, reachinge from North-gate Street by Bocardo to Smythgate, 
or rather to New Colledge as it is there directly affirmed namely that 
Somenour Lane leadeth from St. Michael's Church in the north, 
to Newe College and soe it is there avouched uppon oath; what 
then will become of S. John's Stret which old Mr. Wyndser and 
the map of Oxford sett forth by Agase say was the name of a strete 
leading from Smythgate downe by Newe College? Whereas here 
it is deposed that all that lane which leadeth from St. Michael's 
Church in the North to Newe Coll., is Someners Lane. The same 
appeareth out of another examination there/ 

Now, there is a Dissertation on Oxford, a kind of topographical 
sketch, of about the same date as the Map, and it will be the aim 
of this paper to show how the one illustrates the other. This is the 
Antiquities of Oxford, by Leonard Hutten, a Canon of Christ Church 
and an author of some repute, published by the Oxford Historical 
Society in their eighth volume, 1887. The few particulars of his un- 
eventful life will be found on p. xiii of that volume, and in the Athenae 
Oxon. ii. 532-4 (ed. Bliss). His mural monument, once at the west 
end of the Latin Chapel, over the spot where he was buried, is now 
placed in the north transept, under the most northerly of the west 



io AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY 



windows. On seven waving scrolls, in a somewhat ornamental lettering, 
can still be read: — ' Leonardus Hutten, | i)° die Maii Anno 1632, 
aetatis suae 75, | Animam Deo reddidit | eruditam, simplicem, piam, 
I Doctor in Theologia, et in hac capella Moderator | dignissimus, 
Prebendarius hujus Ecclesiae per anos prope triginta duos | integerri- 
mus/ The work seems to have been written between 1600 and 1632. 
Wood had seen four copies of it, and he spoke of it as mostly taken 
from Brian Twyne's Apologia. Wood's remarks (Alhenae OxonAoc. o.\i.) 
are these : ' I have seen four copies of it, but could get little or nothing 
from them when I was writing The History and Antiquities of the 
University of Oxon/ Hearne (Tex/us Roffensis, pp. xxxvii seqq.) 
is not pleased with this estimate, and says its author ' was a man of 
varied' erudition, and an illustrious antiquarian, vir multijugae erudi- 
iionis et antiquarius eximius. There are very many things stated in the 
book that are pleasing and worth being known. Moreover, the author 
died not much before the late civil war spread over the country, a war 
by far the most severe of all, one which not only grievously shook the 
Universities, but almost blotted out the very name : it spared no place, 
sacred or profane. A gentleman renowned for his industry has asserted 
that almost all his facts have been taken from Twyne. I would prefer 
to say that the gentleman was himself the most diligent plagiarist, 
and owed much to Hutten. That the gentleman I have hinted at 
spoke the above in a fit of ill-will, everybody will acknowledge, who 
will take the trouble to compare the little work of our author with 
Twyne, for he much excelled him in reputation for talent, for judge- 
ment, and for learning.' 

No strict imitation of Hutten's kindly, chatty manner will be 
attempted — it would be out of place here. His hasty outline will be 
filled up with a few details acquired during the last twenty years, 
which will bring the topographical information somewhat up to present 
date, and perhaps be of service to those who wish to know early 
Oxford a little more intimately, and so to enjoy the use of a map so 
wonderfully preserved for us. Topographical information alone will be 
aimed at ; dry details will be as much as possible avoided. Agas's is 
but the outline of a picture, Hutten's a hurried sketch. Just so much 
will be attempted here as will, it is hoped, prove an easily-read and 
pleasing supplement to both. Something will be added as to archi- 
tecture, of which Anthony Wood was ignorant, or rather heedless, and 
Twyne will be constantly appealed to for new facts. In this way, 
perhaps some of the censure courted by so bold an undertaking may 



INTRODUCTION 



IT 



be avoided. With the vast apparatus of Twyne, with an unusual insight 
into the thousands of muniments which the University and City possess, 
it must have been no easy matter even for a master, like Wood, to 
produce his admirable work on the City of Oxford. It will be the 
writer's duty in a very few cases to controvert certain of Wood's 
statements, and he will, at all times, try to go back to the documentary 
history of the various sites, and to avoid useless guessing, preferring 
to say ' not proven ' rather than to give a more decisive verdict. 

It is not till we arrive at page 105 of the original of Hutten that we 
'compose ourselves/ to enter the City from the south, 'as comeing from 
Abingdon/ and on the next page we enter the district whose topography 
is for a time to be our study. As we proceed, we shall refer in the 
proper places to his sections upon the Abbeys and Religious Orders, 
which occupy the earlier pages of his book. Our author does not at 
first seem very systematic in his peregrination. He hurries from 
Folly Bridge to Carfax and on to Bocardo, perhaps with the intention 
of marking the central division of the whole city ; then he returns 
to the bridge, and speaks of the west side of Oxford, working round 
by St. Ebbe's and Hythe Bridge, and going to the extreme north-west 
point, that is, to Godstow. Then returning to Bocardo, he treats of 
Holywell and north Oxford ; completes the north-east section of the 
City, then the south-east, journeying by Merton, the Eastgate, and so 
ending at St. Clement's. An index-map will explain this. 

On looking over the pages and noticing the authorities quoted, it 
might be thought that two of them, Wood's D. 2 and Twyne 23, have 
been too frequently made use of, but these are really the two great 
collections left us on the topography of Oxford. It need scarcely 
be remarked that the system of appealing to them, and not to the 
originals whence they were collected, though a very ready one, can 
only be accepted as a temporary measure. Let us hope that in 
the century now so close at hand a calendar of Oxford documents 
may be completed, to which, as something final, references can be 
hereafter made. The bracket ( ) has been used to include words or 
explanations which do not form part of the quotation in which it occurs. 
Some of the dates are followed by m., others by f. ; the former are 
derived from the chronological list of Mayors, which has been rendered 
pretty complete from the labours of Twyne and the additions of 
Wood and others ; the latter are roughly calculated from the time 
of life (the floruit) of the persons named. 



112 



AGAS'S PLAN AND IIUTTEN'S SURVEY 



The following abbreviations have been used in giving references 
to MSS. or printed books : — 

•Z?0. = Boase's Register of Exeter College (O. H. S. xxvii). 

PFz. = Wigram's Cartulary of St. Frideswyde (O. H. S. xxviii and 

xxxi) : this is cited by the number of the Charter, not by 

the page. 

PL — Plummer's Elizabethan Oxford (O. H. S. viii). 

Ciiy= Wood's City of Oxford, ed. Clark (O. H. S. xv and xvii). 

Bah — Ballard MS. 69 in the Bodleian. 

V.= Wood's MS. D. 2, as so cited by himself, in his City of Oxford 

and elsewhere. 
0. = Wood's MS. C. 1. 



AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY 1 . 



i. Hineksey to Folly Bridge. 

P. 1 06. 'And now beeing come to the descent of the 
Hill and entered into the Causy, it will not bee amisse 
to know upon what ground we goe. For it is not naturall 
Ground, but forc'd and made Ground, and called (as wee said 
before) a Cawsie.' 

Having descended Hineksey Hill and, turning northward, passed 
Cold Arbour on the right and part of New Hineksey on the left, when 
we arrive at the Recreation Ground there, we come upon an embanked 
road, which was formerly a road raised on arches. This south road 
into Oxford, the east road and the west, all had these arched roads 
in former days. The rush of the flood-water from the Thames and 
Cherwell basins demanded it ; and still demands it. The two or three 
open arches of Magdalen Bridge will prove far inferior, for the purpose 
of carrying off floods, to the old Eslbrugge with its twenty-five arches. 
On the south or Hineksey road, and on the west just beyond Oseny 
Bridge, embankments conceal the rows of arches. In the latter road, 
no doubt, the narrowing of the water-course by land raised for 
building upon, will cause serious mischief when some wet winter comes 
or heavy thunderstorm. 

'haveing in it above 40. Arches of Stone, I will not saie 
first founded, but very well repaired and restored by the 
charge of Doctor John Claymond the first President of 

1 The word survey has been adopted, though not used by Hutten, to distinguish 
his itinerary from the rest of the dissertation which does not so much concern us. 
The final section, descriptive of the buildings, was probably never written (v. p. 153 
of the original). 



14 AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [- 



C. C. C. according to that which Shepreuc spcakcth of him 
writing his life. 

P. 107. Egrcderis portam, quae recta vergit ad Austrum : 
Clamondi nummis compita strata vides.' 

This range of arches with round heads seemed so solidly constructed 
to a former student of such matters, Mr. Frederick Morrell, that 
he esteemed them to be of Roman construction ; but there have been 
no Roman bricks or other signs discovered in them. Still, the idea of 
the two Wick farms, one of which now remains, worked in well with 
that theory. The situation was too low for the Romans to make 
a road upon, and the very few of their remains found in the city 
forbid us to think it was much occupied by them. Hutten's words 
may be taken to mean that extensive repairs were carried out 
here by Claymond. ' Crossways paved by the purse of Claymond ' 
can mean little more than this. Miles Windsor (Bal. p. 65, con- 
taining Wood's notes) describes the Great South Bridge as extending 
1,000 paces, probably 2,000 feet, on more than forty arches. As 
he was a member of Corpus Christi College, he would naturally take 
pride in the bridge that Claymond had repaired. He seems the first 
to mention the number of arches. The underground features of the 
road are worth our study, as some primitive work may be found on 
this very early and very necessary way from Abingdon to Oxford. 
From the observations of Mr. C. H. Churms, the foreman of the City 
Works Department, we may be almost sure that this arched road reaches 
down to the New Hospital for infectious diseases. The observations 
quoted result mainly from short sections across the road made for 
gas and water-pipes, the pipes as a rule being laid at one side or 
other of the stone arches, in the added soil. Where Edith Road 
opens on it, there exists an archway with a triangularly-pointed head. 
The sloping stones which, leaning against each other, make the arch, 
are about five feet long ; and this dimension, making due allowance 
for key-stones at the apex and at the haunches, would form a passage 
for water of about nine feet wide. Under our road, at its junction 
with Newton Road, is a good semicircular arch quite perfect. After 
some fifteen yards, commence the arches — tolerably perfect except 
where cut through for gas-pipes — that seem to be of Claymond's 
time. The spans of the arches are from seven to nine feet, and 
the piers between them between four and five. Allowing twelve and 
a half feet as the average sum of the two measurements above, and 



-] 



HINCKSEY TO FOLLY BRIDGE 



J 5 



multiplying by 40, we obtain 500 feet, which is not enough to reach 
along the margin of the smallest field there. The road is now so much 
wider than the old causeway that no part of an arch can be seen. 
Forty to fifty years ago, a few of the arches were partly open on the 
west side in the field once called House Close, just south of the Old 
White House Lane, which once had a remarkably winding brook 
running through it, still marked by willow trees and known as The 
Roundabout Stream. Other arches also were visible north of this field. 
It seems very probable that the forty arches mentioned by Hutten 
were either one entire group or several groups interspersed along the 
road, wherever the land lay lowest, the total number of arches being 
forty. Wood in 1660 saw three from Dench worth to Grandpont, 
twenty-six more down to Estwyck, and sixteen more beyond that to the 
mill near the railway bridge — forty-five in all (City, i. 416). The material, 
as far as can be judged from the specimens kindly supplied to me, is 
stone from North Hincksey quarry, west of St. Lawrence Church. That 
the name Bridge was applied to this causeway in the time of Faritius, 
the Abbot of Abingdon, that is somewhere between n 00 and 11 17, is 
clear from the Abingdon Chronicle (Rolls Series, vol. ii. 140). The 
Chronicle tells how Ermenold a Burgess of Oxford and tenant of 
Cnap Hall, as we learn elsewhere, got one year behind with his rent 
for ' Wica which is near the bridge of Oxenford,' valued 40^., and 
how the Abbot next harvest seized the crops and occupied the land. 
Then Ermenold obtained the services of Walter, Archdeacon of Oxford, 
and Richard of Stanlache, who managed, either because the innkeeper 
was sick of the world or because his affairs were in such a wretched 
condition, that the whole of Ermenold's possessions should go into 
the hands of the Abbey, and that the late tenant, or perhaps part 
owner, should be maintained in Abingdon Abbey or in the town by 
the monks : to this proposal his wife and son agreed, and the port- 
mannimote of Oxford confirmed the proceedings. A few years later, 
when Abbot Ingulph leased the Wick to Nicholas the priest and Robert 
his nephew, the same description is given. The editor, Mr. J. Stevenson, 
dates the lease between 1100 and 1135, but as Ingulph only began 
to rule in 11 30, we can fix the date more nearly. 

P. 107. ' Betweene the foresaid Towne of Ifely and Kenning- 
ton, the River is very broad and shallow, and maketh that 
famous Ford, which giveth name unto the Citty, which as the 
Historie of Oxford saith, a quodam vado vicino populus 



1 6 AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [- 

Saxonicus nominavit Oxenford, &* ad locum Studii praelegit : 
The Saxons from a certaine Ford neare unto the Towne 
named Oxenford, and appointed it for a Place of Study. If 
any man require auntientcr names ; it was called Caer Mem- 
pric, Caer Vortigerne, Rydychen, Bellesitum, Caer Bosta &c. 
in the Brittaine time, as Johannes Rossius testifieth. 5 

It seems that our author regarded a ford some distance down the 
river, near where the Thame railway crosses it, as the £ neighbouring ' 
ford which gave a name to the city, and not the more practicable one 
over the various small streams at Grandpont. The rendering of the 
stream navigable to Burcot upwards, in 1624 *, must of course have 
given a vastly different appearance to the river, so that no such ford 
or shallow water can now be traced. There are certainly two roads 
at Kennington Island which look as if they had a tendency towards 
the broad and shallow river there, but that is scarcely between Iffley 
and Kennington. Of these two, the Berkshire one comes from Little 
London to the chapel at Kennington, and passes straight onwards 
on the south of that building towards the river ; the other commences 
near Littlemore Asylum, and arrives after some turnings at the 
Oxford side of the island. It is only part of the former that seems 
to bear any traces of great antiquity. The statement is by no 
means clear : the ' Historie of Oxford ' here mentioned is the Historiola 
apparently of the date of Edward III ; the passage follows the fables 
about the Trojans and Brutus. About the historical value of this 
document, consult Mr. Parker's Early Oxford, p. 11 ; and in favour 
of the ford, where Grandpont Bridge now is, being the ford in question, 
consult pp. 120, 121 of the same work. His conclusions seem so well- 
founded that it would be almost a waste of time to discuss other 
fords such as those at Binsey, Parson's Pleasure, and near Bulstake. 
It is scarcely worth while to inform the reader that the Welsh names 
here bestowed on Oxnaford are poor inventions of Rous or of 
Geoffry of Monmouth, and first occur late in the fifteenth century. 
[For these Myths, see Hutten in PL pp. 37-41.] 

' Passing along the Cawsy, wee see noething, on either 
hand, saveing onely spatious Meadowes, devided by the 
severall Streames of the River, which runn under the fore- 



1 v. Ogle's Royal Letters, p. 255. 



-] 



HINCKSEY TO FOLLY BRIDGE 



17 



named Arches, (P. 108) and when wee come somewhat neare 
the Towne, two severall Farmes, the one on the left Hand 
belonging unto Brasennose, the other on the right belonging 
unto University Colledge, and betweene both a litle House, 
called the Archdeacon of Barksheire his Court' 

The name Abingdon Road had not then been given, and the road 
as far as Lake Street, at least, passed as the Cawsy. The Wick, 
or better Eastwyke House, lies just south of the stream which runs 
into the Thames above the University boathouse : it has an embanked 
road on the north and a small brook on the side towards the main 
road. A John de la Wyke occurs in 1377 (Tw. 23, p. 530). He 
then enfeoffed John de Northampton the Towne-Clerke, Walter de 
Clyve the Mayors sergeant and others, of his lands tenements &c. 
in Oxford and its suburbs, among which were Saucer Hall and a rent 
from Water Hall. But there had been an earlier agreement between 
these parties in the same year, regnante Edw. Ill, whereby John 
de Northampton of Oxford, Towne Clerke, and Walter de Clyve of 
Oxford gave and demised to Walter Daunteseye all their lands and 
tenements at La Wyke in the county of Berks, with meadows, pasturage, 
waters and fish-rights, with all things whatsoever belonging to or 
regarding the said lands and tenements, on each side of the great 
bridge of Oxford, which they lately had by the gift and feoffment 
of John de la Wyke &c. Dated at La Wyke, 22 May, 51 Edw. III. 
Daunteseye is termed elsewhere ' Dominus ' of the Wyke, which 
perhaps means nothing more than master or owner, for no manorial 
rights seem to belong to it. In 1393 or 1394, 17 Ric. II (Tw. 
23, p. 391), Walter Crook fishmonger of Oxford sold to Walter 
Daundesey dominus of the Wyke near Oxford all that place of Swynes- 
hull near Oxford in County Berks with lands, meadows, pastures, 
fishing-rights, pools and all other pertinencies. The companion house 
West or New Wyke has not been observed in any map, and now 
that New Hincksey has grown up on the west side of the road, the 
probable site of the house has been covered with new buildings. Twyne 
would make it to be opposite Chapel Place : others are content to seek 
it at the Old White House, which belongs to Brasenose College, part 
of Swineshull Farm, or Swinfell, as it is called in the 1726 map, 
published in Mr. Mowat's series. The farm is thus mentioned in 
15 1 2 (V. p. 295, taken from the Brasenose Leiger Book) — 
j Richard Crowlesmere and others demise to William Franklyn their 

c 



18 AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [- 



messuage in Swynshall, Co. Berks . . . with all lands pastures and 
commons which they have in Wcstwyke, Spreakellsyeit, Sandhull &c.' 
Sandels, as in the map just named, was an estate on the site of the 
present Water-lakes, and we should therefore, in looking for Wcst- 
wyke, not come too near to Folly Bridge or the Abingdon Road. 

The meadow to the right, i. e. between the road and the Thames, 
is Cowmead, and sliced out of its west side next to our road is a 
small enclosure with a few houses upon it, known pretty generally 
for some years as Chapel Close: to this Wood [City, i. 425) refers 
thus, — 'where a little cottage stood till the beginning of the warr, 
at what time a rag-man lived there, is called Chappel Hous, and the 
rick-yard opposite belongs to the towne.' The earliest document 
about it is one quoted by Twyne (23, p. 167), probably still to be 
found among the City documents : — William the Northerne Maior 
of Oxford and the commonalty thereof lease to John Leper a place 
(placea) of land near Coumede in county Berks called Brigges- 
wrightes place facing the chapel of St. Nicholas, for a rent of i2d. 
at the four principal terms, and the said John will maintain, repair, 
and sustain the bridge of Grauntpont both within the new gate 
and without by means of the alms to be begged for the same and at 
his own costs during his life. And the said place and the houses 
built or to be built in it he will keep without waste or destruction : 
if John fails in one of these points it shall be lawful for the City to 
re-enter. Dated 20 Jan. 1376-7. To this Twyne adds, 'In a writing 
annexed to it the place is called — " in Swyneshull " and " S. Nicholas 
yarde facing the chapel of St. Nicholas." ' The words near Coumede 
(not within), and facing (not annexed), coupled with the general tenor 
of other writings, seem to place the chapel on the east and the place of 
the Bridgewright on the west — the latter had become a rick-yard in 
Wood's time. In Wood's City (i. 422) is a series of references to 
this Briggeswrightes place, but in no one of them has the correct title, 
in its majestic twenty letters, been adhered to. The chapel stood till 
1579, for a City lease-book (Tw. 23, p. 597) states that 'William 
Barton hath the lease of a certaine piece of ground by the chappell at 
Southbridge/ The chapel had probably been put to secular uses 
before the time of our author, and it would not continue to be a court- 
house after 1581, as will be seen in speaking of Friar Bacon's Study. 
A lease of the year 1402, when Walter Sprunt was Mayor and our 
friend Dauntesey and Thomas Coventry were bailiffs, shows that this 
' chapel of St. Nicholas * was £ commonly called the Hermitage/ Its 



-] 



HINCKSEY TO FOLLY BRIDGE 



19 



position was very central for the repair, if not of the entire half- 
mile, at least of that part which longest retained the name Causey, 
and this was the great duty which devolved on the lessee (Tw. 23, 
p. 392). The City Accounts for the years 1363, 1364, 1366, and 1392 
specify payments to the Heremit or Eremite for doing repairs. The 
poetry of the name has vanished. The man so called is simply 
a carpenter who lived alone. His house was perhaps not his 
own, for in 1392 (City Accounts, Tw. 23, p. 239), there was 
paid to the Abbot of Abingdon, From a rent, for the hermit's 
house upon Graunpount 1 , 8^.: and in 1400 (ibid.), From the 
Chapel of St. Nicholas upon Grauntpont and from the hermitage 
there i2d. There is in the Abingdon Chronicle (i. p. 88) a 
narrative of the method taken to decide whether the long strip of 
meadow south of Kennington Island, extending from the island to 
Sandford Lasher, and called Berymead, belonged to Berkshire or to 
Oxfordshire. A candle mounted on a circular piece of wood, by 
floating down the western branch, decided in favour of Berkshire. 
The candle is said to have started on its journey from their 
P church.' If the word ecclesia stands by any chance for capetta, we 
seem to have in this Chapel of St. Nicholas a reasonable starting 
place for the candle. There would then be no need of a five or 
six miles' journey floating upward against the stream. The con- 
secration and prayers could take place in the chapel : the candle 
could be started from the stream near the Wyke House, and could 
then float about a mile down the stream in a non-miraculous 
manner. 

In the Brasenose map Miller's Mead is opposite to the south part 
of Cow Mead : the Laines, an irregular plot of land, lies opposite to 
Chapel Close, and extends up to the Old White House Lane ; behind 
this is Breeze's Ground ; and well behind is the White House, and 
reaching up to the county boundary, there a double ditch, is Welch- 
man's Mead. 

As the Thames is approached, eyts, eyots, or aits, otherwise hams, 
begin to abound. Taking some of the documents about them in 
order of their dates, an attempt can be made to distinguish them. 
They all lie somewhere between the south end of Grampoole and 
the Causey, being named (Tw. 23) as follows : — 

1 The name ' Grandpont,' applied to boundaries of estates in Berks, should 
cause the reader to forget the narrow limit of the modern Grandpont Bridge. 

C 2 



I 



20 AGAS'S PLAN AND IIUTTEN'S SURVEY [- 

p. 270. p. 423. p. 306. p. 192. p. 392. p. 436. 

1345. 1351. 1361. c. 1400. 1447. 1611. 

Irland Goldsmiths 1 Irlande Irlonde Krlyches eyte Ewster's 

Ayhichcs cyt Alrichesyte Wykemcad Spitons eyte ham 

Swyncshull Swynshull Doazeit Salode- Bachylers 

Davidonzeit hythege ham 
Pickedeyt near Cow- 

Turneyt mede 
Fullingmill eyt 
Sherweyt near 

Cowmead 
Wicheton and 
Frocmore 

In 1 35 1, as is not unusual, the three are grouped under their 
common owner's name, as 'Goldsmiths.' In the 1400 series we 
seem to have a somewhat loose arrangement, following water-rights 
rather than land. It is clear that Fullingmill-eyt near Osney should 
not stand next to an eyt near Cowmead, unless, as is possible, the 
mill called Einsham, which often figures in views of Friar Bacon's 
Study, may be intended. Of the above names, Ireland can be safely 
assigned to the meadow touching Preacher's Pool, since, though the 
name was afterwards applied to the large island west of the Bridge 
in which the pool was cut, it was still current in the seventeenth and 
even in the eighteenth century, and even now stands in the overseer's 
books. Swineshull has been already noticed as south of Ireland. 
Erliches-eyt can be pretty well guessed at from the Bodleian Charter 
133*, which says that the boundaries of the liberty of the town 
of Oxford follow a ditch running under an arch called Dench- 
worthes-bowe and thus along the Thames between the Friars preachers 
who are within the said town, and a meadow called Erliches-eyt, and 
the meadow of the Abbey of Abingdon, &c. The latter of these is 
Ireland Meadow, the most northerly of those to the west of Grand- 
pont bridge, now cut through by the artificial pool ; the former has 
virtually disappeared, being merged into Ireland Mead, or attached 
to the north bank. Agas shows us two elongated sand-banks in 
the middle of the stream, probably incipient hams, soon to be united 
severally to the northern and southern bank, thus converting this, 
the widest arm, into the insignificant brook of our fathers' days. 
Other maps show various islands commencing at the west end of the 
arm, but they are small and nameless. As the gravel of Oxford 
is of a very loose and shifting character — 'shuff ' is the local epithet 
implying this lack of coherence — many alterations have taken place 



1 Cf. V. 18, 295. 



HINCKSEY TO FOLLY BRIDGE 



21 



in the river bed both here and at Rewley. Even since the date of 
the Brasenose map of 1726, we can detect great changes round Folly 
Bridge. In those days, as in Agas's, the stream from Preacher's Pool 
was divided, the greater mass of the water going straight onwards 
easterly, while the rest was deflected southward. The first of these 
divisions maintained its full width along the course of the Shire-brook, 
now filled up, towards Denchworth arch 1 , until within about fifty 
yards of St. Aldate's Street (Grampoole), where now is Thames 
Street. It then turned south-east and crossed the main road between 
the Turnpike House and the tall boat-factory, so parting off a piece 
of land which answers in position to the Erliches-eyt in three of the 
above lists. 

Some have thought that Erliches-eyt was further west, near the 
bathing-place, but this theory would separate it too widely from the 
Bow named just before it. It is not Erliches-eyt which Twyne (23, 
p. 392) places near Cow Mede, but some other place or places. 
He speaks of 'Cowmede in Co. Berks' (p. 18 above): of the fourth 
part of Erlyches-eyte, and a pesula called Spytonseyte and Strodeys of 
Salodehythyge near Cowmede in Co. Berks, &c. Compared with 
the northern stream, the four or five others were less important; 
it was by the northern stream only that the traffic up the river 
was carried on. Towards the south end of the present approach to 
the bridge there was one more stream passing from the meadows 
under the archways over the field which the 1726 map calls the 'Strip 
by the Causey.' 

P. 108. 'And, lastly, att the Entrance into the Towne, 
that Tower which standeth upon the Bridge, like a Pharos or 
Watch Tower, is commonly called by the name of Frier 
Bacon's Study, not that it was soe indeed, neither can I learne 
anie other reason of that name ascribed thereunto, then what 
is delivered by old Tradition, vizt. that that beeing a remote 
place, and farr enough from Companie, Fryer Bacon (knowne 
to bee a great Astronomer) did, perhapps, some tymes use, 
in the night season, to ascend thither to take the Altitude 
and Distance of the Starrs. This maie bee the more likely, 
because hee was a Franciscan Frier, and his Chamber not 
farr of.' 

1 Hence it was not carelessness which made Agas draw his Shire ditch so 
very wide. 



AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [ii 



The lease of 1611, noted by Twyne (23, p. 436), and the 1726 
map inform us certainly as to the island on which Friar Bacon's 
Study was erected, though the gateway appears under another name. 
Twyne's words are these : ' In a great booke of counterpart of leases 
in the Town office fol. 53. a lease made there by the Mayor and 
Baylives of Oxford to Jo. Smyth, of their tower called Bachelars 
Tower . . . beinge . . . uppon the bridge called Southbridge &c . . . 
and in another lease, made 9 Jac. Reg. (1611) the same tower 
under the same name of Bachyler's Tower is demised to Thomas 
Waltham together with four hammes, one lienge on the east side 
of the Cawsway called Tower hamme, another lienge on the West 
side of the Cawsway called Bachelers hamme ; the third hamme lieth 
westwarde from Bachelars hamme and is called Ewster-hamme, the 
streame or Ryver runninge betweene them : the fourth hamme lieth 
on the west side of the sayde bridge invironed round about with 
water/ To this is added a note, most probably in Wood's hand- 
writing: 'Bachelaurs Tower, that which is called Fryer Bacon's 
studdy nowe, but before this time I never red it so termed in 
ancient recorde but only Nova porta and Turris super pontem 
Australem &c. Mr. Myles Wyndsore gave it the name of Bachelaur's 
tower, first of all, as ever I could heare and perswaded the Townsmen 
so to call it.' There is not much evidence by which to decide the 
naming. We must wait for other information before we can decide 
whether Bacon, who resided somewhere between the Church of 
St. Ebbe and Paradise Square, would be at all likely to frequent 
a tower in that situation when stations equally advantageous abounded 
close to the Grey-Friars. A score or more of documents regarding 
the tower justify Wood {City, i. 425) in repeating Hutten's opinion 
that the name of ' Fryer Bacon his Study ' is ' meerly traditionall and 
not in any record to be found/ After discussing the question 
whether the tradition is to be believed, he seems on the whole to 
accept it ; and he states it almost in Hutten's own words ; but then he 
quietly puts in the margin, ' But I believe all this was at Little Gate/ 

Contemporary drawings, of which there are several, represent 
the Gate on the South Bridge with a semicircular archway, like 
that of Bocardo, such as might date back, as Wood thinks, 
' to Stephen's time,' and with a story built over it of sixteenth or 
seventeenth century character. Such outlying works at the gates 
of fortresses and cities, as well as at the ends of bridges, were not 
unusual even as early as the date of Bacon's death, 1292. The most 



HINCKSEY TO FOLLY BRIDGE 



23 



probable view is that this is the ' New Gate ' erected in the fourteenth 
century on an earlier pattern, to strengthen the old southern Gate 
near to Christ Church: and it is remarkable that Agas names both 
of them South Gate 1 . The City Records (Tw. 23, p. 233) of the year 
1362 mention payment ' for 1 bolt, 1 key, 2 staples, and 1 haspe for 
the new gate of the town, gd.' Next year 'mending of new gate 
4s. g\ ' : beside this, in the same year, ' mending new gate 4.?. gd. ' ; 
again ' 3^. ^d! : all under the heading of necessary expenses. Twyne 
observes upon this, that there are two expenses in one year in repairs 
at Southbridge and New Gate — this gate being what is commonly called 
the Museum (studium) of Brother Roger Bacon. The auditor of these 
accounts was the renowned John de Bedeford 2 of Swindlestock fame. 
In 1390 (ibid. p. 239), after several entries for trenching and walling, 
there follow : for a stone outside new gate 5^. : for watchmen at the 
gates of the town 1 6d. : also for another watchman $d. : for the making 
of an arch at Southbridge 6d. Then, ten years later (ibid. p. 240), 
Expenses incurred regarding the prisoners captured for rebellion made 
against the King ; in bread and beer and meat 5,?. 3d. Item at the 
same time, in watch kept at the gildhall for the safe custody of 
the same traitors, in fires and wine 2s. *jd. : immediately after 
Epiphany — Also in expenses of carrying the corpses of the traitors 
who were dead, towards London, viz. the head of the Earl of Kent, 
the head of the Earl of Salisbury, the four quarters of Sir Thomas 
Blount Knt. and his head, the head of Ralph Lumley Knt. banneret 
with the four quarters of the same, the head of Sir Benedict Sely 
Knt. with the four quarters of the same, the heads and quarters of 
John Walsh and Baldwin of Kent and very many more Esquires, 50J. 
All these were punished with death at Greneditch. 

The language of legal documents preserves, at least as late as the 
days of Elizabeth, the notion of the importance of the military defences 
of the City. By a lease dated 1565 (Tw. 23, p. 591) 'Mr Dr White 
(was) to have the Tower uppon the Southbridge with these covenants. 
First, that no tenant shall dwell therein, but to be used only for 
the use of the Archdeacon's court, that the Mayor and Bailiffs shall 
have free passage to and fro in the same way as they were wonte to 
have : to have free ingresse and regresse into the same tower at all 

1 This is noticed by Hearne in his vol. 166, p. 6, where he began to write his 
notes on Agas. Unfortunately, these notes reach no further than the page cited. 

2 Twyne has made a slip here, it should be Bereford ; his remark continues, ' so 
that though they say he was hung, yet he lived till this year.' 



AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY 



times in time of neede and danger for the defence of the Citty : 
that he shall finde reparations from time to time : that he shall 
pay 4</. duringe his life and after his decease 2s. ; to have it four 
score years and ten/ 

There was in 1320, near the tower (Tw. 23, p. 317) or near the 
bridge, a place called the Wardrobe, whether used for keeping civic 
robes, or suits of armour we cannot now tell : — John of Staunden le 
Mustarder held of Geoffrey de Grandpont, by writing enrolled in 
Court of Oxon a messuage in the parish of St. Mich. South with 
curtilage adjoining, and a common pathway leading to the course 
of the water of Thames and to the Garderobe, with appurtenances, 
for one year. 

ii. Polly Bridge to the City Wall. 

A step or two northwards through the gate of the tower on South- 
bridge brought the traveller on to a bridge occupying a site a little to 
the north of our modern Folly Bridge over the main stream of the 
Thames, a river which now and then engaged the civic or royal 
attention when it became too shallow because of silted gravel, too 
narrow because of weirs and penstocks, or impassable because of 
the growth of vegetation. Wood {City, i. 429) quotes several of 
the appeals for a more open stream, but one or two others lie 
ready to hand and seem worth notice, as they indicate the state 
of the stream once flowing under Grandpont, while Mr. Clark's 
note (ibid. 431) about early river navigation is worth perusal. In 1301 
(Tw. 23, p. 41) a petition was presented to Parliament sitting at 
Westminster, in the octave of St. John the Baptist. The merchants 
who traverse the water between London and Oxford are disturbed by 
gors, by loke, and by mills and many other disturbances, so that 
neither the king nor his subjects can be served as they ought to be, 
and as they were in earlier days. They ask for the justices to survey 
and inquire into these disturbances. It will be found, they say, 
in your Domesday the manner in which the water of Tamise ought 
to be without disturbance, and gentlemen now stop and destroy 
the fry of the fish to the depoverishing of the people. It is indorsed : 
'William de Bereford and the Lord Robert of Hegham, Justices, 
were deputed to this/ In 1347 (Tw. 23, p. 51), the Commons pray 
the King that whereas the four main rivers of England, the Thamise, 
Tynen, Ouse and Trent have of old been open and passable by all 
people with merchandize, to the profit of the realm, but of late have 



ii] FOLLY BRIDGE TO THE CITY WALL 



become so stopped by goors, mills, piles and pales by every lord 
within the boundary of his manor that they have become impassable 
in divers places, they ask for an inquiry by the Justices in each 
district and to take away the oppressions. Commissions are ap- 
pointed and the matter to be pleaded. In 1423 (ibid. p. 384), 
the jury of the north-west ward present that John Thommys of 
Bynsey has made a stacking in Thames water at Crepuleyt to the 
damage &c. : — that the Prior of the Preachers Brothers has taken 
sprittis and welys in the Thames water of John Hickis, against 
the peace &c. ; therefore it was ordered &c. . . . After each of these 
accusations stand the words 'therefore he is in misericordia (at the 
mercy of the court).' In the same year (ibid. p. 383) the same 
jury present among other things that the Abbot of Rewley has 
broken the bank of the river Thames to the damage &c. In 
1582 (ibid. p. 599) an ordinance passed the Common Council 
f against the poore spoylinge the Queene's water near this Citty ' 
24 Eliz. In the petitions relating to Oxford, No. 40 (Oxf. Hist. 
Soc. xxxii. p. 108), the gors are mentioned as a nuisance to naviga- 
tion, and in No. 91, also of the time of Edward I or II (ibid. p. 138), 
occur complaints about the gortz and the owners of the gortz — 
merchants are delayed for two or three days until they make redemp- 
tion or agreement. And lastly, in 1586 (Tw. 23, p. 605), ' That the 
weeds in the ryver and the Sandbedds and Flagsebedds downward from 
the Castle Mylls to Chilswell poole and upward from the sayd Mylls 
up to the stone beneath Godstowe bridge the Ryver shalbe moven at 
the Citty charges — Overseers appointed.' 

P. 109. 'from whence commeing over the great Bridge 
wee passe by Houses on each side, 'till wee come to a litle 
Bridge, which is the limitt, distinguishing Oxfordsheire from 
Barksheire, haveing a small Streame running under it into 
the water of Trilmilbo, whose Course before of old was not 
to fall into Isis, as now it doth, but into Charuell through 
the midst of Ch. Ch. Meadow.' 

The houses here mentioned are often described in an unexpected 
manner ; those west of Grampoole are said to have the Water of 
Thames as a west boundary, and those east of it as having the same 
water as their west boundary. This specially applies to strips of 
Christ Church land some distance up the present St. Aldate's, on the 
east side. 



'26 ACAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [ii 

The Bridge, of which there is, in the Oxford Collection in the 
Ashmolcan Museum, a valuable model, to scale, in cork, and in the 
Bodleian several good drawings by Nattes (c. 1808), was of three 
arches of a low pitch, but pointed, the two largest openings through 
it not being directly across the road, but almost at an angle of 45° to 
suit the direction of the early stream. There was at the time of its 
destruction so little left of the old work, that it would be scarcely 
safe to call it a fifteenth-century structure. Its piers, originally pro- 
jecting with ends, like the bows of boats, up and down the stream, 
had been used as imposts sometimes for a single, sometimes for 
a double range of arches above them, of a wider span and thinner 
work, yet strong enough to support a paved way or foot-pavement. 
All this shows how very narrow the original must have been, how 
very inferior to the Abingdon Bridge a few miles lower, over the 
same river on the same road. Here and there can be seen in 
the drawings and model, a central arch with round head, looking 
like patchwork of the sixteenth century, a time when so much work 
was carried out farther south on this road. With regard to the 
antiquity of the old bridge, or to the period when the ford was 
superseded, we are without information. There would probably be 
the usual succession — (1) a ford, as many as five fords, for use when 
the water was low, and a ferry of some sort when it was higher; 
(2) a timber bridge for foot-passengers ; (3) the same made stronger 
for pack-horses ; (4) a stone bridge for wheeled vehicles ; so that it 
may not be possible to assign a definite date to the last change. It 
should not be forgotten also that for centuries rivers were the high- 
roads of communication. Wood, clearly following Twyne, boldly 
ascribes the Grandpont (Ct'fy, i. 419) to Robert D'Oilly, ^quoting 
in full the fearful dream (Abingdon Chron., Rolls Series, ii. p. 12), 
and disregarding the words there used about the bridge, 1 at the north 
district of Oxford,' when surely the Hythe-Bridge not far off the 
Castle (juxta in some documents) would be near enough to the 
north .for an early chronicler. Besides, it is reasonable to suppose 
that, if D'Oilly had conferred so great a favour on the two towns, 
some definite reference would have been made to his gift. The 
bridge was wholly in Berkshire, so that we must not expect our 
City records to supply much about it. There is in the Abingdon 
Chronicle a statement that makes the bridge date as far back as 
the twelfth century. From the Eynsham records, Twyne (23, 
p. 413) supplies us, through Nicholas Bishop's collection, with 



FOLLY BRLDGE TO THE CLTY WALL 



information taken from ' a Register of the Charters of Tenements 
and Rents in the Borough of Oxford bestowed upon the Church of 
Eynsham.' This records that the Lord Almarus Earl of Cornwall 
gave to Eynsham Abbey his court in Oxon in which was situated 
the Church of St. Ebba with certain other rents belonging to the 
same court. Also two meadows near South Gate, which meadows 
Columban the Abbot had given to Nigel d'Oily with two mills 
situated near the same South Bridge on its west side. Then follows 
a charter of Henry the First, dated Christmas 1109, restoring the 
possessions of the Abbey. 

In 1467 (Tw. 23, p. 537) we meet with a legacy for the repairing 
of this bridge: John Tarn worth, Burgess of Oxon 1467, directs his 
executor to lay out 13^. \d. on South Bridge, and 13*?. \d. upon 
East Bridge upon a certain way which leads to Hedyngton &c. 
Tamworth's house must have been somewhere in the neighbourhood, 
as his messuage had one head abutting on Thames towards the south : 
but such a statement leaves a wide margin for conjecture, as Trill 
Mill stream, and two or three other confluents of the river, passed 
under the name of Thames Water. Among the souls of those (Tw. 
23, p. 185) for whom the burgesses must pray annually on the 
day of the election of officers was Thomas Baylly (died c. 1443), 
lately Mayor of this town, who held the maior's office for four years 
in succession and died in the fourth, leaving to the community of 
the Town of Oxford a certain cloak of scarlet, furred, worth five 
marks, and 6o^. for the mending of the Bridges of Oxford. William 
Morwent (V. p. 613), the successor of Claymond as President of Corpus, 
left by his will, proved Jan. 20, 1558-9, to the reparation of South 
Bridge £10, to Botley way £5. In 1580 (Tw. 23, p. 598), ' Alderman 
Hartley chosen mayor (was) to pay 40.?. towarde the repayringe of the 
bridges about the Citty for the discharge of kepinge his Alderman's 
dinner': and 1 Three pounds, fine, inflicted on Henry Dodwell, for 
certain words spoken out at the Choice of the Mayor, were to be 
applied to the reparations of the said bridges about the Citty.' 
In 1582, July 19 (Tw. 23, p. 598, Council Bk. A), 'It is agreed 
at this councell that the foundation of the South Bridge so farre as 
belongeth to this citty shalbe repaved and amended with convenient 
speede at the charge of this citty.' In 1584 (ibid. p. 601), it 
was ordered that Southbridge from Mr. Smythe's house unto the 
tower be enlarged with tymber work and rayled on every side. 
The Citty to pay half costs ; Mr. Dr. Lloyd the proposer of the motion 



28 AGAS'S PLAN AND IIUTTEN'S SURVEY [ii 



promised to discharge the other moiety. Next year (ibid. p. 603) 
Southbridge to be enlarged and rayled from where the worke was 
left, unto the pale of Mr. John Smith's backside and further if need 
be, at the chardges of Mr. Dr. Lloyde for the one half and of the 
Citty the other, Mr. Lloyde offering to pay his half beforehand. The 
model in the Ashmolean is of about the year 1815, when the bridge 
was condemned ; it shows but three arches. Temporary bridges were 
then erected till 1825. When the present bridge was built, Stump 
Pool and much of the island which we identify with Erlicheseyt, but 
which was then called Ireland Meadow, disappeared ; the water had 
a readier course provided for it under the wider arches of Folly 
Bridge ; an embanked approach of some length filled up more than 
sixty yards of the old river course on the north, and Shire-ditch 
soon began to fill up. Finally (c. 1892) the island, though still 
part of Hincksey parish, was joined to the City by making Shire-ditch 
into a sewer, as had been already done, previous to 1850, with so 
much of it as ran on the east side of the street. The arch or bow by 
which the Shire-ditch crossed St. Aldate's or Grampoole, and called 
Denchworthbow, has been invisible for some years. A bit of walling, 
with a pillar-box inserted, marks the western limit, and a small 
Inn, the Waterman's Arms, No. 34 St. Aldate's, which still preserves 
a small blocked-up window once overlooking a purling stream, marks 
the eastern. The connexion of the name of the bow with the 
Danes (City, i. 416) may fairly be classed, in these days, as imaginary ; 
and the existence of a Dantesbourne Church near the bridge rests 
on a reference to a document in the Godstow Cartulary (City, ii. 
47), which has not yet been discovered. 

P. 109. ' (Ch. Ch. Meadow,,) which though it be now 
one, yet, in former tymes, was two, the farther part, 
next unto Isis, belonging unto the Citty of Oxford, and 
called the Towne Meade, and the higher parte, next to 
Friswide's, belonging now to Ch. Ch. and of old called 
Friswide's Meade, but, in the daies of King Edward the. 
6th. the Deane and Chapter, haveing then an annuall Markett, 
or Fare, usually kept about St. Friswide's daie in the Quad- 
rangle, and on that Foundation did exchange it with the 
Towne, for their parte of the foresaid Meadow, (P. no) and 
darning upp the old Channell that ran into Charwell, con- 
tinuated the two Meadowes into one. In memory whereof, 



FOLLY BRIDGE TO THE CITY WALL 



29 



there are yet, att this daie, certaine Meere Stones sett in 
a Meadow, according to the course of the Streame, beeing 
yet to be perceived is to this daie called by the name of 
Sherelake.' 

This digression of Hutten is perhaps the best and clearest description 
of the two meadows which form the large Christ Church Meadow, but 
its accuracy is questionable. Shire-ditch, as we have seen, went from 
Denchworthbow into that part of the Trill Mill stream which runs 
south, and has been concealed since the great drainage scheme 
was carried out. The shire boundary went a few yards up the 
stream, and then met a wider rivulet, almost a lake, as its name and 
the low ground there seem to indicate, which, cutting the great 
meadow into two parts and running eastward, finally opened into 
the Cherwell river. The name Shirelake has not yet gone out of use. 

Our author will not bring us back to these meadows south of Christ 
Church and Merton, so it will not be out of place to consider them 
here, commencing with the strip on the south, next to the Thames, 
formerly an island. There can be very little doubt that this strip, 
once of meadow land, now well wooded, was named Spicer's Eyt in 
early days. Wood (City, i. 462) refers to a note of Twyne's (23, 
p. 264), to the effect that Spicer's Mead or Spicer's Eyte was outside 
South Gate and near Grandpont. In 1368 (V. p. 268) we have an 
extract from a New College document : — ' John de Hertwell of Oxon 
and William Saundford of Oxon doe demise to John Kiteby an isle 
called le chaas eyt and an acre of mede lying between the mede 
called Mountegues mede (on one side) and the streame of Thames on 
the other.' The acre, &c, must refer to part of the long strip in 
question, or even to the whole of it in those days. Again, in 141 6 
(V. p. 265), John Spycer son of John Spycer of Oxon gives and 
grants to the said John Spycer the father, to Mr. Edm. Wareham, 
to Mr. Thomas Plymesrood and others, i?iter alia, an island lying 
between a meadow called Cowmede on one part and the meadow 
called Mountague's mede on the other. This is still more definite, 
though no mention is made of the river. Lastly, in 1447 (Tw. 23, 
p. '392, In fasciculo chartarum de insulis et aquis circa Oxon), 
John Hyde 1 Burgess of Oxon leases to Walter* Wynhale, Dr. in 
Theology, Prior of the Friars Preachers, the fourth part of Erlycheseyte 
and an extension (pesulam) called Spytonseyte (perhaps Spycerseyte) 



1 Not Lyde, as in City, i. 462. 



30 AGAS'S PLAN AND IIUTTEN'S SURVEY [i.ii 

with a meadow in the same with all belongings, rushes growing, and 
Strodeys and Salodehythyge near Cowmede in county Berks for 
five years, paying a red rose on the feast of S. John Baptist. Here 
it is mentioned next to Erlycheseyte, also on the north side of the 
Thames, unless some error has been made about the situation of the 
former. Salodehythyge seems like a word compounded of Sallow 
and Hythe, and perhaps -ge may be part of eaga (or eye). 

Next comes St. Frideswyde's Mede, Stockwell or Montague's. 
The Cartulary of St. Frideswyde {Wi. 690) is rubricated as the 
charter of Elizabeth of Montacute touching the meadow called 
Stokwellemede in the County of Berks granted for the foundation 
of a chantry : and witnesses that Elizabeth once wife of Sir William 
of Montacute, Knt., by licence of Edward III, gave to St. Frideswyde's 
forty-six acres of meadow with their appurtenances, called Stok- 
wellemede, lying below the Priory, in the county of Berks, between 
the Prior's meadow on the north and the stream of the water 
of Thames on the south, for two chantries. The words ' in Berk- 
shire' show that the south half of the meadow is the part spoken 
of, and Presthey, to the north of it, was Priory land. The charters 
(V. pp. 268, 265) above quoted confirm this position. Next 
in order of date comes a presentment of the south-west ward 
(Tw. 23, p. 384) complaining that the Prior of St. Frideswyde has 
stopped the King's way between Montague's mede and the meadow 
of St. Frideswyde. 

Presthey comes next. It has been already mentioned above 
as belonging to St. Frideswyde. A presentment, whose date is put 
down by Twyne as of Henry the Sixth's time (Tw. 23, p. 454), 
' Also there is a diche called shirelake ligginge betwixt Stokwellmede 
and the Presthaye forstopped in nusomnis of our Common Wey 
of our franchese in grete avayle to the prior of St. Friswyde/ i. e. 
closed to the prejudice of the City rights, and of value to the Prior. 
Above the word ' diche,' in the original, stands a small xii d , to show 
how much the damage was assessed at. Not quite so explicit is 
an earlier document of 11 39 (Wi. 13), by which Roger, Bishop of 
Salisbury, declares ' I have returned for my soul's good to the Church, 
Prior &c, of St. Frideswyde whatever I had taken away unjustly, 
the meadow which is called Prestent and the mill and Bishopesmore 
and the land which is in front of the Grange and the land on which 
the Grange is and the lands called " of the Altar of St. Frideswyde " ; 
also I return to them a fair in Oxford and its suburbs &c.' The order 



tii] FOLLY BRIDGE TO THE CITY WALL 31 



here seems important — Presthey, Trill Mill, Bishopsmore (of which 
below), the land near the Grange, and lastly a term which may be 
intended to include the whole of the divisions named. The domains 
already mentioned extend up to the double brook which for many 
years skirted the path, or avenue of trees, shown in our Map, and 
now called the Broad Walk. 

There is some evidence, though not very strong, that the upper 
meadow of St. Frideswyde, often called Merton Fields, was once 
named Bishopsmore. The last document quoted points decidedly 
in this direction; and another of about 11 25 (Wi. 8), a confirmation 
charter of Pope Honorius II, endorsed as ' touching the said posses- 
sions and others/ recites, ' The land which is called the Altar of 
St. Frideswyde the mill upon South Bridge and the estate which is 
called Bishopsmore/ and as included in the Castle limits, the land 
in front of the Grange. Trill Mill appears to have been sufficiently 
near to the Southbridge, when taken, according to the Godstow 
Cartulary, in the wide acceptation of the name Suthbruggestrete. 
A third charter ( Wi. 52) says that Stephen the son of Henry the 
son of Simeon gave to God and St. Frideswyde's one acre and 
a half in Bissopesmede. Wood {City, i. 293, 402, 454) places this 
land at Parys Meadow, roughly the Physic Garden, and again at 
Grandpont; elsewhere (C. 2. p. 17), speaking of the acre and a half 
in Bishopesmede, he says, quoting from the larger Register of 
St. Frideswyde at Christ Church : ' so is the rubric. Which Bishopmede 
was neare certainly to their monastery because it is amongst the 
charters of their fayr, either it was that called Cowly mede (next 
south of Milham, commonly called Long-Meadow) or part of Yfeli 
mede. It was soe called from Rog(er), Bishop of Sarum who 
took it away among other lands when he took away St. Frideswide 
Priory V 

St. Frideswyde's Priory and its successors have been shown to be 
holders of all this property except the strip by the river, Spycer's 
eyte, and it is this last which Hutten says they received in exchange 
for a fair, which, however valuable in former days, was probably 
becoming a privilege of less and less value in the days of Edward VI. 
,'This notion of Hutten's/ writes Mr. C. Moore, 'of an exchange of 
Town Mead for Frideswide's Fair, has no foundation. In an Indenture 

1 It would seem that the note (c) in City, i. 295 ('the house of Alexander 
Shaftebury then Bishop's Mede') is merely jotted down to show the order in which 
Wood intended to take three places — Rose Lane, Shaftesbury's House, and the 
meadow in question. 



3= 



ACAS'S PLAN AND IIUTTEN'S SURVEY 



tripartite, dated July 4, 3 Edward VI, between the King, the Executors 
of Henry VIII's will, and the Mayor and Burgesses, it is recited 
that the City had paid the late King £75 for the Fair, to be held in 
Guildhall or elsewhere, but that the grant had not passed the Great 
Seal of Henry VIII: it is covenanted that all proper steps be taken 
to vest the Fair in the City. The Fair is stated to be a part of the 
possessions of the Crown. One part of the Indenture bears the sign 
manual of Edward VI and the Great Seal, the other the sign manual, 
the Great Seal, and the signatures of the Executors, including Cranmer. 
Following these is a Licence, dated July 22, under the Great Seal, to 
hold the Fair. This must be accepted as contradicting the exchange, 
but how the confusion arose in Hutten's mind, cannot be now -ex- 
plained/ The meadow, now often called Merton Fields, once went 
by the name of St. Frideswyde's Grove, and afterwards of the Tymber- 
yard, if we may trust a note added by some one to Twyne's MS. (23, 
p. 765). In it also stood a wayside chapel to the Virgin, in connexion 
with which Wood narrates the adventure of the poor priest, for which 
see City, ii. 501. 

P. 110. 'From this litle Bridge wee come into the 
Suburbs of Oxford, commonly called Grampoole, not that it 
is soe now, but that it was soe heretofore, before the Ground 
was drayned, by the division of Trilmilbo Streame into .2. 
the new Course running behind the Houses of this Streete 
on the West side, and parting them from the Preaching 
Friers, 'till it come to the forementioned Bridge, and the 
old Streame houlding his Course by Ch. Ch. Saw Pitt, and 
behind the Houses of the East side of the same Streete, 
and soe meeting with his Fellow runn both togeather into 
Isis over the old Streame.' 

Our excursion into Christ Church Meadows is ended, and we return 
to our journey up Saint Aldate's towards the City wall and across 
a low-lying piece of ground, not indeed one of those ' streams of great 
depth flowing around on every side,' as described in the Gesta 
Stephani, but in early times almost a lake or a broad expanse of 
marshy land, with an embanked road, reaching from the river to the 
City gate. Trill Mill stream, we learn from the above passage, had 
lately (say 16 10) been divided, so that the ridge up which we travel 
has a branch of it on each side, an eastern one, old, and probably 



FOLLY BRIDGE TO THE CITY WALL 



33 



feeding two mills on its way along the western margin of Christ 
Church Meadow, and a western one newly made to drain the west 
side of the road. The latter ran along the border-line of the parishes of 
St. Aldate's and St. Ebbe's. A cross in the stone wall north of Rose 
Place indicates that here the boundary turns off due south. From this 
point it follows a tolerably straight course till it meets the Shire-ditch. 
When Hoggar drew his map, 1850, the southern half of this stream 
was still an open ditch. No traces can be found now. There is 
not even a boundary-cross visible. Hutten's words imply that the 
entire district was once a pool of water, and this statement may be 
easily credited. There are in some portions of this district ten 
or twelve feet of black earth, rather peaty in character, and seem- 
ingly mixed with vegetable mould, very like the deposit of a pool or 
sluggish stream. The floods of the Oxford valley would have left either 
gravel, or the red loam which caps the site of the city, but here the red 
colour is altogether wanting. At one point, at the south-east angle of the 
Choir School of Christ Church, a brook was lately discovered twelve 
or thirteen feet deep, still flowing among the undecayed roots of trees, 
apparently alder trees, thus proving that great changes in the levels 
of that district had taken place within the space of a few centuries. 
No trace of the fosse under the City Wall, where it runs along Brewer 
Street, has been noted by any writer. There seems to have been a 
road there from the earliest times, so that two questions arise, first, 
whether the name King Street, as applied to this road, means more 
than the King's highway, and secondly, whether Trill Mill stream 
may not at one time have served as the fosse on that side of the town, 
the intervening ground being of such a marshy character that no 
other fosse was wanted. 

The locality once occupied by the Preaching or Black Friars has 
been fairly well verified. Their mill, or a sluice belonging to it, 
was uncovered at the west end of Rose Place about the year 1858, 
when Trill Mill stream was covered up. An ancient house, almost 
at the junction of Littlegate Street with Friars' Street, and close to 
the Baptist chapel there, is connected by tradition with the gardener's 
house in Treadwell's Gardens, and these occupied the site of the Friars. 
For many years, even after 1829 or 1830, when the chapel was built, 
there was a tan-yard to the north-west of it, from which old curiosities 
were now and then dug 1 . Lastly, from the Baptist chapel here, 

1 In 1644 or thereabouts (Wood's Life, i. 112) 'there was a heart dugg 
out at the Preaching Friaries, Oxon. It was closid in lead as bigg as the bole 



34 AGAS'S PLAN AND IIUTTEN'S SURVEY [ii 



and from Albert Street near it, have been unearthed some stone 
coffins lying east and west, showing the site to have been the cemetery 
of the Friars. The range of buildings shown by A gas would have 
formed one angle of a quadrangle, opposite to which would have 
been the chapel, always to be found near the cemetery. That some 
of these coffins were under the Baptist chapel is well known, and 
Mr. Frederick King, who gave much of his leisure to such studies, 
makes the matter very clear in a letter written in April, 1894: 'I 
well remember this (the chapel) being built, and when the foundations 
were dug seeing several stone coffins and broken portions of some 
others . . . (It was) built, I should say, about 1829 to 1831.' His 
plan accompanying the letter shows two coffins on the north-west 
quarter of the chapel, and fragments of other coffins on the north- 
east quarter. The stone coffin dug from Albert Street was found 
in a line with the chapel, and not forty yards east of it. 

The 'fellow' stream here clearly means that by Christ Church 
Meadow, but the maps seem to contradict Hutten on this point, for 
they all make the two streams take separate and parallel courses 
into the river. Somewhere at their junction with the Thames (but 
Wood defines the locality as on the eastern side) was Lombard's Land, 
not to be confused with Lombard's Lane, now Brewer Street, though 
both localities were at different periods given up to slaughter-houses. 
This Lambard's or Lombard's Land figures rather often in the 
history of the City as a kind of every-man's-land, a place of deposit 
for all rubbish ; and as it was not far from Fish Street and Slaying 
Lane, the whole neighbourhood must have had an unsavoury character. 
In 1 341 (Tw. 23, p. 157), among the presentments of the south- 
west ward (not south-^j-/, as one would be led to expect; but such 
errors occasionally occur in the City deeds), the jury say that 
the common ground at Lambardesland is blocked up and obstructed 
with osiers and dung put there by John Wotton to the grievous 
injury of the inhabitants &c. About 1490 (ibid. p. 468) is a present- 
ment of several persons for laying loggell, i. e. rubbish, at Lambardes- 
land. The Register of Convocation in 151 1 (Wood, D. 3, p. 166) 
issued orders against the noisome stinks and carrion at Lumbard 
land. It would seem that the evil had been patiently endured, in 
true medieval fashion, for more than a hundred and fifty years. In 

of a man's hatt. It was carried to the King lying then (at) Christ Church: and 
when it was opened the heart looked as fresh as if it had been buried but a 
weeke.' 



FOLLY BRIDGE TO THE CITY WALL 



35 



1530 (ibid. 179), the Prior of the Friars Preachers and Mr. (the 
Reverend) Thomas Johnson of Broadgates complain of several 
Butchers that kill Cattle and make annusance to their habitations. 
This Broadgates stood on the west of Grampoole, about halfway 
between the bow over Trill Mill and that called Denchworth. By 
the year 1536 the City had been awakened to a sense of the danger of 
neglecting sanitary matters, and ordered (Tw. 23, p. 585) 'a slaughter 
house to be built by the Oxford bochers uppon the voyde ground 
called Lambarde landes, by South bridge : and that bochers nowe 
having slaughter houses in the lane shall void and kyll no more ware 
there in the said houses by the feast of Easter next ensuinge.' These, 
it will be noticed, point to a nuisance on the east side; and from 
notes taken at the time of the drainage scheme, it was clear that the 
southern half of the Trill Mill stream, which was on the east side of 
this spot, had been for many years a place of deposit for bones and 
horns of oxen, leg-bones of sheep, some of ^e^^e^u^i^tbe width 
of the stream from fifteen feet to about six. ^^Oc5ii'/w.jL 

The name Grampoole, as applied to this suburb, has not been met 
with before 1470, but an early grant to the Black Friars, in 1376, 
of land for embanking against the floods, would show that the name 
was deserved at least a century earlier. The grant runs as follows (Pat. 
Rolls 1376-7 ; 50 Edw. Ill): Know that we bearing in mind the 
great destructions and losses of the Preachers of Oxford through our 
stream or water of Thames near the south part of their habitation 
at Oxford ; in order that the said Prior and convent may better defend 
and preserve their habitation from the attacks of the stream (ripariae) 
or water aforesaid, have granted and assigned for ourselves and our 
heirs to the prior and convent, of the said stream or water along 
the south part of their dwelling, so far as the ground of the same 
dwelling extends in length towards the south, twenty feet width 
measured from the same ground to the filum of the said stream or 
water. Grandpont was another name covering the same region : 
a house standing in the modern Brewer Street would be described as 
being in Grandpont. 

Lying between Denchworth Bow on the south and Trill Mill on 
the north, a few places demand our attention. The first is on the 
west side, and is called Quarrystone Hall ; Wood's references to 
it are indistinct and not easily followed out. There stands on that 
side by the edge of the Shire-ditch, an ancient house of squared stone. 
Again, a house or two on the north side down English Row being 

D 2 



36 AGAS'S PLAN AND IIUTTEN'S SURVEY 



passed, a cottage is seen whose front is mostly built of that ragged 
stone from Chilswell quarry which Hearne and others have regarded 
as being a safe test for early Oxford structures. At any rate it 
is frequent in St. Michael's tower, in the early portions of St. Peter- 
in-the-East, and it was used for the foundations of one of the earliest 
churches on the site of St. Martin's. The next house on the same 
side is a Broadgate, or Broadyate, Hall, whose position can be pretty 
certainly determined, as Twyne (23, pp. 473-6) has handed down to us 
some documents about it, collected by Oliver Smyth, a former 
Mayor of Oxford {City, i. 564, note 9), of whom more will be said 
under Slaying Lane. They are as follows: — In 1343 (p. 476) 
Thomas Legh of Oxon Towne clerke leases to William of Aldebury, 
rector of the church of Sekomb, his house with garden adjoining, in 
the suburbs of Oxford situated in Grantpont between a tenement late 
of Richard le Cha on one side and a tenement of Eynsham Abbey on 
the other, to hold to him and his assigns (student scholars excepted) 
for three years, 24^. rent: W. promises to erect a stable for three 
horses on the premises, covered with straw by Michaelmas next, not 
to sublet to any scholar-student, not to cut down trees or vines 
growing there, but to maintain them, but Thomas may come by day 
on the land for small trees called Syons and to plant for the im- 
provement of the dwelling-house. Next, in 1362 (p. 474), Brother 
William of Charyngworth, Prior of the House of the Crutched Friars 
and the Convent thereof, granted to Adam de Shareshull, Knight, 
a tenement called Brodeyates with two shops set together in, the 
parish of St. Michael South upon Grauntpount between a certain 
place of Eynsham Abbey on the north and a tenement of Thomas de 
Legh on the south; rent a rose at the feast of St. John Baptist. 
From the charters of St. Frideswyde (Wz. 247) we learn that 
Richard Cary, an illustrious burgess of Oxford, had a tenement here 
between that once of Thomas de Leghe on the north side, and 
that of Nicholas de Langford, fisherman, on the south. From other 
writings of 1369, Twyne (23, p. 473) inferred that Thomas Leye, 
goldsmith of Oxon, son and heir of Thomas de Leye, held this 
messuage by Brodyates, by the feoffment of Adam de Shareshull. In 
1470 (ibid.), William the son of Adam de Shareshull Knt. and of 
Mariona Flemmynge gave to William Codeshale and to Geoffrey 
Ludewell, burgesses of Oxford, a tenement called Brodeyates with 
two shops lying together in St. Michael's Southgate in the suburb 
upon Grandpont between a tenement of John de Langrish on the 



ii] FOLLY BRIDGE TO THE CITY WALL 



south, and a void place of Eynsham Abbey on the north, granted 
to him by his father. Lastly, 19 Aug., 12 Hen. VI, Wm. Parker, 
Richard Bolton, and Percival Thorp, burgesses, granted to John 
Edgecumb, gentleman, all that garden of theirs lying in the suburbs 
of Oxon in St. Michael's parish on the west side of Grauntpount, 
between the garden of the said John Edgecumb on the east and 
north, and the garden of a messuage of the Scissors called the 
Bewhouse on the south, and a stream of water between the house 
of the Friars Preachers and the said garden on the west, for ever 
at a rent of id. per annum. If the position of the Eynsham ground 
were ascertained, that of three others would be known. To find the 
position of the abode of the Holy Cross Brethren, it may be as well to 
take for granted, as Twyne, and Wood following him, have done, that 
the garden mentioned in the next document is the same as in those 
previously quoted. It is to this effect — the date being 1377 (p. 475) : — 
Agreement between Thomas Fourneys clerk and Robert Bookbinder of 
Oxford of the one part, and William Witteneye, parson of St. Michael, 
Southgate, and John Grom of the other, whereby Tho: and Rob: let 
to farm to Wm: and John a tenement situated upon Grantpount, 
between a tenement of S. Frideswyde, on the north and a garden 
of the said Thos: and Rob: on the south, wherein the Crutched 
Friars used to dwell, to be held in laymen's fashion for ten years. 

On the east side of the street, near this or another tenement of 
de Legh, stood St. Frideswyde's Hall. The cartulary of that 
Monastery {Wi. 248), c. 1346, mentions 3^. rent which Abingdon 
has been wont to receive from a hall called Frideswithalle in the 
parish of St. Michael outside the south gate of Oxford, situated 
between a tenement of Johanna, once the wife of Thomas Leghe, 
on the south and the tenement Warcheyn on the north. The next 
charter {Wi. 249) shows clearly that the Hall was on the east side 
of the street, for the boundary between the garden of the Prior of 
St. Frideswyde on the north and that of John Spycer the tailor on 
the south, extended from a wall of earth on the west, unto the 
Thames on the east fourteen rods and a half in length 1 . Warche 
yn (inn) was next north of this and on the east side of the street 
(see the document quoted last but one). 

1 This measurement, counting 5^ yds. to the rod, amounts to 79I yds., but 
counting 18 ft. to the rod or pole, as was sometimes the case, to 84 yds., which 
agrees pretty well with the length of Sheppard's Row in that locality, allowing for 
the changed widths of St. Aldate's Street and the stream. 



38 



AGAS'S PLAN AND IIUTTEN'S SURVEY 



On the west side came Preachers' Lane, the lane reaching to 
the Black Friars ; it is now Speedwell Street. The Gate of the 
Friars Preachers, mentioned below, would probably be at its west 
end, as we nowhere read of their property extending, on the east, 
to the King's highway. By a charter made in 1549, and enrolled 
in the Mayor's Court (the great book of Wills, fol. 182 : quoted in 
Tw. 23, p. 547), John Bolte of Wodeton in the county of Oxford, 
yeoman, sold to John Barton, butcher, of Oxford a tenement situated 
outside South Gate in the parish of St. Aldate (between a tenement 
of All Souls College on the north and another tenement belonging 
lately to the prioress of Litelmore called Litelmore hall on the south), 
of which one head abuts upon the Royal way or Street called Graunt- ' 
pount, and the other head abuts upon a stream of water running 
between the ground or wall lately called the Blacke Fryers towards the 
west and a certain property or land belonging to the said messuage 
whereon a stable is built ; and it extends itself beyond Le Litlemore 
Hall towards the west to a lane (Wood puts in the margin here 
'Perhaps Preacher lane') leading outside Grauntpont to the said 
course of the river towards the south. This seems to be not 
so much Preachers' Lane, as a north-and-south arm of it following 
the 'new' stream. Wood (City, ii. 316) puts it thus: 'into which 
Street (Grandpont) was a common way made from the said isle 
{in which the Convent was) for the said Fryers' convenience;' and 
though there is no direct evidence on this point, there is, at the same 
time, no reason for disbelieving the concurrent testimony of several 
writers. Such a roadway would lead almost to the middle of the 
west side of their enclosure, for besides the well known boundary of 
the Trill Mill stream, there is the above evidence (anno 1549) that the 
boundary of the Friars reached at least as far north as Littlemore 
Court. The Gate is mentioned as early as 1352. The will of Durand 
de Buswell, 1352 (Tw. 23, p. 527, from Great Book of Wills), leaves 
to Alicia his wife his estate in a messuage situated in St. Michael 
South Gate, viz. between the tenement of William Spaldynge on the 
south and the gate of the Friars Preachers on the north. 

Next, on the west, is Maryol Hall (Mariola or Little Mary), 
described in Perrott's list as being in St. Michael's parish South 
{City, i. 638). From rent-lists of St. John's Hospital of 1327 and 
1331 respectively (V. pp. 233, 236), we gain no information as to 
position, but in the last it is termed ' Mariol of Littlemore,' which 
has been considered quite enough to warrant a position near to 



ii] FOLLY BRIDGE TO THE CITY WALL 



Littlemore Hall, indeed it is perhaps a second name for that hall. 
A third notice, 8 Ric. II (V. p. 242), mentions a rent from the Hall 
Mariole on the west, which Margaret Underwall holds of the prioress 
of Littlemore ; to which Wood adds a query, whether it means the 
west side of the street, as he knew that the Magdalen property was 
to the east and facing Speedwell Street. Rack Hall, whose situation 
seems to have been known to Wood, was opposite to Littlemore 
Hall. A Balliol College document of 1331 (V. p. 109) — in considering 
which we must remember that the cutting west of Grampoole was 
made nearly two hundred years later — records that Robert de Sprid- 
lington, Rector of the Church of St. Michael's at South Gate, granted 
to Henry Standford of Estrop near Heyworth a piece of land upon 
Great Bridge between a tenement of the Hospital of St. John on the 
south and a tenement of St. Frideswyde on the north, and extending 
to Thames water ; an endorsement as old as the deed calls it Carta 
de Rekhall. The property of St. John's Hospital, too, is on the 
east side of St. Aldate's, clustering around the Wheatsheaf and 
Anchor, and including the houses at present numbered 15-18. The 
rent-roll of St. John's Hospital, anno 1328 (V. p. 234), gives the 
names of three properties thus : In St. Michael South Gate : From 
house next to Rack 3s. ; From Rack is. : From Lutlemore House, 
viz. Margaret Hall, 2s. The last of these seems to be the same as 
Mariole. A Margaret Underwall, as has been before noted, held 
a hall near here (see above), and Margaret is the only hall quoted in 
Stanclish's list (City, i. 636) as being in St. Michael's South. To this 
account is to be added Wood's personal knowledge (City, i. 301): 
I It (Rack Hall) is the new house on the south side of Tril mill 
Hall.' 

Crossing the street again we come to Bishop King's house, 
most probably his residence for a short time only. It is twice 
so named by Hutten, but cannot be found in our Map. Can Agas 
possibly have omitted so fine a mansion, or shall we charitably suppose 
that he felt sure of its demolition when he drew this section ? The 
ceilings, the name, and the probable time of erection all harmonize. 
It was a larger mansion than is generally believed, for it included 
the two or three houses on its south side, in the lower of which the 
characteristic windows above and the panelling on the south wall are 
quite enough to assure any one that it is of about Henry VII I's 
time. The north front requires some examination before its date can 
be determined. Much of the woodwork is of later date, and gives 



4Q AGAS'S PLAN AND IIUTTEN'S SURVEY [ii 



a later character to the house. The exterior pargeting of the upper 
story is clearly Tudor, and differs greatly from that below, which has 
proved to be a rough Jacobean copy, dated 1628. The tall end 
facing the street, and the greater part of the interior panelling, belong 
to the same period. To restore the beauty of this palace of Oxford's 
first bishop, windows like those mentioned above would have . to be 
replaced throughout the ground-floors of the three houses. Two of 
them are indicated by their hood-mouldings, &c. An early water-colour 
shows one house in which all four windows were complete. It is just 
possible that Agas was thinking of these many-lighted windows, when 
he drew the cottages which are shown at this place. The copied 
pargeting must be redone, and above all two miserable tenements 
between it and Water Hall, a fungoid growth on the mansion, must 
be done away with. Hutten's account appears to be the only early 
reference to this building. Wood either omits it or, for reasons not 
apparent, thinks ' the long fair house or that on the south side of it ' was 
Water Hall {City, i. 300, note 12) ; but it is distinctly shown on Loggans 
Map of Oxford. Ingram's account, however, is clear and precise. 1 In 
(this) lower house the arms of King are several times repeated in 
the ceiling of the room on the ground floor. From (this) and the 
appearance of the back premises, we are inclined to believe that 
the whole (three houses) originally formed one mansion, which 
was most probably built by Bp. King after the accession of 
Edward VI when he was deprived of Gloucester hall, which had 
previously been assigned to him as his residence. The palace at 
Cuddesden was not built until near a century afterwards ; and 
during the intermediate period the bishops of Oxford had no fixed 
residence. This house was subsequently occupied by and belonged 
to Unton Croke, esq., who was a colonel in Cromwell's army; and 
member of parliament for the city of Oxford jointly with his brother 
Sir Richard Croke, who was also recorder many years. His father, 
serjeant Croke, was deputy steward of the university from 1615 to 
1 64 1 ; and it is probable that he also occupied this property.' 

P. in. 'There is one other Bridge, before wee come into 
the Citty, which runneth by the Bishopp of Oxford his 
House.' 

This is the Bow over Trill Mill stream described as a single arch : 
but remains of a ford-way have been once or twice uncovered near 



FOLLY BRIDGE TO THE CITY WALL 



41 



the old Trill Mill Bow 1 . Planks of oak about four inches thick 
appear to have been laid on the soft soil ; to these were secured by 
tree-nails stoutish transverse beams, trimmed square, about fifteen 
inches apart, the intervals being filled up with pitching-stones carefully 
put on edge. Wood had seen something of this kind in the Botcherew 
(Life, i. 463) ; and the Ford Road, near Worcester House, had similar 
crossway timbers and pitching-stones, but the slope was much steeper, 
the beams not so square, and the whole less neatly executed. 
This road in St. Aldate's was about four feet six inches below 
the present level in front of the passage by Baxter's printing 
office : it was of no great antiquity, if the appearance of the timber 
is to be taken as evidence, but the peaty mud may have preserved 
it. Miles Windsor mentions a bridge called Trentill or Trensil 
Bridge, and he supposes that there was a Trentill Hall near it : if 
tren-sil is equivalent to sills of treen or trees, the name may be 
applicable to this bridge. Its other name, he tells us, was Shereva, 
probably his way of writing sheriff (JBaL MS. 69, p. 65, Wood's 
extracts from Windsor). The water which runs through it is the 
mill-tail stream from the Castle, which, having passed under New 
Bridge (the middle parts of its arches are, virtually, the oldest of 
any near the City), bifurcates at about a hundred and twenty yards 
below that bridge, one arm sweeping round towards Christ Church 
meadows through St. Ebbe's parish, where it sometime had the 
name of Turnboo streame and Turnmull stream, or Le Lytlegate 
water (V. p. 346), the other running southward toward the large gaso- 
meters. The name £ trill ' seems to suggest a fast-flowing current, 
and such it would have been, had not the mills of the Grey Friars, 
Black Friars, Trill Mill, and probably a Priory mill checked its 
progress. Mill-dams, it appears, were not the only hindrances. In- 
numerable presentments (from 1321-1505) speak of its bad con- 
dition ; dirt, filth, house-filth, horse-dirt, and dung were thrown 
into it ; it was blocked up by wells and sprittys, and at one court 
twelve men were fined for defiling it. Such are only a few of the 
entries that Twyne noted ; and when any plague or epidemic set in — 
they were frequent enough and severe in those days — the procura- 
tores nocumentorum, the chief scavengers, were at once set to work 
to scour this and other streams. Dry seasons were generally followed 
by plagues, and the City authorities began to learn their lesson. 



1 It is probably out of this word that the alias ' Turnboo streame ' has been 
composed. 



42 AGAS'S PLAN AND IIUTTEN'S SURVEY 



Along this stream, strange to say, the brewers were frequent, and the 
water therefore may once have had a presentable appearance, say in 
the days of Elizabeth. There was also a Trill Mill Hall on our 
way. As early as 1324, in the will of John Coleshull, Trullemull 
halle is devised to his wife Alice {City, i. 300; Tw. 23, p. 510). In 1465 
(ibid. p. 150) it was let to Robert Heth, a great brewer, and is described 
as between the course of the water running under Trillmyllbow on 
the north and a garden of St. Frideswyde on the south. Christ Church 
still holds land there. In 1504 and 1525 (Tw. 23, p. 193) it is described 
as a brewhouse. Trill Mill itself, lying close to the great South 
Road, naturally gave its name to the stream that turned it, a name 
it has scarcely lost, though it has been buried now some years. The 
mill was the property of one Robert, a presbiter, who by his charter 
(Wi. 20), when he was made Canon, and perhaps in acknowledgement 
of that favour, presented it to the Priory. He may be the early 
Prior, Robert of Cricklade, or Canutus, of the list in the Monasticon. 
(It should be noted that Wood disregarded, and wisely perhaps, the 
rubricated headings of some of these charters.) As the mill was not 
inserted in the Empress Maud's confirmation charter to St.Frideswyde's, 
c. 1 142, the charter must be somewhere near the end of Stephen's 
reign. By it King Stephen confirms to the church of St. Frideswyde 
at Oxford the Church of All Saints within the City (not Town, be it 
noted) and the Church at North Gate and the mill at the bridge at 
Oxford, which Robert the presbiter gave to the said church at Oxford 
when he became Canon. The Charter 191 is about the renting of 
this mill ; Trillemille is in the rubric. To this succeed some charters 
about Trillemille which Benedict Kepeharm gave them ; and from 
Charter 192, it appears that this mill was situated upon South Bridge, 
Oxford, between a mill of the same prior, &c, and the South Gate. 

We cross the second bow, and to the left stands Water Hall or 
Sprunt's — we must not say stood, for its modern representative is still 
there. The first Water Hall may be earlier in date than 1389, when 
(Tw. 23, p. 391) it is mentioned as John Lolly's: he made his will in 
1393 (ibid. p. 632), and left the hall to be sold for the good of his soul ; 
and it is then described as Waterhall next the Thames as it runs 
toward Trillemillebowe, the expression showing distinctly enough that 
the house was on the west side of the road. In 1478 (ibid. p. 478) 
Robert Fysher of Oxon, Bocher, and Agnes his wife grant to William 
Orchyerde of Oxon, Freemaso?i, all their tenement between the tene- 
ment of All Souls lately the tenement of John Sprunt called Waterhall 



FOLLY BRIDGE TO THE CITY WALL 43 



on the south and a toft of St. Frideswyde's on the north, which 
tenement was lately John Bristowe's &c. Here we may pause a little 
and recall the master mason or the contractor (luckily the title 
' architect/ with its mixture of the grandest and saddest associations 
possible, was not then invented) who planned the turret of the 
Founder's Tower at Magdalen College, the chapel windows, and 
perhaps the whole of those admired structures (Bloxam, ii. 230, &c). 

The toft of St. Frideswyde comes next : it is now occupied by some 
stables, and Christ Church still holds all the land from this boundary, 
across to the chapel of Pembroke College. We have been ascending 
for the last few yards, for there is a hill here, said to be named Tower 
Hill, but the name is seldom met with, as Grampoole and Grandpont 
included everything, almost up to the walls ; even the church of 
St. Michael is said to be in it. 

Parmunter's Hall, or Parmuncer's, comes next. The two names 
may be variants, the straight-backed c and / often differing but slightly 
in shape. In 1323 (Tw. 23, p. 476) Henry atte yate of Oxford quit- 
claimed at York to Geoffrey Warmewell and Sara his wife a messuage 
in the parish of St. Michael South Gate at a corner near the Street 
called Overheeslane on the north and the tenement called Parmuntres- 
hall on the south. This seems to be the only mention of this hall. 
Pope Hall or Poop Hall is described in 1400 (Tw. 23, p. 474) as 
the second tenement south of the lane. 

North of these was Overee Lane or Butterwyke's, now represented 
roughly by the lane leading from St. Aldate's to the Broad Walk. 
The last syllable of Overee has been derived from the Welsh or 
British Rhe, a river; but it would be simpler, for those who are 
suspicious of Welsh endings to English words, to regard the last 
syllable as eye, for island, as ea in Anglesea, Chelsea, &c. In pre- 
paring for the foundations of the new south front of Christ Church 
(report of Oxf. Arch. Soc. for 1866, viii. p. 218), rapid streams were 
found to run there and a paved ford. Consequently the surmise that 
both this lane and the Shelvingstole may lie in that neighbourhood 
may be provisionally accepted {vide Clark's Wood's City, i. map ii). 
The English version of the Cartulary of Godstow, p. 126, informs us 
that 'Moolde (Maud) at the yate sold to Hugh Fitz Ranulph a rent 
of 3.?. confirmed to him from the land of Roger Bernard/ and speaks 
of ' the lond of Alice Hore even ayanst the Shelvyngstole undir the 
Walle.' The island into which the lane led was probably the large 
one south of the Broad Walk, marked in earlier times by two brooks. 



44 AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [ii 



Among the All Souls documents, an. 1392, No. xcii (V. 144), is one 
whereby Richard de Garston and Thomas Barct burgesses of 
Oxford eonvey to Walter Dovvne three messuages one of which 
viz. Nich: de Beres was without South Gate between the Church of 
S. Michael South and the lane which leads from the high road 
even to Shulvyng stole. This puts the lane on the east side of the 
street, and not far from the church. In the Great Book of City 
Wills, p. 28 (Tw. 23, p. 515), is a reference to the lane: The 
will of Thomas Lech of Oxford called Tounclerke, in 1342, leaves 
to Galfrid his son certain messuages on either side of the Royal 
way of Grauntpont; and 13^. ^d. rent coming annually from a certain 
corner messuage in the parish of St. Michael between a lane called 
Overeslane on one part and a tenement of his on the other. Another 
name for the lane, Boterwyke, is found (Tw. 23, p. 474) in the grant by 
Robert Boterwyke Bedell of the University to John Shawe of Oxon 
Fishmonger Junior and Sara his wife the daughter and heiress of 
Thomas de Legh of two tenements situated together upon Grantpunt 
in the parish of St. Michael S. between a certain Lane called Boterwyke 
Lane or Overys lane on the north and the tenement of the said 
Robert, called of old Poophall, on the south, for life, \os. rent and 
a cask of red herrings of the better kind, to be paid on St. Scho- 
lastica's day. Another version of the name, ' Overheeslane,' has been 
noticed under Parmunter's Hall. 

It would be well for the traveller at this point of his journey not 
to neglect casting his eye towards a fair house on his left, No. 1 
Brewer Street, lately the abode of the choirmaster of the Cathedral 
School, and before that, as far as we can judge from the ancient style 
of its interior fittings, one of the old halls of the City. Let him go 
and look at its front, and at the front of No. 3 ; let him turn into its 
courtyard just before the new school is reached ; and he will find that 
they are the remains of the mansion of Oliver Smith, a noted brewer, 
whose large premises farther on in the lane gave its new name to the 
street. He was Mayor in 16 19, and in 1624 he decorated his dining 
hall with splendid oak panelling (now moved, his shield and all, to 
the almshouses not a stone's throw distant) and with a plaster 
ceiling of very Gothic taste; the twin brother of it is in the room 
over Brasenose College gateway. He was also a fellow-labourer in 
treasuring up the records of Oxford. Twyne made a very handy 
collection from these, and they are included in his twenty-third 
volume, pp. 473-478. 



FOLLY BRIDGE TO THE CITY WALL 45 



P. in. ' From whence wee come from (i.e. to) the South 
gate of the Citty, the Cardinall's building lying on the East 
side of the Streete, and the Almes House on the West, 
where it is to bee observed, that, betweene those two Corners 
of each side, there stood, within these few yeares, an old 
auntient Gate of Stone, which though now wanting, and 
cleane taken away, yet is therefore to be remembred, because 
it was the South Gate of the Citty, continuing on the Wall 
onwards, and there on a faier Stone were quartered the 
Armes of England and France in one Scutchion, the Armes 
of England beeing graven in the former and upper place, 
and those of France in the nether, contrarie to all that I, 
heretofore, have scene, which seemeth to mee worthy to be 
remembred for that it gave honor and precedencie to our 
Nation, and wa( a Monument not elce where to be found.' 

Hutten was naturally struck with this unusual rendering of the 
royal arms. The shield was not quartered as customary, bearing first 
and fourth ancient France semee de lys, and second and third, three 
lions for England, but parted per fesse, the three lions above, the 
field of fleurs de lys below — England over France. The passage is 
interesting, as quartering of arms was almost unknown before 1340, 
when Edward laid claim to the crown of France. 

This is the place to consider the wording of one of the small insets 
in the Map, which may be rendered thus : " Robert Oili the Norman, 
" first of that name, built this well-fortified castle from its foundation 
"in 107 1. As to the wall of the City before the reign of William the 
" Norman, nothing distinct is known. It is agreed that the City was 
" most likely surrounded and adorned with a fosse and wall, at the time 
" we had, by the illustrious valour of our king and soldiers, extended 
"our rule over the French. As a trustworthy foundation for belief 
"on this point, stand various conjectures not void of probability, 
"especially that which we derive from a certain old gate (near the 
" river as it flows south-westward) which we call Littlegate. For on 
" it, upon the ruins of the half-destroyed wall, the combined bearings 
" of France and of our own country are contained in a stone carving." 
There seems to be some confusion between South Gate and Littlegate 
unless both gates had the royal arms over them. 

The almshouse is still on our left ; its southern end was not completed 
till 1834, when its northern end was shortened. The southern doorway 



46 AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [if 



of it, now blocked up, shows that the pavement, before 1772, was four 
feet above the present level. Whether the road was at this higher level, 
it is impossible to say. That there was a Cutler's Hill here, just outside 
the City gate, is probably correct. The southern side of Tom gateway 
under the groined entrance, and all the lower walling of that front, 
afford additional evidence that the footway and roadway have here 
been lowered. An ancient tradition speaks of the lowering of a hill 
at All Saints' Church, and some elevation has evidently been smoothed 
down in the middle of High Street in front of the north-west 
angle of the New Examination Schools. Everywhere else Oxford 
highways have risen, always risen. The depth of added soil which 
caps the hill at Carfax, amounts to nearly thirteen feet. 

Our author is very clear as to the position of the gate and the line 
of the City walls. Agas was hindered by intervening buildings from 
showing the walls about here, but he sets down his gate at the right 
spot, and leaves a vacant space on each side of it, probably showing 
that some change had been made there 1 . There are three points 
about the line of walls near Christ Church that may be here adverted 
to. Close under them on the east side was St. Michael's Church, 
South Gate. It appears from several documents that there was but 
one house between its churchyard and Overee Lane. From Bal. 
p. 29 we learn that in Miles Windsore's time its ruins and remains 
were to be seen and gazed upon in the foundations of Christ Church. 
The south wall of the Chapter-house and of the little churchyard 
near it are, as excavation has shown, in the course of the old City 
wall, and some of the remains of it were taken down, it is said, for 
the erection of the hall. Along the north side of Brewer's Street, 
Lambard's Lane, Slaying Lane, or King Street, are here and there 
stones of the City wall, if not remnants of the walling; and at the 
extreme end of Brewer's Street, there just peeps out above ground the 
arch of Slaying Lane well, once described as ' under the wall' 

iii. Christ Church, to Carfax. 

P. it 2. ' Proceeding, therefore from this Gate onwards to 
Borcado (omitting to speake of the Lanes and Buildings of 
both sides) wee find on the waie, on the right Hand, in the 
Fish Markett, first the two Towne Halls, the upper and the 
lower, auntient both and serving, att the Quarter Sessions, 

1 Did Wolsey make any such change to give room for his stone-carts ? The Folly 
was taken clown, because Jackson's load of hay was too high. 



CHRIST CHURCH TO CARFAX 



47 



for the meeting of the Justices of the Countrey, and ordinarie 
Affaires of the Citty.' 

Hutten at this spot passes rapidly up Fysshestrete, leaving 
St. Aldate's for a second journey. It seems wiser to look a little 
more about us to the right and left and touch upon some points really 
pertinent, but omitted by him in his hasty journey. We are supposed 
to be moving along a great street of the City. It should be remembered 
that every main street once passed as High Street or Royal way ; 
and, moreover, Suthbriggestrate (to match Astbruggestrate) and 
St. Aldate's are other names for the street from Grampoole to Carfox. 
Agas has South Street, while South Gate Street, to match North 
Gate Street, does not seem to occur. Now we are within the walls, we 
should observe how the side ways of the City split up the area en- 
closed by them. 'A may be a mere fancy on the writer's part, but he 
thinks the division of this south-west ward of the old city into three 
main strips by Pembroke Street (with its continuation, Church Street, 
St. Ebbe's), and by the old Kepeharme Lane (with its lost continuation), 
and again the intersection of these by (i) a parish boundary north and 
south, and (2) by St. Ebbe's Street, were not the results of accident or 
chance. The strip-system seems also to be carried out in the south- 
east ward, by Great Jewry Lane (lost) and its continuation Merton 
Street, and secondly by Blue-boar Lane, Bear Lane, and Kibald Street 
(now nearly lost). 

As we pass Christ Church we should refer to Bereblock's pictures 
and note the elaborate gateway and side turrets reaching no higher 
than the roof, covered in temporarily. North of the gateway we 
should find the range of buildings terminating clumsily at about 
three-quarters of its present length, and we might gaze up at the 
battlements with their quaint conceits. These Bereblock drew some- 
I what inexpertly, and the reproduction by Whittlesey gives them in 
rather exaggerated proportions. These kinsmen of the Magdalen 
hieroglyphics have perished. Like many a poor joke, they have fallen 
flat. But above all, we should stand astonished at the preparations 
along the north side of the quadrangle, for a huge chapel by which, 
if Wolsey had lived, King's College Chapel at Cambridge would 
have been far surpassed. Aubrey tells us that something more than 
the foundations, as one would judge from Agas and Loggan, had been 
completed. A plinth reaching seven feet above ground (Aubrey MS. 
6, fo. 91), of which he has left us a slight sketch {vide Clark, Aubrey s 



48 A GAS'S PLAN AND IWTTEN'S SURVEY 



Lives, ii. 310, and plate vi), had been completed, but how far along the 
building it is impossible to say. The design was simpler and nobler 
than the corresponding part of the Divinity School. The building was 
planned to extend almost the whole length of the north side of the main 
quadrangle, and to be ninety-six feet wide, if, that is, the identification 
of the south wall 1 with the line of the projecting buttress-bases in the 
quadrangle is correct. There is good reason to think that in 1662 
Dean Fell used up the material (Wood's Life, i. 445) which was above 
ground, and that he covered up the traces of the walls with garden 
mould for the canons who dwelt there, carting off the chippings 
of his own work to improve a new straight walk in the meadow as 
shown in the Loggan map, 1675. The chippings were white, so it was 
called White Walk till 1768 ; this was corrupted in the next century to 
' Wide Walk ' — engravings bear witness to this — and then to Broad 
Walk, its present name. Most of the ashlar-facing of the north wall 
of Wolsey's building had been removed. The wall itself must have 
been more than six feet thick, and a beautiful example of masonry. 
When Oseney was demolished, anno 1545, we read of loads of stone 
being taken away from it ' for the wall ' (V. pp. 585. 586), also from the 
White Friars. The phrase has attracted the notice of many, because 
there is no particular wall at Christ Church of that date. The discovery 
of these foundations in Aug. 1893 affords a very probable key to the 
mystery. Fabulous accounts of the solidity of the wall at the west 
end of Wolsey's Chapel were at one time circulated by the men who 
had hacked a way through it for drains and gas-pipes. 

Facing Christ Church stands St. Aldate's Church, about which our 
author enlarges later on (p. 116), and north of that church is Peny- 
farthing (now Pembroke) Street; while between it and the church 
is a range of small houses, one of which was called the Priest's House, 
and one in Wood's time was called Church House, standing next to 
the church ' style ' (V. p. 67), whose position was doubtless at the end of 
the little side lane running from Pembroke College. Bull Hall on 
the north (O. p. 53), and Abyndon Tenement 2 , which was over against 
it (V. p. 68), were not very far along the street. On the south side, 
beyond the style, were, if we follow the order in the Oseney rentals, 

1 The south wall seems to have been half demolished before Dean Liddell 
restored the bases round Tom quad. Its direction does not coincide exactly with 
that of the bases now there. It is questionable whether there are any remains of 
the south wall left, which we could measure from, much less judge of the 
abstraction of the ' facing.' 

2 There is a dwarf house about here, small enough and old enough to date back 
before 1500; it has three small gables. 



CHRIST CHURCH TO CARFAX 



49 



Moyses and Grove Halls. The old documents of 1534 onward 
which Wood (V. pp. 67-69) extracted from the chests of St. Aldate's, 
present some sad reading, so many houses had been demolished by 
Wolsey ; but they would probably be along the Christ Church front, 
and so outside the parish boundary. Many of them merely contributed 
to the church reserved rents willed thereto by benefactors. At the 
further end of the street, one door from the corner, looking towards 
St. Ebbe's Church, was probably Paul Hall, demolished in 1898. 

The house next north of Christ Church shows plainly in Agas: it 
was in 1 806 a roomy, country-like inn, The Bull, timber-framed, with 
three front gables. About 1820-30 a square stone box took its place, 
which was rendered almost respectable in appearance by alterations 
made about 1880. f ihe house next above still remains, modified 
indeed, but retaining the two old gables towards the street, and having 
an early doorway. On its northern face, towards Blue Boar Street, 
are left just enough traces to show us even now how the great inn there 
was continued southward over the roadway. That extension was to be 
seen, we are told, so late as 1850. Behind these two houses is a 
structure once a Christ Church school, of solid build but much patched. 

There were some other interesting features about here, i. e. on the 
west side of St. Old's or the Fish Market, as this upper portion of 
the street seems to have been called. Where the Post Office now is, 
a grand old building stood scarcely twenty years ago. Its cellar was 
so perfect that the Post Office authorities were petitioned to save it ; 
the architect, however, had arranged to use the space in a special way. 
The beautiful panelling and stone cornices perished ; two stones 
only remain in a basement under the Public Library to bear witness 
to a past skill in house decoration, such as we have lost since the 
Palladian style became the fashion. About three doors north of this, 
and two doors south of New Inn yard (V. p. 164), stood Hinksey 
Hall. The Hall seems at one time to have extended northwards, 
over the site of New Inn, which in 1560, the date of the document 
quoted here by Wood, did not yet exist. Its old name was The 
Christopher. It was rebuilt in 1897. A few remains, including a bold, 
Early Decorated jamb of a door, were then carted away to Hincksey, 
strange to say, from Hinksey Hall. In this connexion a somewhat 
curious document of 1407 (Tw. 23, p. 169) is worth recording: — 
Taxing of Heynssey hall by the City and University : First they tax a 
chamber in which Mr. John Thomas dwells at 20s. ; then a chamber 
called Polton's chamber at i8j.; then two chambers beneath that 

E 



AGAS'S PLAN AND IIUTTEN'S SURVEY [ii 



•,U io,v.; the great chamber on the south at i8.r. ; another chamber 
at the end of the same at (js. ; another chamber beneath the last at $s. ; 
two chambers beneath the great chamber at %s.; also another chamber 
above le Spense at gs. Sum total £4 13J. Spense here means 
the place for dispensing food — the buttery : where such remain in 
houses as old as this, they are good evidence of former use as 
Academic Halls. There is also another, so far unique, mention of 
Hinksey Hall ; for (ibid. p. 477), ' These indentures made the 19th day 
of January (1485) bitwixte John Eggecomb of Oxford on that one 
part and Mr. John Carewe principall of Henxheyhall on that other 
part, witnesseth that the seyde John Eggecomb hath delivered unto the 
seyde Mr. John Carrewe a license ad celebrandum in oratorio, a chalice 
of sylver parcell gilte pond' v unc, a massebok that begynneth in ij do 
folio in the Kalender — Marc' prima necat &c. — to be delivered againe 
when they shalbe asked for &c/ The reason for noting how the 
second folio began, was that the initial words of the first leaf are 
the same in all copies of the same work, but the initial words of the 
second leaf vary in each copy. 

At the north side of Kepeharme's Lane, now the New Inn yard, 
stood one of the Kepeharme Halls. The family was a rich and 
religious one in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, rival to others in 
good causes, and Mr. Macleane has done much to elucidate its 
history in his Pembroke College (Oxf. Hist. Soc. xxxiii). A short 
distance up this lane was Gloucester Hall, which may be worth 
noticing, as we have two documents which show its growth north- 
wards, till it reached Queen Street (City, i. 202). 

The Blew-bore Lane on the east of the street now demands our 
attention. You may call it thus, or Little Jewry Lane, Tresham Lane, 
or Bear Lane (the last perhaps is incorrect). Each name has a 
history : (a) it bounded Little Jewry on the south. We read in several 
places of Ape Hall being in Little Jewry, ' neare the Church yard of 
S. Edward' (V. 543, anno 1300) : (&) Dr. Tresham, Subdean of Christ 
Church (City, i. 156), had something to do with the wall on its south 
side : (c) lastly, Bear Lane, now Alfred Street, led into Blue Boar 
Lane, which ran east and west of its south extremity : Hutten, our 
guide, takes this lane on his journey towards the High Street. The 
Blue Boar Inn, at one time clearly a place of much importance, 
reached from the lane just mentioned northwards to the old Town 
Hall. The modern Town Hall embraces the whole of the site. It 
was of great height when it was demolished in 1893, though one story 



CHRIST CHURCH TO CARFAX 



5i 



had been taken off it. A chimney-stack nine feet six inches in width 
formed the central mass, round which clustered some twenty rooms. 
The cellars had been rebuilt, but the remarkable late fifteenth 
century staircase still remained untouched in the picturesque old wing- 
originally built to contain it. At the rear of the house, in a basement 
on the. left hand, were to be seen, forty years earlier, a set of pigeon- 
holes, alternately square and three-cornered, in rough ashlar work, 
remnants, as was supposed, of a Jewish receptacle for ashtars ; but 
unrecorded changes, occasioned in making a back staircase to the mass 
of cellars under the former Corn Exchange and Town Hall, had cleared 
them away. There are many documents about the old inn, but a 
multitude of evidences does not always make matters clear. In the 
City Council Book A of the year 1399 (Tw. 23, p. 629), is the will 
of Nicholas Saundresdon of Oxon, Spicer. He leaves to his 
wife Matilda all that his tenement in which he dwelt, called of old 
Domus conversorum and now commonly Carysyn, and his tenement 
adjacent called Grenested Hall with the fishebordes standing on either 
side of the door of his inn, together with the right of presenting a 
chaplain to the chantry of the Blessed Virgin in the Church of 
St. Martin, when the next presentation happens, for the term of her 
life : paying to the Master of the House of Converts at Lundon 
eight marks of silver. Twyne's note must be added : ' this house 
Domus Conversorum beinge in or neare the Jury where the 
Jewes of Oxford dwelt, in all probability is now the house called 
the Blewebore, for it is wellknowen that the chappell where the 
Rolles are kept in Chancery lane in Lundon, is called Domus Con- 
versorum ; and this blewebore house in Oxford payeth to this day 
a rent to the Master of the Rolles as it appeareth uppon the Cham- 
berlanes account of Oxford, A°. Edw*. 6h 3 0 . where under the title of 
redditus Resolutus I finde this stile " Also for the rent of a house 
tenement, called le Blewebore, paid to the Master of the Rolls of the 
Chancellor's Court of our Lord the King, for the time being 26s. 8d." : 
which it is likely came into the Townes handes of Oxford because 
the same Nicholas Saundresdon (in the same will, specifies that under 
certain conditions) the Person of St. Martyns together with the Mayor 
andBaylives should (carry out the will and have the right to present &c.)' 
Much of the above is given in Wood {City, i. 155), but whether at 
first hand, or from Twyne, it is not easy to say. Twyne (23, p. 184, 
Extracts from Council Book A) adds to our knowledge of the locality 
J hereabouts: The Mayor and bailiffs in 1387-8 lease to John Brayles 

e 2 



AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [ii 



alias Merston, tavcrncr, and Isabella his wife, two cellars and two 
shops over the cellars situated under the Gildhall of Oxon, between the 
cellar and shops which John Stratford holds of the Town on the north 
and the tenement called Cary's Inn on the south. So also does a 
release in 1388 (Ogle, p. 71) of rights to the tenements, which formerly 
were Gilbert Grensted's in the street called le ffysh-strete between 
the tenement called Domus Conversorum on the north, and the 
tenement once John of St. Frideswyde's on the south : but the relative 
position of the two halls is still not clear. The northern end of the 
old inn was close under the Domus Conversorum, and it was there 
that the only wall decidedly ancient in width and mortar was discovered. 
From the north side of this last were also dug examples of old carved 
stone, dating from 1200 downwards. The situation of this wall was 
about two-thirds of the way northwards from the lane towards the 
parish boundary, which may have been, in earlier days, the line of 
demarcation between the lower and upper Gildhalls so often mentioned. 
The court of the Domus Conversorum would be kept at the older 
level, while the more modern structures would take the higher levels 
of later roads. The south wall of the eighteenth-century Town Hall 
corresponded, so far as could be judged at the time of the building of 
the new one, with the south wall of the tower-like part of the old Domus. 
The old house for converted Jews had a fine cellar ; and this may 
have been the cellar whence a ■ cart loade of powder and shott, beinge 
loaded out of Yeeld hall, were carried to the Schooles and lodged in 
the uppermost roome of the Schoole Tower ' when Essex threatened 
Oxford (Wood's Life, i. 70). The groined roof of this cellar was 
supported by Early English shafts, four along each wall, west and east, 
and clustered shafts of four down the middle. Two ventilating 
shafts at the rear worked up through the walls, and two aumbries, 
with stone shelves, formed the only ornament. The ground-floor 
was also of Early English type, three or four windows, short and 
with lancet heads, and one old doorway on the eastern side. Of the 
doorway to the west, two stones were left after Rowney's rebuilding ; 
and from these a good idea can be formed of its simple and chaste 
character. We will hope that the Victorian and succeeding ages will 
reverently preserve them. The third story appears to have had three 
two-light windows, with transoms and a round of plate-tracery in their 
heads, and there was a fourth window in the south bay, which 
outwardly resembled a dwarf tower. This window had rather more 
ornate tracery, designed probably for casements, as no grooves for 



CHRIST CHURCH TO CARFAX 



53 



glass occur. The upper chamber would probably be that referred 
to in the Royal Order in 1351 (City Rolls, Tw. 23, p. 554): John 
Laundell, Sheriff of Oxfordshire, writes to the Bailiffs of Oxford that 
he has received letters from the King as to the pleas to be held in 
the fortnight next after St. John Baptist's Day advising and strictly 
enjoining them to have in repair a certain long and wide Hall ' de 
barris tabulis avenaciis et cameris adjacentibus ornatam' prepared 
after the advice and ordinance of John of Exeter, Criour, or his 
deputy, in which the said pleas may be terminated or pleaded. 
There were also some choice bits of cornice- work, perhaps from under 
the wall-plate. The side towards the street had been patched with 
Perpendicular and Jacobean windows. These particulars come mainly 
from a series of sketches made about the year 1 751, now in the 
Bodleian (MS. Top. Oxon, L. 14). Those recognized as belonging to 
the St. Aldate's side of the building are much obscured by houses, 
overgrown standings, selds or stalls, which very much hemmed in the 
old Domus. The situation was a good one for business, and the 
City authorities tried to make as much as they could by ground-rents. 
Among other curiosities discovered in 1893 was a carved piece of stone, 
font-shaped, having a round basin hollowed in the upper surface of 
the block above, and supported by a central shaft and four others 
at the angles with caps and bases. The shafts themselves were 
treated in an Early Norman fashion, two of them spirally. There were 
also some star-ornaments on the upper plinth. Cable mouldings 
passed round the basin and the edge of the square block above. The 
total height was eleven inches, the square at top five inches and 
a half, and the height about three. The hemispherical basin was 
three inches three quarters in diameter and two and a half inches deep. 
Its appearance, like that of a model of a badly-proportioned font, 
attracted some notice, and drew attention to a medieval usage 
of some interest. It proved to be a cresset or stone stand, in 
which a light was kept floating on oil or other inflammable material, 
to be used in dark hours, much as the rush-lights of old days or, 
later, the night-light. Whether it had come from the first abode of 
the Black Friars, near at hand, or from the Domus Conversorum, 
or from St. Martin's, we shall probably never know ; but there is no 
doubt of its great antiquity, it having been found below an accumulated 
soil of twenty feet in depth. 

On the edge of the Domus and reaching westward, stood, down 
to 1893, Nixon's School, about halfway between the lane and the 



AGAS'S PLAN AND IIUTTEN'S SURVEY 



modern Gothic building, which was erected for a Savings Bank. 
Its front was very ornamental and picturesque ; it had wide windows 
of good design, two in the front, and one, afterwards blocked by 
other buildings, at the west end ; it had also a doorway at the 
north-east angle, a pretty object among the many make-shift 
structures which were crowded round the little court-yard. The 
inscription running along the front, stating that 'Jn. Nixon Esq 1 ". 
Alderman founded this School For Freemen's sons and Endow'd it 
with Thirty Pounds (annually) For Ever/ might probably have been 
amended, as a Gildhall school had existed for some years. We 
read, anno 1586 (Tw.23, p. 603; Council Book A, f. 282), 'The Schole- 
house by the Guildhall lett to Mr. Lynke for 33J. \d. rent to kepe 
schole there.' Beside the school there was once an oratory, not 
mentioned early enough for the cresset to have stood at its entrance, 
two inns, and a prison, where the merciless treatment of medieval 
days was meted out to unfortunate prisoners and saucy freemen. 
Theatrical performances took place here in Elizabeth's days, but 
sometimes they were forbidden, and the Mayor's purse was endangered. 
In 1580 (Tw. 23, p. 597; Council Book A, f. 221), we read: — ' The 
Mayor to forfeit x. li. if he give leave to players to play in Guildhall 
without the assent of the whole councell of the citty, the Baylives to 
distrain on the Mayor if he pay it not.' There was also under the 
Council House a chamber and a skelyng (Tw. 23, p. 189). This is a 
local term, meaning an outhouse or office, whether a tenant's fixture 
or not, and is fully explained, ibid. p. 583, where the word is spelt 
Eskelynge. 

We have seen how amply the folk who visited the courts 
held here, the Husting or Court of the Lord the King, on Mondays, 
and the Mayor's Court on Fridays (Tw. 23, p. 333) were provided 
with inns inside the purlieux, and on the north and south sides ; 
but that is only the fringe of a great collection of taverns and tippling 
houses which, clustering round Carfax in older days, gave the locality 
the title of Vintry (vinetaria) ; and it is to the soil from the cellars of 
these, deposited recklessly, but according to custom, on the adjacent 
streets, that we must mainly ascribe the gradual elevation of this 
centre of Oxford. 

The house north of the Gildhall, whose handsome cellars have been 
so luckily preserved, was an inn. The Council Book (Tw. 23, p. 627) 
shows this : a Charter enrolled in 1449 witnesses that Drugo Barantyne 
Knight granted to John Blake of Oxon his messuage called of old 



CHRIST CHURCH TO CARFAX 



55 



Knaphall and now the Fawkon situated in the parish of St. Martin 
near Gilda Aula on its north side. That this was once the property 
of Ermenold (about 1115) is clear from a confirmation charter to 
Abingdon Abbey by Pope Eugenius III (see City, i. 150; Chron. 
Abingd. Rolls Series, ii. 196). Next we find mention of it in 1293 
(Tw. 23, p. 335) : John son of Henry Stodleigh gave a tenement called 
Knappe hall with the shops annexed to executors to be sold and 
distributed for his soul and the souls of his parents &c. Later on, in 
1405, we learn (ibid. p. 355) who were the owners of the property: 
Thomas Gybbys complained that the Abbot and Henry (canon of the 
same abbey of Osney) came on Nov. 10 to his house called Knaphalle 
facing the inn called Battysyn and took a cup gilded within, value 2o,r., 
carried away and detained the same. The defendants replied that 
the taking was for a rent of 13^. ^d. due from him, and showed receipts 
for rents from several preceding tenants, running back to time im- 
memorial ; and the cup was to be restored when the money was 
paid. Twyne observes that it is clear that all the abbots since n 29 
had been in possession of this rent, or it may have been longer. 
The Osney records will perhaps confirm his statements. Ermenold's 
Tenement was its early name (Tw. 23, p. 92). A writing of 1410 tells 
us this : Henry of Stodleye describes it as a messuage in the parish 
of St. Martin between the tenement which Adam le Longe inhabits 
on the north at the corner of the Quadrivium, and the Guildhall 
of Oxford on the south, which Ermenold once held, and now 
called Knaphalle, from which messuage also the abbot of Oseney and 
his predecessors have been wont to receive a yearly rent of 13^. \d. 
It may be added that the last deed is probably the only one which 
speaks of two houses north of Knaphall. The courtesy of the 
City officials will often allow an inspection of the cellar, of which 
one corner only has been interfered with. Its west end shows with 
tolerable clearness the old arrangement for letting down and taking 
up goods, and at the south-west angle means of access were provided 
at some time or other for entering a cellar under the street, or it 
may be that there was formerly an entrance from the street at this 
spot when the street was at a much lower level. At the north-west 
corner, at the back of the north wall of this ancient cellar, is another 
of the sixteenth century belonging to the next house to the north, 
by which a still larger cellar under the middle of the street is 
reached, and so a way made to other cellars under the old 
Swindlestock, the first house on the west side of St. Aldate's, 



56 AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY 



[iii 



a wine-merchant's shop belonging to the City. The groining and 
groining-shafts are almost uninjured, and afford a peculiar instance 
of three bays not in a straight line, which, if the style of the work 
is considered, may be thought to date back as early as 1420. 

Nothing further of particular interest, architectural or otherwise, 
occurs on the east side of the street, and so we will go back about 
three houses, to complete our exploration upwards on the west side 
to Carfax. Wootten's Bank and the house north of it have belonged 
to Merton College for several centuries 1 , and it is from sets of old 
extracts, such as those made by Dr. Turner and Bryan Twyne, from 
the records of the College, that we learn what an important property 
it must have been. It was known by several names — Old Yeld 
Hall, Jacob's Hall, Battes Inn, Batty's Inn, perhaps Battys Hall, 
Cary's Inn, and the Fleur-de-lis. Though the antiquaries of early 
days are content to reckon the house which stood on the site among 
Academical Halls, there is not a particle of evidence in their favour 
in the forty or more documents that have been copied. It is under 
the last of the above names that it was leased to the Wood family 
in the seventeenth century. The great fire of Oxford in 1644 
burnt down its back premises (Wood's Life, i. 111). It still has 
a way into Queen Street, and at one time, when it was held by 
Bereford, the hero of St. Scholastica's day, it included a tenement 
facing Carfax Church. Twyne (23, p. 762) gives a summary of its 
earliest history, from which we may select a few of the more important 
notices. We begin, then, about 1270 (Tw. 23, p. 755): Charter 
whereby John de Acton and Mary daughter of Geoffrey de Stockwell 
his wife granted to Mosses the son of Jacob of Oxford, who was son 
of Magister Mosse the Jew of London, those forty shillings of yearly 
rent and quitrent which Jacob was accustomed to pay from the 
tenement in the parish of S. Martin between the tenement formerly 
Philip Padi's on the north, and the land of Elias the son of Basseva, 
a Jewess, on the south : Witnesses : John Adrian then Mayor of 
London, Gregory of Rokesle and Henry le Waleys then Sheriffs, 
Nicholas de Kingston then Mayor of Oxford, John le Quilter and 
Elias le Quilter then Bailiffs, and six others 2 . This document 
stands first in Twyne. The next is a grant of it by Queen Eleanor 

3 No. 1 20, the upper one, has become City property. 

2 This deed belongs, as Twyne surmised, to the year 12 71 or 1272. The 
Librarian of the Guildhall, London, kindly writes : that ' John Adrian was Mayor 
of London for the years 1270 and 1271 ' (signed) C. Welch. 



iii] 



CHRIST CHURCH TO CARFAX 



57 



(T\v. 23, p. 685) to Henry Oweyn vintner, giving the same south 
boundary, but calling the house north of it, undoubtedly the Swindle- 
stock, the house of the Bishop of Chester. Then come two quit- 
claims of 1279 and 131 2, the latter to a John de Falele; then John 
of Falele grants it, under the name Oldyeldhalle, to Richard Cary 
and Johanna his wife, anno 1336. Then John, son of Richard Cary, 
a John of Falle and two other executors of Richard Cary, sell it 
in 1349 under the name Batteshall to John de Bereford and 
John of Etindon (Hedington ?). Then the last named resigns his 
right to Bereford, same year. Then a Richard of Durham resigns 
his rights in it (Oldyeldhall) to John de Bereford, 1352. Then 
Roger Folioth the Person of Witney resigns his rights similarly 
to the same, 1353 (it was then Battesyn). Finally, in 1361, John of 
Bereford leaves it (as Battesyn) by will to be sold. We omit the 
later owners he mentions, and his interesting notice how, when it 
came to Merton, the Royal Escheator laid claim to it ; but it is to 
be observed that in 1367 the place had been augmented, for it 
is then described (ibid. p. 759) as Batteshyn with its cellars and 
solars and all my tenements and their appurtenances in the parish 
of St. Martin Oxon, called Newerent, facing the same church. 
Though the City officers had their two inns within their own 
precincts, and an inn on either hand, yet we find them resorting 
on many occasions to this inn, concluding bargains, celebrating 
feasts of concord, or welcoming nobles, visitors, or ambassadors. 
Swyndlestock, Siren or Mermaid Inn, has been mentioned before. 
It is now the business office of a firm who possess perhaps the most 
curious range of cellars in the whole of England. They are those 
of the combined Batty' s Inn and New Rents belonging to Merton, 
of the old City Inn and of the Oriel Tenement (Tw. 23, p. 544, 
City document) north of Knap Hall. From the first of these all 
connexion has been apparently cut off, but a passage-way, a cellar 
below a cellar, is still left, the vaults of which are groined in the 
style of the twelfth century, like the triforium-passages at Christ 
Church and the western, unrendered, bay of the crypt of St. 
Peter's-in-the-East. The New Rents are covered by a wagon-vault 
of great width, having cross- vaulting on the north side, towards 
Carfax tower. It is here that we find the sharply pointed arches — 
more probably belonging, to judge from the mode of their execution, 
to the thirteenth century, than a survival of an earlier mode. If the 
reader will now, in imagination, pass through the cellar to a spot 



53 AGAS'S PLAN AND IIUTTEN'S SURVEY 



[iii 



about ten feet south of the old centre of Carfax, he will find at 
the great depth of eleven feet seven inches a portion of the earliest 
roadway remaining in Oxford. Had Oxford streets risen at the usual 
rate, viz. about a foot a century 1 , this depth should be not more than 
eight feet. A road of identical construction was three times met with 
when the drains of the 1896 Town Hall were made, but as that 
building is on the slope of a hill, the accumulations on the old road 
gradually diminish towards the south. In two places in Queen Street 
the tops of sewers necessary for such a road have been found at 
even greater depth, and what is apparently the same road has been 
encountered at a depth of eight feet near the Wheatsheaf passage, 
and at a depth of four feet six inches in front of St. Mary the Virgin's, 
both in High Street. 

iv. Carfax to Bocardo. 

P. 112. 'From hence wee goe upp to Carefax, or Quarvex 
(soe called, because quatuor in ventos ibi se via fundit eunti) 
upon the highest part whereof standeth a faier Conduit, the 
late and worthy worke of Mr. Otho Nicholson, a Gent, of 
London, who, for the publike good both of the Universitie 
and Citty, builded the same, every Colledge from thence 
haveing a Cock to their Kitchins, and the wholl Towne 
recourse thereunto for their Water/ 

Hutten, or the writer from whom he borrowed the hexameter 
(' The way spreads itself towards the four winds, before the traveller '), 
grasped the meaning of the first syllable, as any one well might, but 
his mode of spelling the second shows that furca (our fork), as in the 
better spelling Carfox, was an origin he least suspected. The idea 
of bringing water from Hinksey was first carried out by the Abbey 
of Osney (City, ii. 205), and bits of the pipes, lead within stone, 
from under the river, used to lie (from 1 880-1 896) near Osney 
Mill. Nicholson's structure is well described by Wood (Ci'fy, 
i. 441-9), and can still be seen in Nuneham park; the wavy lines 

1 Savage, in his Balliofergus, 1668, p. 6r, advances a theory for this, which has 
some interest. An ' Ovens mouth was found to be lower then the ground we 
there (Hammond's Lodgings) tread upon, so much is the Earth swelled up again 
towards its natural rotundity . . . (as) may be seen by our old Colledges, whereof 
time hath half buryed some in that Earth they once stood above ; and had done all 
the rest, had they not been kept from sinking quite into their Graves, by the 
bounty of Pious Benefactors.' 



iii] 



CARFAX TO BOCARDO 



59 



on the lower parts, to represent the water within, being alone erased 
at the time of its re-erection. It was badly built, and soon required 
rebuilding. After a good deal of trouble, the City has lately acquired 
a bit of Nicholsons leaden pipe found near the kitchen of Lincoln 
College. 

P. 1 13. 'On the left hand, under the East end of St. Martin's 
Church, yee see that Seate, which is called Pennelesse Bench, 
builded by the Cittie, aswell for their solace and prospect 
every waie, as for the conveniencie of the Market Women in 
the tyme of Raine ; and soe leaveing the Innes and Tenements 
on both sides, wee come to the Corne Markett, which Fabrick 
Doctor Claymond, the first President of C. C. C. (of whom 
wee spake before) builded att his owne charge, and covered it 
with Lead, 

Vt possit siccum saccus habere locum? 

A reference to Mr. Fletcher's volume on Carfax Church (Oxford, 
1896, pp. 12, 13, and plate iii) is all that need be given about 
the position of Penniless Bench and its associations, yet it may be 
added that outside the church stalls were erected or seats allowed 
for the use of market-folk, and the Corporation added to their income 
by a small impost upon ' the baskets ' stationed there. It is said 
that as the buttresses interfered with the seating, they had been 
hacked away, but the plate does not show this, and it would be 
wiser to attribute the bad state of the walls before 1822 to the very 
great number of graves dug close to them. At the demolition of the 
church, saving a coin or two of Athelstan's time, no great discovery 
was made. There were, indeed, very deep in the soil, a grave with 
an edging of stone placed round it, an archway of early character, 
suggesting a sewer, a piece of twelfth-century enamel, and so on ; 
but when the south face of the northern wall was well exposed, the 
foundations presented an appearance so uncommon that it may 
perhaps be unique. Commencing at about ten feet deep (the tower 
foundations are nearly fourteen) was a rubbish-heap nearly five feet 
wide, of red earth and small stones, some of them seven inches long. 
The heap was three feet seven inches in height, and sloped inward, 
or battered, seven inches. It had at one time been cased with regular 
courses of stone from Chilswell, but interments near the walls had 
removed nearly the whole of this casing. Experts in such matters 



6o AGAS'S PLAN AND IIUTTEN'S SURVEY 



[iii 



regarded it as a genuine Norman foundation, and said that red loam, 
if mixed with a little lime and well beaten down, made a foundation 
which seemed to be solid, but was not really durable, as the lime 
in the mixture perishes. We so often read of Norman buildings 
having no foundations, that it is worth investigating whether stony 
rubbish like this ought not to be regarded as merely accidental. 
In the lower part of this north wall there were no remains of carved 
stone, but at a similar level in the tower a small piece of chamfered 
stone was found. The second range of foundation, resting on the 
one before described, was of better material and much narrower, two 
feet nine inches only. In this were found thirteenth-century tiles, both 
for flooring and roofing, and small pieces of earlier carved work. It was 
about one foot eight inches in height. Thirdly, came rows of large 
Headington stones, generally three rows, rising altogether two feet 
four inches, imbedded in comparatively modern mortar. Thus there 
were shown the foundations of a Norman, of a Perpendicular, and 
of a revived- Gothic church (of 1822) one above the other. The 
huge sewer running through it, within five feet of the Cornmarket, 
was round-headed, roughly built, and might be of almost any period, 
perhaps no more than an arch over some ditch or soft place. At the 
north-east angle of the old church — it had no chancel — and ten 
feet nine inches west of the former kerbstones in the Cornmarket, 
there was an early porch, fifteen feet wide, five feet ten inches in 
depth, surmounting a round-headed arch, a few stones of which 
were of earlier workmanship. The arch had been blocked up, 
and a space of about three feet in width between the two walls 
had been converted into a charnel house. Now that the tower 
has been stripped, it is clear that for centuries the southern wall 
of the nave stood a little back from the line of the south face of 
the tower. It was not till the fifteenth or sixteenth century, that 
Queen Street was narrowed by adding a south aisle. The document 
quoted by Wood {City, ii. 86) as showing that the tower had once, 
1340, been lowered because it might be used for offensive purposes 
by the citizens, proved on examination to be simply an order for 
Adam de Brome and another to investigate whether the City were 
raising an aisle, embattling it, and crenellating it to the danger of 
the University. The house Wood complains of {City, i. 63, note i. (b)) 
as built at Quartervois (' suffering an house to be built on the church- 
yard ') was at the north-east angle of the old burial-ground. Could 
he have seen, as we have lately seen, how year by year the house at the 



iii] 



CARFAX TO BOCARDO 



61 



angle of the tower gradually extended along the south, and swallowed 
up all the churchyard at the west, and how much was filched from 
nave and churchyard when the Cornmarket house was rebuilt, he 
might have uttered a similar protest. There has been buried, twelve 
feet deep, in the western house (Sept. 1896) a massive quasi-diagonal 
buttress of the old tower ; and concealed within its walls are a second 
pilaster-buttress like the north-west one, and, most interesting of 
all, a lancet window with a small gable over it at just that height 
where the wall thins down to about sixteen inches. The gable was 
finished with a projecting roll-moulding. These are perhaps small 
details, but attention to them would have enabled an architect to 
repair in a conservative and unostentatious way, and have obviated 
the need for additions. The font of this church will now be found 
in All Saints' Church. Shakespeare once stood near it, as god- 
father to William Davenant the Poet Laureate. Many of the tomb- 
stones of old Oxford worthies have also been transferred to All 
Saints, some serving as paving-stones round the pulpit. A few 
mural monuments from Carfax Church adorn the gallery. 

A narrow house with a passage, which may well be, as Mr. Clark 
thinks, a survival of Draper's Lane, lies next to the north of the 
new building; and then comes the Birmingham Bank, in rebuilding 
which some remains of medieval groining were discovered at the 
four angles of the basement, and more than traces of a garden lying 
at the back about ten feet below the present level. The situation 
corresponds fairly well with an inn called Spycer's, the King's Head, 
Drapery Hall (and perhaps, in a contracted form, Pery Hall), 
mentioned (Tw. 23, p. 276) in an agreement dated 1344 between 
Nicholas le Mercer of Oxon of the one part and Bartholomew de 
Cornewaill and Joan his wife of the other whereby Nicholas granted 
to them a messuage with its appurtenances in Oxford in the parish of 
St. Martin between the cemetery of the same church on the one side 
and the tenement which was of Richard de Tekne and Joan his 
wife, called le Draperie hall, on the other: 10s. annual rent to the 
king, and 6s. to Richard. This agreement was made at the Husting's 
Court. Whether there was more than one Drapery Hall, it is perhaps 
useless now to enquire. The writer of the two notes {City, i. 225, note i.) 
was probably William Smith of University, and he was, he says, 
uncertain upon this point. When this house was pulled down, one 
of the prettiest pargeted fronts in Oxford disappeared, and many of 
us still regret its loss. The next house was the Crown Inn, and 



62 AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY 



[iii 



it included in former days the part fronting the street. Whether it 
was older than the other Crown Inn opposite, now Hookham and 
Gadney's shop, it is not easy to say. Elizabethan remains still exist on 
that site, the old dwelling place of the Davenants, but they were also to 
be found here, on the west side, when the Bank just mentioned was built. 

We must not forget the still more difficult problem awaiting us 
at the other side of the Cornmarket, Northgate Street, or North 
Street, as Agas calls it, and we begin with the house at the north- 
east corner, where the ways meet. This, on one interpretation of 
the documentary evidence, would be about the position of Sorrell 
Hall. The name is probably a clumsy version of Solar Hall. 
One Walter of Wythull (White Hill) Knight gave in 1296 m. (V. p. 539) 
to Mr. Nicolas de Eu %s. rent from the tenement situated between 
Maugher's Hall on the one part, and the land of Walter de Grendon 
on the other in St. Martin's parish. This gives the order from the 
south as Grendon's Tenement (Sorrell Hall of later days), Wythull's 
Tenement, and then Maugher Hall, whose site is known. There 
are two other references to Wythull's Tenement which reach as far 
back as 1268 m., but of no use for determining the topography. Of 
Somenore's Inn, another name, we suppose, for Wythull's, we have 
more information; but the first occurrence of this name is in 1329, 
and in thirty-three years, on this supposition, it had acquired a new 
name. As it was New College property, the site has been traced. 
It had another name, Pates-yn. In a New College rental of 1490 
(V. p. 265), we -have next to Maugers Inn, ' 20^. from Someneresyn 
now called Patesyn.' North of this was Mauger Hall. The first 
notice of this Hall is in 1227 m. (V. p. 538), from some Frideswide 
Manuscripts in the St. Martin Box, where Mauger's Hall Entry 
is referred to. This may be the back Lane of the High Street 
on that side, continued westwards through the Drapery opposite, or 
perhaps into Sewys Lane. It was probably so named from the owner 
of a stall there about 1230 m. (V. p. 371), as we learn from Osney 
documents, that John Pilet gave to Oseney 10s. yearly rent from 
a stall held by Andrew Halegod in the parish of St. Martin which 
is situated between the stall of Thomas Mauger and one of William 
Burewald. In 1384 (V. p. 59) it had Harding Hall to the north, and 
was then called Mair Hall. In 1403 rent was paid for it to Merton 
Priory (V. p. 281), under the title of Maioris or Majors 1 Hall, to 
which Wood adds the note, ' same as Ginginer's inn,' and refers to the 
1 Mauger is in Guernsey always pronounced Major. 



iii] 



CARFAX TO BOCARDO 



63 



account of a collector (V. p. 271), who puts down his receipts as from 
Sir Robert Trysilian's house, but calls it ' Gyngeres In ' when speaking 
of expenses upon it. The history of the ownership of this hall comes 
out very concisely in a defence that the Warden of New College made 
in 1407 against Robert Croxford, who was too ashamed to appear in 
court (Tw. 23, p. 361): A certain John Croxford the grandfather of 
Robert was seised of the same messuage and gave it to Robert 
Wyghthull who gave it to William Gynger who gave it to John 
Stodley and Agnes his wife, and John and Agnes became duly 
seised of the property. Then John Stodley died and Agnes gave 
the messuage with other lands to Robert Tresilian Chivaler. After- 
wards at the parliament of Richard II held at Westminster Tresilian 
was convicted of divers felonies and his property came to the king, 
who sold it to William Bishop of Winton founder of the College ; 
and Wykeham granted it to Thomas Cranley then Warden of the 
College and to his successors. Further on comes Twyne's note : . . . 
but the Hall is much older than this suit, much older than Knappe- 
halle : when Cambridge was in its infancy under King Henry I 
they taught in granaries and sheds, but the Oxford men then had 
a street of schools. A violent attack on the landlord of this inn, 
1289 (Tw. 23, p. 662), is worth notice, as it implies that there was 
a charge for raising the hue and cry (Hutesia), probably when the 
alarm was unnecessary. A man came into Richard de Garderobe's 
tavern, took his servant Stephen by the hood, held him and bit his 
left thumb, drawing blood, and the hue and cry was raised at the cost 
of 20s. One of the New College rentals makes mention of a Wool 
house in Pates yn; it is not surprising that there should be at this 
central part a house for dealers in wool, one of the staple products of 
England. The various other names of the Inn, Malger, Marjer, 
Maier, and the variations upon Gynger, such as Gynevere and 
Gingeneres, add interest to the place, but do not help us to clearness. 
It would not be wise to say whether or not it included the whole 
or part of the present Cross Inn ; there is force, then, in the words 
of Wood here, ' I, in doubt, pass forward' {City, i. 27). 

In order to satisfy the references in a long series of deeds in Nicholas 
Bishop's Collection (now alas ! at Cambridge), we ought to find near 
here a lane called indifferently Abbot of Oseney's Lane or Cole- 
bourne's, being an east and west branch of the lane generally passing 
by that name. As the pillory for some years stood opposite this 
lane, it would be well if it could be satisfactorily identified. Wherever 



64 AGAS'S PLAN AND IWTTEN'S SURVEY [Hi 



it was, we know thai Harding Hall stood in it. A document of 
the year 1357 (V. p. 57) places Maior Hall on the south of this 
lane. Part of it is probably the subject of a document of about 1190 
(T\v. 23, p. 75), by which Hugh Abbot of Oscney granted to Malger 
the vintner all the land which Walerand of Crikelade gave to the 
Abbey in Oxford with the buildings: for in 1534 (V. p. 592) 
a certain tenement had Walerand's on the north, and the ' Crosse 
inne now in the tenure of John Austen, Alderman' on the south. 
In 1252 f. (V. p. 259) it passed from Hardyng to Wyleby, and 
(ibid.) Wyleby, at a date not given, gave it to Littlemore. It was 
let by the Prioress as a garden, and was sold to New College in 
145,6 (ibid.), its four boundaries being a tenement of New College 
on the south, a tenement of Thomas Derherst called Coventree Hall 
on the north, a tenement of St. John's Hospital on the west, and the 
land of Wm. Dagvyle on the east : this cannot be Dagvyle's house, 
the present Mitre Inn. Wood adds, * the prioress of Littlemore owned 
a shop or two in the High Street next to the Cross Inn.' The next 
charter, dated 1500 (V. p. 169, No. 1), makes the matter clear: 
R. Mayew President of Magdalen sells to Wm. Portar Warden of 
New College a parcel of land between the Cross Inn belonging to 
New College and Coventre Hall belonging to Magdalen College, with 
covenants for making and maintaining a wall between the late 
purchased land and the garden on the east (Hardyng Hall) belonging 
to the said Warden. We are tolerably sure that the next place 
to the north was Coventry Hall or Gary's Hall, as Wood made 
this note from a document of Lincoln College (V. p. 57): Mr. Henry 
Castel, clerk, grants (1357) to John Croxford of Cudlington a 
void place which was once called Hardyng Hall in the parish of 
St. Martin between Maiorhall on the south and a messuage called 
Caryhall on the north. Croxford was, therefore (see above), the owner 
of two inns at that time. In 1384 (V. p. 59) John Skitling, chaplain 
(a clerk again, because it belonged to Stodele's chantry in All Saints), 
and others grant to William Dagville Croxfordes yn with a place 
of land called Hardyng Hall between the tenement of Thomas de 
Somerset on the north and Maior Hall on the south. 

In front of the last two or three inns, Claymond erected his Corn- 
market, not that he established a fresh place for the sale of grain, 
but that he wished the farmers to be a little better accommodated; 
■ that the sack might have a dry place ' as Shepreve put it. Though 
no longer visible in the original map, it is to be seen in Whittlesey's 



iii] 



CARFAX TO BOCARDO 



copy, where the roof is represented as supported by two cross-shaped 
trestle-frames. As Loggan drew his map in 1675, and Claymond 
died in 1537, no very great change would have taken place in that 
interval ; yet it is drawn in the later map much more to the west 
side of the road, and the structure has altogether a different framing. 
This leads to the conclusion that Whittlesey worked from an injured 
copy of the original. The Cornmarket would be near the central 
fold of the map, and therefore be likely to suffer first. 

Still keeping on the east side, the next place worthy of notice is 
the Roebuck Hotel, some of whose buildings are still unobliterated 
in Agas, while the entire quadrangle at the rear appears in Whittlesey. 
The confused statements regarding this inn and its outlet into Cheyney 
Lane, now Market Street, cannot here be more than alluded to. 

Shoe Lane, the old Sewys Lane, is opposite to the Roebuck; 
its eastern arm has been blocked up, and the access to it is now 
through the Clarendon Yard and Crown Yard. The other arm 
was closed very early. We read in 1366, in the Small Red 
Book of the City (fo. 147b), among the rents: From a place 
within the abode which was William Pennard's, which place was 
formerly a lane leading from the highway unto the ditch of the 
castle, 2S. So early had it been found a profitable thing for the 
City to get rid of the responsibility of cleaning and warding these 
lanes, and at the same time to add something to its income. The 
leases of these lanes are often overloaded with excuses for the 
action of the City in depriving the citizens of their accustomed 
roadways. Twelve years later, 1378 (Tw. 23, p. 177), the western 
arm was stopped : John Gybbys mayor of Oxford and the whole 
community granted to William de Coleshull and certain others a 
certain lane in the parish of St. Peter le Bailly called Sewys 
Lane, now a receptacle for all evil doers, felons and filth ; the 
eastern part of which lane towards the highway called North- 
gatestret they are to close with a very strong stone wall; at the 
western part, towards a street called North Bailly, a large gate 
must be made for free ingress and egress of those who dwell 
in the tenements there. A Mr. John Sprunt had a brewery there, 
seemingly where Mr. Hyde's factory now is, being in St. Peter- 
le-Bailey parish. He, in 1419 (ibid. p. 532), made a will which 
is curious for the mention of old taverners' plant, vessels of lead, 
wood, and brass. Smith appends to this a note, ' I conceive this house 
stood in the old Butcherow and that if the back port reached to the 



66 AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [Hi 



lane Scwestwichcne, it was because he then rented a garden belonging 
to University College that was on the south of that lane, but after 
the King's head or Crown Inne came to the College, it has been 
usually let with one of the tenements that belong to the messuage 
called anciently the King's Head.' This Mr. Sprunt owned places 
called Carsewell and Bollyes in St. Michael's South, and Garlondes 
in St. Mary's. In 1405 he had probably been fined, as in a court of 
frank pledge that year it was thus presented : They say that 
John Sprunt has occupied Sewyslane with dirt and ashes, and that 
he throws out fastent 1 water to the amount of three hogsheads (dolia) 
by which the way there is greatly deteriorated. Therefore he is in 
the mercy of the Court. 

Cheyney Lane, now Market Street, east side of Northgate Street, 
is another instance of a lane with more than one name. It is called 

(1) St. Mildred's Lane because it led to the west end of that church; 

(2) Lane leading from the Lorineria, a part of the Cornmarket given 
up to harness fittings in metal; (3) Bedford Lane (probably) and 
(4) Adynton's from two families which once held property there. 
Hutten calls it Jesus Colledge Lane, and takes us down it later on. 
{PL p. 98.) 

Bodyn's Lane, Setreton's Lane or Bridewell Lane, is that north 
of the Clarendon Hotel. It now leads to the buildings of the 
Union Society and to Frewin Hall. Henry Bodyn's name appears 
in a mutilated rubric (Wz. 381), seemingly as an owner of land in 
All Saints' parish, which he afterwards (ibid. 385) makes over to; 
St. Frideswyde's, and the whole of the Clarendon site belongs to 
Christ Church ; but there is no mention in the Frideswyde Cartularies 
of any Bodyn connected with St. Michael's, the parish in which the 
lane is situated. One Robert Bodyn was Alderman c. 1245. Christ 
Church doubtless got their land here through Osney. Setreton or 
Seterton was the name of an owner of some importance living in the 
lane in 1404. Wood (V. p. 559) quotes Thomas Setreton's messuage, &c. 
' in St. Michael's parish at North Gate, between a tenement of Oseney 
on the South, and a tenement of John Sprunt, and a certaine lane called 
of old Boldenelane on the North (6 H. 4) ; by this description it must be 
Bridewell lane, for the Star belonged to Oseney/ From this we may 
conclude that Setreton dwelt between Marshall's Inn, the earlier name 
of the Star, and the present lane leading to Frewin Hall. Our map 

1 The word has not yet, perhaps, got into the dictionaries j it is applied elsewhere 
to dirty fish- water. 



CARFAX TO BOCARDO 



67 



explains the name Bridewell Lane ; the Bridewell in Elizabeth's 
days was the former St. Marie's College — we shall pass by it later. 
(iV.p.90.) 

The White Hart Inn, an early seventeenth century structure, the 
basement and fifteenth century remains of the old front of No. 27 
Cornmarket, and a tallet, of about 1400, down the entry of the Blue 
Anchor Inn, have not been identified with any properties referred to 
in early writings. 

We now come to Ship Street, then much more wisely called 
St. Michael's. It has, facing the church, a medieval structure which 
was at one time called Burewald's House and then the New Inn. 
It now bears very little resemblance to the early drawings, and has 
clearly suffered from restoration. Dyonisia Burewald, widow, was the 
founder of the earlier of the two chantry chapels in St. Michael's 
Church — that on the south side and furthest east — marked by very 
plain tracery. She is mentioned, c. 1240 (Wt. 478), in connexion 
with a seld or stall in this parish, and (ibid. 609) also about the 
same date as granting to St. Frideswyde's fifteen acres of land in 
Walton Fields. From her the lane was named ' Denis Burwaldlane ' 
(Tw. 23, p. 420). 

Facing Ship Street is the Plough Inn, with a very characteristic 
early eighteenth century front, and some early walls on the north 
side. North of this is New Inn Hall Street, which continues 
under the same name past St. Mary's College, the new St. Peter- 
le-Bailey Church, &c, in a direction at right angles to its original 
course. It was formerly called Bedford Street, from a large house 
belonging to a man of that name, and Wood Street, from the 
timber yards in it; also Bocardo Lane, which would be the best 
name for it. The part running east and west has now (1899) been 
re-named St. Michael Street. 

The house next north of the Lane, distinctly so described and 
also as being within North Gate, would be one of those named 

[ 1 under the Wall.' About forty years ago it was a picturesque chandler's 
shop and was said to have early cellars. It is visible in Agas 

1 just west of the North Gate opposite to St. Michael's Porch. The 
next house, the Leopold Arms, is of about George the Fourth's 1 

1 time in design, and has had a wing added on the north, occupying 

' just the width of the old City wall. In the cellar a portion of the 
old wall can be seen very clearly. From the south side of New 

1 Councillor Moore thinks it is earlier. 
F 2 



68 AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [vil 

Inn Hall Street to this wing would be the primitive Royal-way 
under the walls, a military way kept open as a ready means of 
passage between one bastion and another. The same way can 
be traced in Ship Street from Jesus College Stables to the rear of 
the houses facing them ; again between the Divinity School and the 
west front of the Theatre, again in King Street from its western 
edge to the gardens of the small houses facing the New Examination 
Schools ; and is mentioned in deeds of purchase which concern two 
strips, one on the old site of Merton College, and the other at the 
edge of New College garden. 

St. Michael's Tower has a doorway arranged for stepping on 
to the alure of the City wall. A similar doorway is shown in prints 
(King's), at the north-east angle of St. George's Tower. More- 
over, just as St. Michael's seems to have been in part a military tower, 
so there are reasons to think that the turrets of St. Peter's in the 
East also served as watching-places over East Gate. As round 
towers were customary in Henry the Third's days, when the walls 
assumed the form they now have round New College gardens and 
between Corpus Christi College and the Cathedral, we may hesitate 
to say that St. Michael's tower formed part of the fortifications, 
except in a limited way; yet, by having coigns only on the north 
side, it is marked as being designed to form part of that noble 
gateway which Agas draws for us, we will hope without adding 
or diminishing anything. From his map we can understand what 
changes were made in later times when the churchyard on the 
north of the church was enclosed. Some of the foundations of the I 
new work have been discovered, but there is no recorded account of | 
the change. From the very early style of the lowest window in this 
tower — splayed outwards and inwards, in the very roughest workman- 
ship — it has been contended that the lower part of the tower is much 
older than the upper ; but the general masonry of that face is the same 
from top to bottom, and the upper windows show the same rough 
method of dealing with the stones which form the arches. On the 
south side there is much more variation, but that results from a house 
having been built against it by a Mayor named Flaxney, contrary to 
the wishes of the vicar and the parish. There are many good prints 
of Bocardo which show this house, and one or two documents may 
be here referred to. Among the charters of St. Michael's Church 
North, as copied by Nicholas Bishop, a wealthy brewer who seems 
to have lived at the west end of the present Jesus College, and who 



vii] 



CARFAX TO BOCARDO 



69 



prepared, about 1429-60, materials for writing a Treatise about North 
Gate Street (Tw. 23, p. 430), comes this Royal Letter in French 
issued 14 15: Since divers debates and challenges have arisen in 
these days between the Parson of the Holy Church of Saint Michael 
at Northgat, claiming the ground of the cemetery as parcel belonging 
to the said church, and the Mayor and Commonalty claiming 
the same as belonging to their town, as they hold others all along 
the walls of the said town, and whereas the parties aforesaid 
have submitted these debates and challenges to the arbitration of 
these honourable gentlemen, that is to say, Thomas Gybbes and 
William Brompton, aldermen, Adam de la Ryver, Thomas Coventry, 
Richard Moldeworth, and Walter Colet, empowering them to make 
a final discussion and agreement upon the case &c. In 14 17, in the 
Quinzaine of Easter, 5 Hen. V, John Persey then being rector of the 
church, the case went in favour of the mayor and commonalty, that 
the house was parcel of the fee farm. From the same collection 
(p. 429) we are told of a dispute about the portion of the cemetery 
of St. Michael North which is near Northgate ; the Mayor and com- 
monalty of Oxford claimed it and caused a house to be erected 
there by one John Flaxney : but when Robert Aston, the Rector of 
the same church, intervened and endeavoured to stop their proceed- 
ings as being a damage to the said church, he was taken off to 
the castle prison, by a King's writ unjustly obtained by the mayor, 
Stephen of Aynton (elsewhere Adynton), in 1339: and Stephen the 
mayor suddenly died not much after — he who a little before had 
exhumed dead bodies for the erection of the house within the bounds 
of that cemetery. This collection of Bishop's may perhaps some 
day tell us where Colesbourne Lane opened into the Northgate 
street, and we may be able to locate the Pillory there. Perhaps 
too, we may have an account of the things which happened in 
the removing of the pillory or collistrigium from its accustomed 
place in the Street of Northgate, in the middle of the Street facing 
Colesbourne Lane (ibid.). 

In the restoration carried out at St, Michael's in 1897 there was 
discovered and opened another of the pilaster-windows of the 
tower, making eight in all. Forty years ago only the upper four 
were visible. In every case the through-impost above the central 
baluster-shaft had cracked, and it was noticed, both in 1855 and 
1897, tnat httle or no weathering had affected the surfaces either 
of balusters or imposts ; and so it was the good fortune of some 



7 o 



AGAS'S PLAN AND IIUTTEN'S SURVEY 



[iii 



to gaze upon stone facing as fresh as when it was first executed, 
i.e. about the end of the eleventh century. The whole of the simple 
carving had been done in situ with some tool of the axe character. 
The walls were greatly imperilled by huge cracks extending from 
the beams of the bell-frame upward and downward. These were 
very carefully repaired, but so brittle had the mortar become, that the 
parishioners wisely resolved not to use the bells for ringing, and they 
have now remained more than a year in a temporary shed on the 
north side \ The bells were arranged to ring all in one direction, 
north and south; and the cross-beams, east to west, which should 
have checked the swinging of the bell-frame, were weak and insecure \ 
it was to this that Mr. Hutchinson, the architect, attributed the cracks; 
he could not detect any subsidence in either of the walls. 

P. 113. ' Hence wee passe on to the North Gate called 
Bocardo, famous, as for Antiquity, soe for imprisonment of 
Thomas Cranmer, Archbishopp of Canterbury, Doctor Ridley 
Bishopp of London, and old Father Latimer sometimes 
Bishopp of Worcester, in the daies of Queene Mary, all of 
them burnt in the Towne Ditch, over against Baliell Colledge, 
and not farr from this Prison.' 

The passage about the imprisonment of the Bishops is generally 
agreed to, and a small cell on the west side, ground floor, the 
'Bishop's Hole' — with a window strongly barred, and a pointed 
doorway — is to be seen in most of the drawings of the south front. 
It is the door of this cell that Alderman Fletcher has preserved for 
us in St. Mary Magdalen Church. The doorway is omitted in some 
views, perhaps accidentally. As the main chamber over the gate 
was the abode of the lowest criminals, it is improbable that the 
Bishops would be incarcerated with them. 

v. St. Aldate's to the Castle. 

P. 114. ' And here wee will make staie from proceeding 
further, 'till wee goe back againe, and take a view of those 
severall Lanes and Streets, which, on the West side, open 
themselves towards the West Gate of the Cittie. Comeing, 
therefore, out of Grandpoole, the first Lane Westward is that 
which is called Brewers Streete, and hath noething memorable 

1 They are now, August 1898, replaced within the tower to be chimed only. 



ST. ALDATE'S TO THE CASTLE 



7 1 



in it, but onely that it leadeth towards the Preaching Friers 
over the Streame on the left, and to the Grey Friers directly 
goeing on, hard by Litle-gate, of both which wee have 
alreadie spoken. From hence wee passe backwards againe 
to the Almes House (sometyme called the Tenement of 
(Segrim)) right over against Ch. Ch. great Gate, where wee 
see, on our right hand, the Church of St. Aldate.' 

In Brewers Street several features of interest have been already 
noted, and now Hutten explains to what parts it led. The name 
Littlegate is still current in our own days ; and though the gate itself 
has disappeared, Skelton has engraved it from an old drawing. It 
differed little from the other gates, but the frequent mention of its 
being let by the city as a lodging-house is noticeable. Nearly every 
bastion in the city walls seems, at some time or other, to have 
been converted into rooms, by partitioning the original small galleries 
leading to the different ranges of crenelles or openings. One or two 
ends of rafters still exist in the walls of the bastion towards Holywell 
gallows ; and in the Bishops' bastion the whole of the beams and rafters 
could, till within the last fifty years, be seen as they had existed for 
three centuries at least. A rental of the City, 1323 (Tw. 23, p. 237), 
shows us to what class the lodgers over the gate belonged ; 1 3s. \d. 
from the scholars at Littlegate for the solar ; students of law most 
probably. Two years later (ibid.), From the Principal for the chamber at 
Littlegate towards the Friars Preachers 8s. In 1405 (Tw. 23, p. 240), 
From the house over Littlegate near the Friars Preachers which William 
Copeland lately held 8s. \d. ; which Twyne rubricates as ' Scholars, 
house or chamber.' In 1409 (ibid. p. 242) is a like entry. In 1448 
(ibid. p. 393), from Charters in the City Collection, parish of St. Ebbe, 
we read : — Richard Spragot, mayor, and the whole community lease 
a chamber over the gate near the Friars Minors, with two rooms 
there under it. The room over the outside South gate became a 
Berkshire court, and that over Bocardo a prison. 

The Almshouse also has been noticed, and modern research has 
perhaps done nothing to refute the idea that this was ' Segrim's ' 
Tenement, which is clearly the word that Hutten omitted. Mr. 
Macleane {Hist, of Pemb. Coll. c. 1) has pretty satisfactorily proved 
that besides the domus, the great house of Robert Segrym at the rear 
of the Almshouse, there was a tenement of Richard Segrym upon 
the site of the Almshouse itself, and a house also owned by him in 



72 AGAS'S PLAN AND IIUTTEN'S SURVEY [ii 



the angle of the churchyard ; and houses are represented there, in 
Natte's drawings, as late as 1808. The interest attaching to the 
name mainly arises from the fact that, in Domesday, three Segrims 
are registered as owners of mansions, but none of them held 
a mural mansion, though above two hundred persons held their 
mansions free because they were bound to repair the wall. 

Hutten quotes Speed as his authority for the account he gives of 
Aldate or Eldad; but Speed took it from that most impure source, 
Geoffrey of Monmouth, as to whom one cannot do better than 
consult Mr. Parker's Early Oxford, p. 8. 

As to the name Saint Aldate — Olave, Told, Tole, Old, and Hold are 
other corrupted forms — the existence of any saint named Eldad has 
at all times been much questioned, and most people join Mr. Parker 
{Early Oxford, p. 293) in putting down the name and the legend as an 
invention of the twelfth century. The hagiology even of British saints 
is not so defective as to have omitted the name for hundreds of years. 
The position near an old gate of Oxford, perhaps called The old gate 
when, as we have seen, that across the main stream of the Thames 
was built ; the fact that Aldgate is the name of a street in London, 
that Aldgate is known to be convertible into Aldyate and Aldate, and 
that the only other church dedicated to such a Saint (that at Gloucester) 
is near an old gate, all cast a suspicion on the name. We have 
already (p. 43) met, in the parish just south of this, with one member 
of the family 'Att yate,' probably taking its name from the South 
gate hard by. We know that the various Broadgate halls had each 
a second spelling Broadyate. Besides this, when we remember 
that four other churches of ours have, as is customary in other 
towns, a second name to point out locality, as St. Peter in the 
Bailey, St. Michael's at North Gate; and that Carfax Church, i.e. 
the church at Carfax, was and is more frequently so called than 
St. Martin's; then it becomes by no means improbable that here, 
the church of some saint 'at old gate/ 'Aid-gate,' or 'Aldate,' 
has, like others, lost its dedication name and retained its position 
name only. We happen to know, from a kalendar of the fifteenth 
century (Tw. 23, p. 133), that the dedication day was the same day 
as that of St. Edmund the King, i. e. November 20 ; it wants 
but the name of the church put out in full, say, as St. Edmund's 
(or St. Olave's) church at the Ald-yate, in some well authenticated 
document, and the question will be settled. Besides its fringe of 
houses along the north, and along most of the east side, the 



ST. ALDATE 3 S TO THE CASTLE 



73 



churchyard of St. Aldate once had in it a detached chapel, dedicated 
to the Holy Saviour, a thing of which no other churchyard in Oxford 
could ever boast. The will of John Fitzalan, mayor of Oxford in 
1449-50, was registered in the mayor's court in 1454 (Tw. 23, p. 535), 
and by it he leaves to his wife and two executors the advowson of 
the chantry of his chapel, situated in the churchyard of St. Aldate 
adjoining the church of the same. Another will (Tw. 23, p. 149), 
registered in 1456, is that of John Wylmot, who wishes his body 
to be buried in the new chapel of St. Saviour near the church of 
St. Aldate. Whether the church extended and embraced this, which 
then became the West Chapel, cannot now be determined ; but we 
have no view in which it is shown detached. So much of the church 
has been renewed, that it is worth while calling attention to the 
original crypt under the Ducklington or south aisle; but the arches 
have been flattened, and the floor raised about two feet. Its groining 
ribs die into the pilaster like those of Bulkley Hall, under the houses 
106 and 107 High Street, a better preserved specimen of the same 
arrangement. 

P. 118. f In this Church there is a Chappell of newer 
building then it selfe, but the Founder or Builder thereof 
I doe not find. It is peculier and propper to Broadgates, 
where they daily meete for the celebration of Divine Service. 
There is in this Chappell a Tomb of Alabaster, under which 
is entombed the bodie of John Noble Doctor of the Civill 
Law, and in his time Principall of Broadgates, and Officiall 
to the Archdeacon of Berkshire.' 

The ' newer ' chapel was Ducklington's, occupying about three 
quarters of the present south aisle, and reaching to an arch at the 
east which has ornamental tracery over it, being the upper part 
of a former east window. It was till 1732 the chapel of Pembroke 
College. The monument to Noble now stands in a recess north 
of the chancel, as if he had been the founder of it. Hutten does 
not notice the eleventh century arcade, once in the chancel, now 
east of the north aisle, a nice example of early Norman very little 
damaged ; nor does he mention the Law Library over Ducklington's 
aisle, a strange and not a becoming adjunct to the parish church, 
though it appears to have been a fair example of the Perpendicular 
style. It was removed in 1842. 



74 AGAS'S PLAN AND IIUTTEN'S SURVEY 



P. 11 8. 'On the left hand standcth the old and auntient 
I [all Broadgates, now weary of it's former name, and stiled by 
the title of Pembroke Colledge by King James, not long 
before his death. From thence proceeding further, there 
is another Hall called Beefe Hall, not inhabited with anie 
Schollars, but become the Tenement of some private person.' 

Both Broadgates and Beef Hall are now included in the site of 
Pembroke College. Mr. Macleane's diagram (Hist. ofPemb. Coll. 48) 
gives an adequate notion of these and the other halls and places on 
the site, in illustration of what Hutten here says, and of what Agas's 
map represents. 

P. 119. ' This Lane alsoe leadeth downe to Litle-gate, and 
both the forenamed Friers on the left hand, and to St. Ebb's 
Church Corner on the right, where standing wee see backwards 
towards Ch. Ch. Penny Farthing Streete, on the left hand the 
West gate of the Citty, leading downe to St. Thomas Parish, 
and before us, on both sides, the Litle Baylie, and St. Peter's 
Church in the Great Bayly.' (P. iao.) ' From thence goeing 
onward to St. Peter's, wee goe through the Litle Baylie to 
the Great Baylie, wherein that Church standeth, of which 
Saint wee need speake noething, because hee is sufficiently 
knowne by the Scripture.' 

Issuing at the west end of Beef Lane, we are in St. Ebbe's Street, 
formerly Mill or Milk Street, whose southern part takes us over Trill 
Mill stream by the old bridge near the tan-yard into Albion Place, 
near which the Black Friars' mill was lately traced. Their burying- 
place and chapel have already been spoken of. The north part of 
the same street is about twice as long, St. Ebbe's Church standing 
in it where it is intersected by Pembroke Street and Church Street. 
The first of these streets was formerly Pennyfarthing Street, and the 
second Friars' or Friern Street ; Pennyfarthing from the name of an 
old family there resident ; Friern because it led by the Grey Friars to 
the Friars of Penitence. 

St. Ebbe's Church, St. Mildred's, and St. Edward's form a trio 
of churches dedicated to English saints; we have seen an attempt 
made in the case of St. Aldate's to establish a fourth dedication to 
a British one. St. Ebbe's underwent rebuilding in 18 14, a little 
before St. Martin's ; and, like it, was builders' Gothic. Its character 



iii] 



ST. ALDATE'S TO THE CASTLE 



75 



can be fairly judged from portions on the north side. In 1865 it 
underwent treatment and extension at the hands of Mr. Street, at 
a time when the mania for Italian Gothic was very strong. Hence 
very little of the early church remains. Its diminutive tower at the 
west end is almost hidden, but seems to be Early English; but a 
beautiful and tolerably complete Norman doorway has been preserved 
as a memorial, and now stands on the south side of the church. 
The size of the old gables can be estimated from inspecting the 
west face. We have already {supra, p. 27) noticed the gift of 
St. Ebbe's Church to Eynsham Abbey. Its dedication day by the old 
calendar (Tw. 23, p. 133) was October 15, and not April 1, St. Ebba's 
feast. In the will of Robert Keneysham, Bedel of the University, in 
1430 (Tw. 23, p. 478), he mentions Richard Cumber, the water-bearer 
of the church of St. Ebbe. In 1575 the City orders (ibid. p. 594) the 
Bailiffs and Chamberlains to view the dunghill by St. Ebbe's Church, 
as to its being enclosed or leased. 

St. Ebbe's churchyard must have been near the east boundary 
of the Grey Friars, but diligent inquiry along most of the line 
from it towards Paradise, the garden or park of the Penitentiary 
Friars, has failed in finding out anything like a place of inter- 
ment. It is in the churchyard of the Franciscans that we must 
look for the grave of the greatest genius of the thirteenth century, 
the renowned Friar Bacon {vide City, ii. 408; cf. PL 76-8). That 
the Grey Friars had their first abode somewhere at the end of Beef 
Lane, not west of the Dominicans (as in Hutten, p. 88; PI. 75), is 
pretty clear from Wood {City, ii. 357). As to their second enlarged 
abode, the Patent Rolls 29 Henry III, 1244 (ibid. 360), show that for 
their security and comfort they might enclose the street which reaches 
under the wall of Oxon from the gate which is called Water Gate 1 in the 
parish of St. Ebbe as far as the little postern of the same wall towards 
the Castle, provided that a crenelated wall like to the rest of the 
wall of the same town (municipii) be made around the aforesaid 
habitation, beginning from the west side of the said Water Gate and 
extending southward to the bank of Tamisia 2 , and, extending thence 
upon the same bank westward, unto the fee of the abbot of Bee, in 
the parish of St. Bodhoc, turn again northwards until it join the old wall 

1 Another name for Littlegate. 

2 This is well known to be the old name used for all the branches of the river. 
Here it is Trill Mill stream, vide the King's third grant — ' branch of the Thames' 
(ibid. 361). 



76 AGAS'S PLAN AND IIUTTEN'S SURVEY [tt 



of the said burgh near the east side of the aforenamed little postern. 
The western wall of this new enclosure may have been near the 
present Paradise Square, but neither the position of the little postern, 
nor the extent of St. Budoc's parish can be defined. Further, the 
king permitted them, for the purpose of joining the new place with 
the old, to throw down as much of the old wall as reached their abode 
extended within the same, always reserving to himself and his heirs 
kings of England a free passage through the middle of the new 
place whenever they come there. Two months later, the king granted 
them leave to close up the street under the wall, to add to their 
security and quiet ; the north side of the chapel, built or to be built 
in that street, being allowed to fill up the break in the wall as far as 
it ought to reach ; all the other breaches in the wall being restored 
as before, except a small postern in the wall for the brethren to go 
and return by, from the new place in which they then dwelt to the 
former place where they used to dwell. In April, 1245, came a 
further grant, for the extension of the ground in which the Friars 
Minors have newly begun to dwell, of that ' island of ours \ which we 
have bought of Henry, son of Henry Simeon/ with permission to 
them that they may make a bridge across that branch of the Thames, 
which runs between the said island and their houses, and that they 
may enclose the said island with a wall or otherwise, for their security 
and the tranquillity of their religion. Another Patent Roll of Edward II 
in 13 10 {City, ii. 361) grants to them the site of the Friars of Penitence, 
an Order lately dispersed, whereby their land had come into the 
king's hands. The streams have altered so much in this part of the 
suburbs that the added island cannot be certainly identified, but most 
likely it was the triangular island just south of Trill Mill stream, 
where it passes by Paradise Square. This island has a wide stream 
with a decided curve on its western edge, and a filled-up brook, 
corresponding almost with the modern Friars' Street, to the south 
of it. West Gate is distinctly shown in Agas, and there is a sharp 
angle in the boundary between two parishes at its site, i.e. where 
Castle Street meets Church Street. 

Somewhere near this gate was the New Market, defined in 1448 
(V- P* 55 1 ) as near the Castle. It was leased in 1571 (Tw. 23, p. 181) 
with the Swannes Nest 2 , still the property of the City, where Trill 

1 The references to this transaction are here obscure, but clearly relate to 
some island across Trill Mill stream, and therefore lying to the south. 

2 The City kept a flock of swans, no doubt bred for the table. In a lease of 



in] 



ST. ALDATE'S TO THE CASTLE 



77 



Mill stream commences. From Wood's description, this market faced 
the old entrance to the Castle, which is now a cul-de-sac near the lower 
end of Castle Street. 

As to the halls once in Friern Street, i. e. from St. Ebbe's Church 
to West Gate, we have these: (i) Frideswyde Hall, which from 
a document of St. John's Hospital (V. p. 204) must have been close 
opposite the church : 1 A mese joyning to Frideswide in St. Ebb's 
parish against the west end of the churchyard on the north side of 
the street there' (i486). This was an Academic Hall, and the 
names of five principals are given in the records of Convocation 
{City, i. 592). (2) Farther west, and facing the Friars Minors, was 
Noifs house, or Coif or Cof Hall (Tw. 23, p. 146), It is placed by 
Wood (F. 33) opposite to St. Ebbe's Church. The three or four 
mentions of White Hall and Selverne Hall are not precise enough 
to give us their localities ; they are in this parish, and perhaps 
near here. 

Having looked east and west from St. Ebbe's Church, we continue 
along the northern part of the street once the Little Bailey, and here 
we wish to place Carole Hall. It is one for which we have a mass 
of documents (Reg. Coll. Exon, ed. Boase, O. H. S. xxxvii, pp. 298- 
310). It belonged for some years to Exeter College, but when the 
College parted with it is not recorded. In no instance is it described 
as a corner property. Forty-two deeds put it down as in the parish of 
St. Peter in the West; fifteen of them give us east and west boundaries, 
thereby implying that it must be in the upper part of Castle Street ; 
seven give us north and south boundaries; thirteen give us names 
of owners otherwise almost unknown, and two give us an eastern 
boundary only; five give, as a south boundary, land of St. John's 
Hospital, and Magdalen still holds property there — nos. 33 and 
34, on the west of St. Ebbe's Street, i. e. the third and fourth houses 
from the north end. We may, therefore, in our present state of 
knowledge, place Carole Hall as the second house on that side. 
With regard to its being apparently in two streets at once, the difficulty 
may be met by remembering that a tenement of |__ shape can be so. 
Vine Hall was also near here — but where, we have no clue. In 
1333 (O. p. 59) it is described as in this parish, and apparently in 
Little Bailey Street. Billyng Hall, opposite to St. Peter-le-Bailey 

1576 (Tw. 23, p. 595), he who 'had the game of them' was to provide four fat 
ones every year and leave six old ones at the end of his lease. Another lease 
contracts for ' twelve swannes to be left for breed.' 



78 AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [iii 



Church, is one which is worth locating, because of the curious story 
preserved by Wood (Bodley MS. 474). John de Tynemoulh, Speculum 
Laicorum, p. 71 — In the year of the Incarnation of our Lord 
1298 at Oxford in the parish of St. Peter in Balliolo, in a certain 
underground cellar near the highway facing the parish church, was 
an inn which was called Byllyngushall. It happened that a certain 
clerk, a student of necromancy, wrought a circle with figures and 
inscriptions, according to the practice of that art, for the summon- 
ing of a demon; sat down in the middle of his circles, and, as 
that art instructs, began at once to invoke the devil. When he 
came in a visible form and went round and round the circle, that 
clerk with his conjuring put many questions to the devil, and while the 
devil, in obedience to the adjuration, was making answer to them, it 
happened that the chaplain of the same parish, as he was carrying 
the divine Body to a certain sick person, came into the cellar, 
and the devil seeing him through the window, when the chaplain drew 
near, at once reverently bent both knees and raised his arms until 
he had passed by. The clerk noticed this, and committed the event 
quietly to heart. Nevertheless, he continued some time with the demon 
discussing questions, until the time that the chaplain returned and 
no longer carried the host. As he passed by, the devil bent again 
humbly, but this time on one knee only. The student, as he saw 
this, adjured the devil to reveal the reason for bending two knees 
to the priest as he went, and only one as he returned : and he 
unwillingly enough confessed that he was forced, will he, nill he, to 
do so, and to show this honour to the body of his Lord which the 
priest was carrying ; therefore he bent both knees at the first passing. 
He admitted too that he ought to respect the chaplain in some way 
as a minister of his Lord, and at the return of the priest without 
carrying the host, he knelt upon one knee. Thereupon the student 
was much disturbed, and came thereby to the conclusion that God 
was much the greater, and that Christ should be his Lord. To this 
the devil at once assented, and the scholar giving up the devil (and 
his pay too according to the custom in necromancy) renounced the 
art, burnt all his treatises upon the science, repented, confessed and 
took the habit of St. Francis. — As said before, the site is not easily 
found, though we know that it was a church house in 1284 m., and 
(V. p. 551) Wood noted that to his day it was an offering house. The 
neighbouring occupiers east and west, at that time, were John de 
Hanekynton and John de Eu, tenants who do not occur in the long 



iii] 



ST. ALDATE'S TO THE CASTLE 



79 



list of documents about Carole Hall. The words ' facing the parish 
church ' must be taken literally, and the words ' east part ' and 
1 west part ' can only apply to a tenement in the present Queen 
Street. Bylling Hall is mentioned 1479 (O. p. 77) in the church- 
wardens' accounts of St. Peter-le-Bailey as the house of Edward 
Wood, mayor 1488, paying 5.9. rent. This would be the year's 
offerings, fifty-two Sundays at id., and 8d. additional for great feasts. 

P. 120. ' In this place alsoe wee have another quadra- 
partite waie, where, on the left hand, wee may diserne the 
entrance into the Castle of St. George. And a litle beyond 
that, the West gate of the Cittie, which before wee have 
discryed. (P. 121.) From St. Ebb's Church directly before us 
looking towards Bocardo, wee see on our right hand those 
poore Tenements, called the Seaven deadly Sinns, and the 
Back sides of St. Marie's Colledge, and those Houses which 
are in the Corne Markett ; on the left, the Hall called New 
Inn, with poore Tenements and Gardens till you come to 
Bocardo.' 

The first quadripartite way was that where now Pembroke Street and 
Church Street intersect St. Ebbe's Street ; the second is that having 
now as its four arms Castle Street, New Inn Hall Street, Queen's 
Street, and St. Ebbe's. As St. Martin's, All Saints', and St. Mary's 
churches mark the intersecting streets, so here a church stands at the 
angle. Such a Carfox, if on a small scale, was once, as we shall see, 
termed a 'twychen/ Hutten supposes us to have come from the south, 
hence to the left hand would be Castle Street, and halfway down 
it towards West Gate would be the Castle entrance. The bridge 
over the Castle fosse was about eighty feet long, if we trust William 
of Worcester. It shows best in Loggan, and was an important way 
before the New Road was made, 1766, to take the place of one which 
led round by New Bridge over Quaking Bridge, where it divided, 
one branch going up Titmouse Lane, the other straight to St. Thomas' 
Church. 

The castle which we have in Agas is the best representation of the 
old enclosure. It included besides the early tower of 1071, built by 
Robert D'Oilly, five other towers along the walls, one of which near 
West Gate is often drawn round in plan, and also a keep on the 
mound, in the style of King John or Henry III. The tower which 



8o AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [ni 



remains, called St. George's from having been joined to the Chapel 
of St. George's College within the precincts, is peculiar in four points' 
at least. It has traces of six doorways above the lead roof, providing 
means of access to the 'hourdes' (hoarding) with which the towers 
and walls of most early castles were crowned, wooden sheds along 
the walls covered with raw hides, easily put up, easily stowed away, 
and provided with holes in front for the cross-bow men, and with 
openings in the floor for pouring down stones, melted pitch, or boiling 
oil, upon those who threatened to undermine the walls. The highest 
room in it seems in old times to have had no window, and to have been 
lighted only by a square hole in the roof. From this circumstance and 
from' the massive corbels which support its floor the idea has suggested 
itself that this was the store-place for the timbers of the hoarding, fire- 
proof and readily accessible. The newelled staircase is peculiar in 
construction. The treads are thin stone slabs resting on a grouted 
arch twined round a cylindrical newel of stone, and the wall enclosing 
it is most peculiar in horizontal section; the stairs begin at about 
twelve feet from the ground, and there are six places (often called 
'steps') in which the wall suddenly narrows. The uppermost of 
these, nearly a foot in width, is that on which the flooring of the 
hourd rested ; the second, a narrow one, is that on which struts were 
placed to support the floor, like brackets ; this is made narrow, so as 
not to interfere with the discharge of missiles through the floor. The 
walls of the tower at the bottom are fully nine feet thick, and at the 
top about four feet, and this great difference is due mainly to the setting 
back of the exterior face by the 'steps/ of which there are about 
two to each floor \ The masonry is of very rude character, but well 
grouted together, the surface of mortar often showing an area double 
that of the stones embedded in it. Just before Wood's time, a second 

1 I quote from an old memorandum : ' Every drawing of the stepping of the 
Castle tower is incorrect. Buckler's gives the best impression of the whole. The 
total height seems to be about 74 ft., in seven divisions, thus — 

I Stage at top, with doorways, 9 ft., step out at foot, 10 in. flat. 

" 6 ,, ,,4 

21 „ „ 6 „ 

„ 9 „ „ 6 in. sloping. 

6 „ „ 10 „ 

„ 5 » „ 4 in - flat - 

„ 18 ft. to water above mill. 

74 ft - 3 ft- 4 in - 

Thickness said to be 9 ft. 4 in. at bottom, seems to be 4 ft. 1 in. at top, this 
leaves 5 ft. 3 in. total decrease of thickness, less 3 ft. 4 in. total decrease by the 
stepping. N.B. This is guess-work ; total height is about 82 ft.' 



II 
III 
IV 
V 
VI 
VII 



iii] Sr. ALDATE'S TO THE CASTLE 81 



mill stream was cut under the west wall, and its northern end passed 
through the old cemetery of St. George's College (vide PL pp. 61-63). 
No better engraving of the tower has been made than that by 
Buckler {Gent. Mag., 1832), but he does not make enough of the 
steps. Loggan not only ignores these, but also the stair-turret at the 
north-east. If this was ever used as a bell-tower for the college 
chapel, it was certainly never built with that intention, as it is con- 
siderably out of line with the wall at its west end. There was three 
years' interval between the building of the tower and of the college. 
At about eighty feet to the east, or rather east-by-north of the tower, 
an early crypt was discovered at the building of the new Gaol; 
this was carefully dug out by the Governor of the Gaol, and was to 
have been replaced within about eighteen inches of its former site — 
whether accurately as regards east and west, is not known. There 
is, however, some evidence for believing that it was set still further out 
of its old position, perhaps as much as an entire bay. The capitals 
of the four dwarf pillars which support the groining are interesting, 
as they each have four small blocks projecting under the abacus at 
the middle, just where the tau cross occurs in early Romanesque 
work. These clearly belong to quite a different school of design 
from the quaint examples at St. Peter's in the East. This crypt 
was formerly under the apse at the east of St. George's Chapel. In 
rebuilding, the curve at the east was neglected. It must have been 
merely straightened, not built convex, as seems to be Dr. Ingram's 
idea of the change. The chapel above — which had a round end, in 
which were three Norman windows placed high in the curved wall — 
is plainly shown in a drawing of Burghers at the end of the 
preface to Hearne's William of Newbury, 17 19; in a drawing by 
Malchair, 1772, in private hands; and also in Grose (Antiq. 
iv. p. 182), 1785. In Loggan it seems to be without a roof. King 
{Munimenta, pi. 130, 1795) gives us a few details of the west wall 
of the nave of the chapel. As the tower was never used as a residence, 
being originally almost without windows — those that are there being 
almost all of later date — the royal lodgings would be elsewhere in 
the garth, and would soon go to ruin after Henry I had erected 
Beaumont Palace. 

One other building demands our attention, as it has historical 
associations, the oldest and most interesting of any in Oxford. This 
was the Sessions-house, the place of meeting near the King's palace, 
in which the plots were ripened, the peace-makings confirmed, which 

G 



82 AGAS'S PLAN AND IIUTTEN'S SURVEY [iii 



make Oxford so prominent a town just before the Conquest. Of the 
site of this building, so famous in Elizabeth's days for a remarkable 
outburst of gaol fever, we can form but an indistinct idea. It was 
east of the centre of the mound, and nearer to it than to the great 
entrance tower at the south-east* The cutting of the New Road, if 
we may trust Malchair's sketch — he was very careful as a rule — 
passed close to its foundations. About two years ago, good walling 
was found opposite to the present County Court entrance, nearly 
under the road fence, but whether it was the eastern or western end 
of a building, could not be determined, as it was a mere fragment. 
Judging from Agas, Loggan, and Malchair, the Sessions House was 
nearer to the mound than this walling would indicate, but it must 
not be forgotten that the edge of the hill has been much pushed 
back on every side. Small it most probably was, though the little 
'pay-shed' of Agas close under the hill cannot be accepted as 
accurate, and the Christ Church drawing gives it about three 
bays and a half more. The style in this drawing and in Burghers' 
sketch seems to be like that of King Stephen's days, but two sketches 
of its remains just before it was destroyed indicate Tudor windows 
with arches and pilasters, probably Palladian, or it may be late 
Norman modified. These interiors clear up one point, viz. that 
there was a semicircular space at one end. The semicircular arches 
in the Christ Church drawing were probably not representations 
of what the draughtsman had seen, but imaginary work such as 
fashion then demanded. There was a southern wing attached to 
the west end, the roof of which is shown correctly in Agas. In j 
Whittlesey it might be mistaken for a turret. 

We will conclude these notes on the Castle by visiting the mound, 
on which stood a ten-sided keep, much as Agas draws it, but 
of course not upon such a precipice. Agas and the Christ Church ; 
drawing both represent it as having ten sides, presenting in each j 
case four sides to the spectator ; an etching by Daniel King, whose 
other work is far from exact, temp. Car. I (Gough Coll. v. 26, j 
p. 81), alone makes it octagonal; King's excavations almost decide j 
that it was decagonal. The point deserves notice, as it had till 
lately become a fashion to deny that anything more than the ruined 
circular wall of stone ever existed on the mound ; but about a year 
ago Mr. Clark found among the Wood MSS. (F. 39, fo. 200) j 
a letter from John Aubrey, the antiquary (the same who preserved | 
for us the representation of Osney Abbey), in which he draws ! 

I 



iii] 



ST. ALDATE'S TO THE CASTLE 



83 



a ten-sided building not quite so high as Agas's, and having windows 
higher up in the walls, round-headed, and more resembling such 
castles as that at Odiham, and also without the two projecting 
pieces which Whittlesey has changed into nondescript buttresses; 
a huge crack threatens to let one third of the structure slip away. 
The sketch is reproduced in Clark's edition of Aubrey's Lives, vol. ii. 
pi. I a. This interesting little sketch which, to a very great extent, 
explains Agas's map of the keep, was sent by Aubrey to Wood with 
the remark, ' Will you not expresse the building of the keepe of the 
Castle which was not long since taken downe. It had such a crack, 
if not another on the other side of the dore or gate. This side 
(with the door in it) faced the South or S. and by E. I have 
forgott if it had six sides or eight as here, but I beleeve eight.' 

Under the mound, about twenty feet from the surface, is a groined 
chamber of Transitional design, covering up a well, very deep, solely 
for water, as a careful inspection of the sides has proved ; the water, 
however, has been drained away by the sewers constructed during 
the main drainage scheme. In digging for the foundations, there was 
found in the courtyard a very interesting series of Danish and Saxon 
horse-shoes, now in the Ashmolean Museum. 

The extent of the old limits of the Castle has at various times 
been proved to be much about that which Agas gives. At the 
Salvation Army barracks in Castle Street, the old fosse could be 
traced by its black mud, still moist, full thirty feet wide and almost 
twenty feet deep. From this fosse, when it extended round to 
the south end of the canal bridge, there must have been extracted 
many cubic yards of gravel, which doubtless went to raise the 
Castle mound. Somewhere at the north-west of this circle of water 
was, as it would seem, a second approach to the enclosure. Henry 
de Tywe (Tew) grants, c. 1236, to William le Franceis in free 
marriage with Alice his sister, his north house with a curtilage 
which he took in fee of Nicholas Miller, which house is near the 
outside draw-bridge (forinsecum pontem tractabilem) towards the 
north of the castle of Oxford, and faces towards the Thames 
(the Aldwere?) and the water ditch of the castle; Witnesses, Peter 
son of Torold then mayor of Oxford, Alewic and Adam son of 
Walter then provosts, and seven others. 'The writing seems to 
be of the time of King John, note that noe parish is mentioned 
where the said tenement is.' (Wood O. p. 49.) The reason for 
the destruction of so much of the Castle was not clearly known 

G 2 



84 AGAS'S PLAN AND IIUTTEN'S SURVEY [iii 



even in Wood's days. In bis Life (O. II. S. xix. p. 1 70) we read, ' The 
year 1650 and 1651 coll. Draper, being Governor of Oxon, sleighted 
the worke about the city, and fortified the Castle very strong and 
almost impregnable — which cost noe smal labor, and cost (some 
say) to the value of 2 thousand pounds. But for all that, when 
the Scots invaded Eng. in the latter end of July and the August 
following, 1 65 1 ; whether by coll. Draper's policy (or, as was 
thought, his engineer was greased in the fist) or some other ting 
moving him therto, he sleighted also the Castle wokes ' &c. 

One quaint fifteenth century structure only remains to us in Castle 
Street, a short way down on the left, still having its old stone 
doorway. It was called White Hall, and is at present an inn, 
No. 12. In the spandrel of the doorway are still the arms of 
D'Oilly. It has lost its early chimney, and some Tudor windows on 
the first floor also ; but the beams of some of the rooms, though 
late in date, are worth seeing. The house to the east of it, on the 
same side, was of extremely small dimensions, but it had a high 
gable. A thirteenth century stone doorway on the east side was 
saved, when the house was taken down, by the City Surveyor, and 
he has provided for its re-erection in the premises at the rear. The 
little pointed roof of the house was at one time supported by a 
good Gothic framing, of which a fragment remained. Early in the 
seventeenth century its front had been pargeted in a simple pattern, 
resembling that of No. 23 Pembroke Street, and it had a square 
of more ornamental work over the main window. There is now 
a new house on the site. This street has another good specimen 
of external ornamental pargeting, on the opposite side of the way, 
on the front of Nos. 41 and 42, a double house, west of Bath Place 1 , 
New Road. 

vi. Worth-West of the City. 

St. Peter-le-Bailey Church stood at the south-west corner of 
New Inn Hall Lane. By undermining the walls with graves, the 
parishioners succeeded in 1706 in letting the church fall down. 
From Agas it would appear to have been a short church, with nave 
and chancel under one roof, and a tower on the south side. As 

1 Bath Place is a part of Bullock's Alley, cut off from the rest by the New- 
Road. 



iii] 



NORTH-WEST OF THE CITY 



85 



soon, however, as we turn to Loggan, a man of much more artistic 
power, who probably resided in Oxford much longer than Agas, 
we find three roofs, a tower in the middle of these, the same windows 
as in Agas, looking north, and the same door opening northward. 
Although at St. Ebbe's Church Agas's representation is confirmed 
by early prints, still it seems safer here to call Agas careless than 
to suppose that in seventy years such great changes have been made 
and have not been recorded in history. In 1766 the New Road was 
made, turning rather sharply round the south side of the new church, 
a plain square preaching-room, which, strange to say, no one 
applauded for ' its chasteness and simplicity.' This awkward obstacle 
gave way to a City improvement, and a portion of the site was 
thrown into the street. In its removal a few fragments of Norman 
carving were appropriated by a mason, and these are now to be seen 
in a wall close to Bullock's Alley, in a passage on the south side 
of the present church of St. Peter-le-Bailey. (The word ' Bailey ' 
demands some explanation. Many castles had outside their gates 
a space which, though not walled in, was under the castellan's 
rule ; this was his ballium or Bailey, a name that has survived in many 
towns.) The church, though apparently of small size, no larger 
indeed than the one which disappeared in our own time, had several 
chantries and chapels attached to it, and had fairly good possessions 
in the way of houses and rents. The first authentic notice of the 
church is believed to be that in the Patent Rolls of 13 18, wherein 
the King gives leave to Robert of Worminghall to found a chantry. 
Then in 1340 (City Rolls), we find that Frideswide Pennard built 
here a chapel of ou Lady. She died in 1348, leaving her body to 
be buried in the Churchyard of St. Peter in the Bailey (City Wills, 
¥• P- 2 5 5)- Then, next year (Tw. 23, p. 336), we have the will of 
Margaret Pirie; she leaves the tenement she dwells in to her 
executors to be sold for the good of her soul in masses to be 
celebrated in the Church of St. Peter in the Bailey. There was here, 
in 1455 (City Wills, Tw. 23, p. 536), a chapel of St. Clement 
William White, baker, after directing that his body should be buried 
in the Church of St. Peter in the Bailey, under St. Clement's light, 
near his seat by the door of the chapel of St. Clement, goes on 
to leave to Thomas his son two continuous tenements situated on 
the north side of the street of the Bailey, between a tenement of 
St. Frideswide on the west and a little lane which leads near the 
cemetery of the same church, on the east. Wood adds, 'Unless 



86 AGAS'S PLAN AND IIUTTEN'S SURVEY [ill 



I am mistaken it leads into Bullock's Lane.' St. Clement was a 
popular saint among sailors and boatmen. There was a fishers' 
bell rung at this church twice every day till 1560, at four in the 
morning and eight in the evening (Bal. p. 29). In 1466 (V. p. 163) 
we have a note of a St. Andrew's Chapel in St. Peter-le- Bailey 
Church, and elsewhere are references to its chaplains. As to Bullock's 
Lane, which seems more likely to have been a western than an eastern 
boundary, we have several writings to show who Bullock was and 
what was his occupation. Besides this, we know that he lived 
among his rubbish heaps further towards The Mounts. The lane 
is never in old documents called Bulwarks' Lane. Pennard's Lane, or 
Pennarth's, was not much to the north of the churchyard. We shall 
find that Frideswide Pennarth (Tw. 23, p. 336) held Rose Hall 
in it ; and if such a lane ran west to or towards the Castle ditch, it 
would account for the abrupt angle still made there by the parish 
boundaries. The church had in it a notable memorial. In Twyne 
( 2 3> P- 578) we read : — ' In a brasse plate uppon a marble stone in ye 
same Church (St. Peter-le-Bailey) "Hie jacet Will us de Luteburgh 
alio nomine dictus Northerne civis Oxoniae qui fuit Maior ejusdem 
villae tempore coronationis Regis Rid 2* et obiit a 0 diii 1383 in die 
nativitatis Virginis gloriosae et cum eo jacet Margareta uxor sua: 
quorum animabus propitietur deus. Amen.": which inscription 
seemeth to imply that this Mayor wayted at K. Richard ye second's 
coronation accordinge to a libertie granted to ye citizens of Oxford 
by Henry ye second.' The upper and lower parts of New Inn Hall 
Street, Pennard's Lane to the left, and Sewy's Lane to the right, 
would constitute, where they crossed, Sewy's Twychen. 

The tenements of the Seven deadly sins, according to Hutten, 
must be on the right hand about here, nor is this contrary to passages 
in other books, though their authors hesitate. Wood, it is to be 
supposed, did not fully believe in Hutten's view, when he sought for 
this lane with the evil name, down by New Market {City, i. 208). 
On going over the matter, it seems to be one of those instances 
in which he either overlooked a point, or had not time fully to 
correct his MS. of the City. There is not much doubt that Seven 
Deadly Sins Lane was the southern end of the present New Inn Hall 
Street. In 1477 ( v - P- 55 2 )> 'Nicholas Temple of Shepen Co: 
Leicester, Esq re & Joane his wife lately ye wife of Benedict Stokes 
of Oxon doth with the consent of Tho. Chaundler clerk (of New 
College) Joh. Stokes & Will Faukes give and grant to Richard Howes 



iii] 



NORTH-WEST OF THE CITY 



87 



New Inn 



Pennard's 
Lane 



Ho. of 
Alice 
Pye. 



Ch. of 
St. Peter- 
le-B. 



Shoe or 
Sewy's Lane 



o g 



Oseney 
and then 
Ch. Ch. 



and John Howes seven cottages in St. Peter Bailey between the lane 
leading from the great Bayly to North gate strete on the west and the 
land of All Souls Coll. which Henry Bathe inhabiteth on the east 
and the little lane which leadeth from North gate Strete to the New 
inne lately called Trillocks yn on the North and a garden ground 
belonging to Oseney on the South.' The 
diagram will explain this. From the New 
College charters, 1558 (V. p. 256), Robert 
Forrest and William Forrest were inha- 
bitants in St. Peter-le-Bailey by New Inn, 
the former a sadler, the other a baker. To 
this Wood adds a note to the effect that 
John Underhill A. M., son of Elizabeth 
Forrest the widow of Robert Forrest named 
above, afterwards Bishop of Oxon, being 
then Fellow of New College, had this house 
on the south side of New Inn conveyed 
to him, and by him afterwards to several 
Fellows of New College. Wood also notes 
(ibid.), ' The Lane by New-in called 
7 deadly sinns vel vicus septem peccatorum 
mortalium 14 Eliz/ 
More than a third of the middle of the west side of this street was 
occupied down to 1896 by the buildings of New Inn Hall. Wood 
gives a short history of the place {Colleges and Halls, p. 676), and 
Loggan has drawn the front with its central portion very much as it 
remained till our days. The buildings may for convenience be 
classed in three groups, a fourth, west of the area behind, having 
disappeared. The first and most southern of these, a Tudor building 
of two storeys, capped by a third storey of lath and plaster, faced Pen- 
nard's Lane. Its west front is shown in the Oxford Almanac of 1 750 ; 
when sketched in 1893, only two of the old thirteen Tudor windows could 
be traced — modern taste and sash windows had demolished the others. 
The second block was more medieval in character, and was below the 
pavement. This part, from its age, passed as the old mint of Charles 
the First's time. It had work in it of every period, from the early 
thirteenth century downwards. A little gem of a capital, of spirited 
and graceful design, found there, has been deposited in the Ashmolean. 
The third was a Palladian structure, now successfully converted into 
the Hannington Memorial Hall. At the rear of this part was a small 



Bocherov 



Sewy's Twichen. 



88 ACAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [IK 



chapel erected not more than forty years ago, and lately removed 
when the Hall came to an end. 

As to the site, it would include four ancient messuages and a 
garden ; and since we have just witnessed the decease of the hall, 
some kind of an obituary notice may well follow. Rose Hall, which 
probably occupied the south-east angle, was in 1352 (Tw. 23, p. 336) 
devised by its owner, whom we have noticed before, Frideswide 
Pennarght, to the proctors of St. Peter-le-Bailey Church for the sup- 
port of the chantry of the Blessed Mary erected in the same by license 
of the King; it is called Le Rose Hall. In 1349 (V. p. 255) the 
same Frideswyde, described as daughter and heir of William Pennard, 
granted to John, Bishop of Hereford, and Thomas Trilleck his brother, 
all her rents and tenements in Oxford in the parish of St. Peter in 
the Bailey. In 1366 (ibid.) Thomas de Trilleck, Bishop of Rochester, 
granted the same to Mr. Hugh Pembrigge, Mr. Roger Otery, and 
Walter Brown, parson of St. Magnus, London. In 1369, the last 
two of these granted it to Wm. of Wykeham. In 1391 in a release 
of rights (ibid.) we find it called Trillekesynne, and in the same 
year William of Wykeham grants two messuages called Trilleckynnes, 
three gardens adjacent and one messuage called Rose Hall and one 
garden adjacent, to the warden and scholars of New College. The 
property having now come to New College, we find in their accounts 
charges for repairs done, 1392 (V. p. 273), to Tryllockynnes and Rose 
Hall. A bailiff's account of 1397 (V. p. 280) charges for a slater 
employed for nineteen days for the chapel and great chamber, 
repairing damages caused by the wind, and part roofing the great 
chambers. In 1398 (ibid.), under the Inn's accounts, moneys are 
paid to the monk of Trillock's yn. In 1400 (V. p. 281), Rose Hall 
paid no rent, and then in 1403 we find (ibid.) that the Carmelites 
had rooms here : w 7 hen the Lord the Warden and others the fellows 
of the college forgave the white monks of Trillock's yn, 22^. Sd. 
from the past year's rent. A little further on, we find that Rose Hall 
ceases to pay rent, and in 14 12 (V. p. 280) 'there was £48 and odde 
money bestowed for a new edifice, but what it was and where it 
certainly appears not/ There are many like notes of Twyne and 
Wood, but to have shown the beginning of the name New Inn Hall 
is all that is required of us here. 

By Hutten's expression, * the Back sides of St. Marie's Colledge ' we 
are to understand the premises in the rear, for it must be remem- 
bered that the gardens of the modern Frewin Hall reach up to Shoe 



iii] 



NORTH-WEST OF THE CITY 



89 



Lane, just as in former days the back premises of the College reached 
up to Sewy's Lane. 

P. 71. 'The fowerth house of this Order of Black 
Augustinian Monkes Regular, was St. Mary Colledge, scited 
betweene the North end of the Corne Markett and Bocardo 
on the West side of the Streete within a perticuler lane 
leading thereunto, of the North side of the Inn called the 
Starr, which of this Colledge is called St. Mary Lane. It 
was builded by Thomas Houlden, Esquire, and Elizabeth his 
wife, about the yeare. 1448.' (P. 72.) ' It consisted of one Prior 
and certaine Students Novices, beeing subordinated to the 
Monasterie of Osney, and trayned upp there in good Arts, 
'till they might be fitt to be admitted into the greater Abby. 
Their habitt differed somewhat from the older Monkes, to 
signifie that they were but young beginners. In testimonie 
whereof there is yet to this daie standing a faire Hall, to 
what uses imployed I doe not know.' 

Of St. Mary's College little is left — a west gateway of the style of 
about 1440, a few remains of groining on the south side of the gate 
entrance, the wall facing the street north of the gate, and some reputed 
remains in the cellar of a house two or three doors to the south. 
Besides this, there is a fairly well supported tradition of the roof of 
Brasenose College chapel having been taken from the chapel here. 
Here Erasmus, the great scholar, resided about 1497; and it was 
the broad garden of this College, which checked the great fire of 
1644. Its history can be found in Wood's City, ii. pp. 228-245. 
After passing through various hands, it became the residence of 
Dr. Richard Frewin, lessee under Brasenose College, who largely 
improved it and gave it the name of Frewin Hall. From his death in 
1 76 1, it was for nearly a century the official residence of the Regius 
Professor of Medicine. In i860 it was occupied by the Prince of 
Wales, and it is now the residence of Dr. Shadwell, an Alderman 
of the City. 

The mention of the great fire reminds us that in contemplating 
with Hutten the back premises of the houses west of North Gate 
Street, we must think how many thatched out-houses, skellings or 
eskellings, there were at the time, and what fuel was prepared there 
for the spread of a conflagration. Wode Street, now St. Michael's St., 



go ACAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [in 



and formerly that part of New Inn Hall Street which runs east and 
west, and lies to the north of these tenements and gardens, was 
a favourite locality for timber merchants. 

P. 121. 'On our right hand the Shambles or Bucherrow 
in the midst of the Streete, from whence wee maie easily 
diserne the corner of St. Martin's Church, and the Conduit 
of Carefax whereof wee spake before. There is then noe 
difficultie here, but onely why these two Streets are called 
the Baylies, and what kind of Saint, St. Martin was. Of the 
first; I can give you noe other answeare, but conjecture, that 
as in London the Old and Litle Bailies were soe called, 
(P. 122 ) because there were kept the Sessions Court of the 
Chamberlane of London, soe, peradventure, here, in former 
tymes some like Courts might have beene held. Concerning 
St. Martin, what kind of St. hee was, I answeare, hee was 
Bishopp of Towers in France, and died about the yeare. 
397 ... in the. 8i. yeare of his age. And here wee end our 
Survey of the West part of the Cittie within the Walls.' 

The modern Queen Street, Bocherow, Boccherew, &c, would form, 
* on our right hand/ the fourth way of the cross roads at St. Peter's 
Church. It was in this street, near the south-east angle of Messrs. 
Hyde's factory, that, about forty years ago, at the rebuilding of the 
factory, a very early Celtic Torque-ring of hammered gold was found 
in an ancient grave, very deep in the ground; but we have since 
learnt how much the roadway has risen in this part of the City. 
This ring is figured in No. i of the Archaeologia Oxoniensis, 
Oxford, 1892, p. 6. Here may be introduced an antiquarian note 
from Wood's Life (i. 463), because it describes something very 
closely akin to what has been observed at other places in Oxford 
within the last twenty years : * Memorandum that in the month of 
Nov. 1662, in the digging a well for a pumpe at the east end of 
the Bocherew, was within half a yard under ground or more a pitched 
floore and 3 yards deepe in the ground severall great posts of 
timber that laid flat and then about a yard deeper others, as if 
formerly ther had bin a common shoare, or els more probably the 
foundation of the old Bocherew.' That they 'laid flat' shows that 
they were not posts, but rather balks belonging to a ferry road, as 



iii] 



NORTH-WEST OF THE CITY 



9i 



at Trill Mill Bow, and near Plato's Well. There is in a house 
there on the south (No. 17, H. N. Prior's,) a pointed arch projecting 
above ground from the level of a deep cellar, about ten feet below 
the pavement. The primitive road at Carfax was eleven feet seven 
inches or more below the present surface. 

As to the old halls once in this street, they were Durham, 
Halegod's, Draper, and Portmannimote. Of Durham Hall we 
learn (Wi. i. App. 5), that in 1400 John Spront, mayor, agreed 
with St. Frideswyde's for the payment of certain rents, one of 
which was for the house of Durham in the parish of St. Peter at 
the Castle, situated between a tenement of Robert Baturwyk on the 
east and a tenement of New College on the west. To this succeed 
(ibid.): i. For the house of Adam under the wall in the same 
parish 2s. ; ii. The house of the Goldsmith 3^. ; iii. For Adam 
Cruste's house 5^. ; and these three tenements aforenamed reach 
from Draphalle on the east, westward, and reach to a certain street 
and to the end of St. Peter's Church aforesaid, and these tenements, 
made up of diverse small holdings, are annexed to that messuage 
called Durham. This accounts, roughly, for half the north side of 
the street, and gives a clue to the situation of Drapery Hall. 
Halegod Lane was clearly at the north side of the Butcher-row, 
and is probably the same as the Lane to the bakery, mentioned 
(V. p. 108) in a Balliol document of the year 1375. This is somewhat 
confirmed by Tw. 22, p. 355, quoted in City i. p. 219, mentioning 
! a house called Elmeley with Algoddis Lane now in the tenure of 
John Akyns baker situated between a tenement of All Soule's College 
on the west and a tenement of Balliol College on the east.' The 
hall of Halegod has north and south boundaries given to it, and 
would therefore seem to be in the lane. Portmannimote Hall lay 
somewhere at the west of St. Martin's Church. There is a grant of 
this land in the Osney Cartulary (fol. 99 a), which also describes it as 
in the Butchery (macearia) towards the north. An order of 1528 
(Tw. 23, p. 197) shows us the arrangements for butchers: 'all 
butchers, free of the City, shall uppon market dayes kepe their 
standinges only in the strete towards the Castle, but the country 
butchers and forrayners shall kepe their standinges allwayes beneath 
the sayde butcher rewe or shambles, that is to say betweene the sayd 
shambles and the Castle bridge.' They had also, perhaps at an earlier 
time, a standing near All Saints' Church on Wednesdays and Saturdays. 
In an account, perhaps belonging to 1329 (Tw. 23, p. 230), we have : 



92 ACAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [iv 



For butchers' stalls at All Saints Church t>\d. In 141 2 (Tw. 23, 
p. 354) : Inspectors of the trade of Bocherie l . 

vii. Osney and Rowley. 

P. 122. 'In the Westerne Suburbs, therefore, of this Cittie 
wee find litle more worthie observation, then those Places 
whereof wee have alreadie spoken, (P. 123) I meane the 
Castle of St. George, the Abby of South Osney, the Abby 
of North Osney, the Parish Church of St. Nicholas, and 
Glocester Hall.' {Lives of St. George and St. Nicholas 
follow, pp. 90, 91, PI.) 

The plan of Hutten's Antiquities is now very clear. He took us 
up the central line, to mark the grand divisions of east and west; 
he then took a western curve to explain the west side of that line ; 
and now finally he considers the western suburbs. In speaking of the 
Castle, we rather ran away from our guide, now we will follow him to 
Osney (v. pp. 66-8, PL). 

Of this renowned abbey we can well exclaim with a writer of old, 
' What an expanse for an active pen ! ' Few will be willing to allow 
that Wood was at his best when he wrote his account of this abbey. 
He errs sadly as to right and left ; he says he trusts to a drawing, and 
to a description by an old friend ; the drawing is no better than the 
unmeaning thing which Agas gives us ; the description was not clear, 
or Wood ran away from it in a dream of the past splendour of the 
buildings. The material that has come to hand from one source 
or another is still very small, and twelve years of watching the 
cemetery now on its site have done but little to solve the question 
how its buildings stood. 

Of the remains of the abbey we have merely a late fifteenth- 
century archway near the tall chimney, and only a fragment, a few 
feet in length, of a once extensive range of buildings called the 
Canons' buildings. This, however, is worth visiting, as the construc- 
tion of its tall roof is visible and of peculiar character. There are 

1 Twyne, just before the place cited, gives us a list of officers in 1407. 
A Mayor, 2 Bailiffs, 4 Aldermen, 2 Chamberlains, 4 inspectors of nuisances 
(nocumenta), 2 assessors of houses, 13 councilmen, 2 criers of dues, 2 sellers of 
fish, 2 underbailiffs, 1 Mayor's sergeant, Crier and Town clerk, sometimes 2 Wardens 
of the keys (1404), 2 Inspectors of meat (1454). 



iv] 



OSNEY AND REWLEY 



93 



one or two pieces of early Decorated carving near the lych-gate, 
another showing dog-tooth ornament, also the bases of two or three 
shafts of the cloisters. In demolishing a house in Hollybush Row, 
in order to continue the street to Oxmead wall or Osney Lane, 
a few carved corbel heads came to light, very characteristic and 
perhaps unique. In the western and northern parts of the cemetery, 
when graves have been dug, old tiles, bits of glazing lead, an 
old stone coffin or two, have been discovered, and a range of 
early graves has been made out. In August, 1895, in widening 
a mill-course at the extreme west of the site, there were disclosed 
several relics of the old abbey — portions of Early English shafts 
and arcadings, terminals from hood-mouldings, pieces of pierced 
cresting, and so on ; all which have now been stored away in the 
vaults of the Town Hall. In the Chapter-house at Christ Church 
there is a relic of Osney of another type— a slab of marble with 
a floriated border-ornament of ivy near the margin, containing the 
ends of two rhyming lines of Latin . . . ' of Warwick ... of the 
Countess the entrails are here.' 

Agas, in addition to his church, gives us a gateway apparently to 
the north of the house of the keeper of the modern cemetery. John 
Aubrey set Mr. Hesketh, a priest, to work to sketch the ruins, in 
1643 (Aubrey's Brief Lives, ed. Clark, vol. i. p. 38); the result 
was the well-known drawing in some copies of the first Monasti- 
con, which was re-engraved for the Gentleman's Magazine of 177 1. 
The west tower and the tower at the transept are still to be seen 
in Bishop King's window, in the south aisle of the Cathedral choir. 
There is also a drawing like Aubrey's in the Gough Collection 
(vol. 26, No. 82), done when the ' wheel-fardingales did spread,' 
say 1610-20. To judge from excavations, the present cemetery 
chapel seems to stand on the site of the old nave, about one-third 
from its west end. The mound formed of mortar from the lofty 
tower, beneath which are one or two paving-stones, is growing 
year by year less visible. What there is of it lies W.S.W. of the 
present chapel, two-thirds of the way towards the cemetery wall. 

The abbey had a church three hundred and thirty-two feet long (so 
says William of Worcester who measured it), and this would reach from 
the tower mound across the present chapel a few feet over the railway 
wall. The whole track is like a mason's yard. If we go from the same 
mound southward sixty feet for the south transept of the church, and 
one hundred and sixty feet for the dormitory, which was in part 



AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY \M 



over the cloister, and then turn westward one hundred and twenty- 
nine feet for the great refectory, we shall have compassed about 
half the great quadrangle, which was almost as large as that of 
Christ Church. We have now the dimensions of this, once the third 
abbey in England for the splendour of its buildings {vide Appendix); 
but how the several parts stood with regard to each other, we know 
not. We can smile at Agas's conception of the church, especially 
as we know that Queen Mary had Mass performed in it not long 
before. Its fifteen lights in the choir may indicate five bays, the 
twenty-one in its south aisle may suggest seven bays, the fourteen 
lights in the body may also mean seven bays : three bays only, as 
drawn by Agas, are incredible. The 1 carolls ' or Lady chapel behind 
the high altar had thirteen lights, and seemingly three or four bays, but 
by his time all this had utterly vanished. The few feet of ruins which 
remain near the mill chimney enable us to recognize what portion 
of the buildings there are represented in Burgher's sketch, pub- 
lished by Hearne (Tex/us Roffensis), and thus the entire length 
of that group can be fairly estimated as it was to be seen in 1720. 
There may grow up in a future generation enough antiquarian spirit 
to demand a careful examination of at least the garden ground at 
the west of the cemetery, and then the information grouped together 
in the Appendix will become of service. The discovery in a line south 
of the tower mound of bases to shafts and of stone coffins is the 
only clue, though an uncertain one, to the line of the cloister, the 
usual place of burial. The Chapter-house may be identified with 
the ruin shown in Aubrey's two drawings in front of the tall cam- 
panile, the western tower, that lofty tower which held a bell of size 
equal to, and metal identical with, the modern ' Tom ' over Christ 
Church gateway. 

North Osney or Rowley (v. p. 73, PL) was not, as far as we can 
judge from existing drawings, on a scale at all to be compared with that 
of Osney. The history of both is given in Wood's City (vol. ii. pp. 
188 seqq., 294 seqq). The site of this Rois-leie — place of Richard, 
King of the Romans — has almost been lost to us in later days, though 
a little arbour, at the north-east angle of the site, for a long time 
served to mark the spot. To point out that angle by reference to 
permanent natural features is not easy. Treat the canal as non- 
existent, remember that the lake at Worcester College was formed 
by excavating the ground between two parallel brooks, running along 
its northern and southern sides, and produce the northern brook to 



viii] 



OSNEY AND REWLEY 



95 



a point where it will meet the river 1 . Old maps (e.g. Faden, 1789) 
show a stream running into the river on its west side, exactly opposite 
this point ; and it was on this stream that the arbour stood, scarcely 
four yards from the river in Hoggar's days, 1850, and not twenty 
now ; sixty more yards intervened between the arbour and a turret 
of the abbey which overhung the stream. Drawings of it are fairly 
numerous, but all made after it had been desecrated, and turned 
into malthouses or a brewery. Good eyes may still detect a frag- 
ment or two of the old buildings worked into a garden wall at 
the north ; and through an eastern wall, to be seen across the canal, 
opens a Gothic gateway of some interest. The grand entrance, 
however, was not there, but at the north-west of Hythe Bridge Street, 
among the present coal-merchants' offices. Loggan's plan shows 
us the spot, but before 1850 the north front towards the stream 
had vanished, as had also several of the streams through Worcester 
meadow. A stone dug out from this spot, for which Hearne gave 
half a crown, is still in the Ashmolean. He recognized it as the 
memorial stone of Ela Longepe'e, the benevolent countess of War- 
wick, and the inscription reads thus : ^ Ela, countess of Warwick, 
made this chapel: to whom may Jesus be a reward in heaven >J«. 
The lettering and abbreviations are unique, and it seems that the 
second part of the inscription was added by another carver, probably 
after her death. 

There were evidently frequent troubles between the City and 
Rewley, arising from the water-courses in the neighbourhood ; and 
Osney was in like manner often charged with stealing water that 
should feed the City mill. In 1586, for instance (Council Book 
A, f. 287), this order occurs: 'The mill-master (at the castle) shall 
make the Lashegate at Rewlye corner lower by ten inches.' The 
royal permission to open a road along the river northwards to the 
abbey, from Hythe Bridge along the west side of the stream, 
is in existence. The remains of Rewley in Hearne's time (see 
Texlus Rqffensis, p. 329) were considerable. In an appendix to 
Leland's Itinerary (ii. p. 71, ed. 17 n), he writes: 'At a small 
distance from it (Osney) on the North side we have some con- 
siderable Remains now standing.' ' The Abbey was first design'd 
for Secular Priests, but these were afterwards, viz. in the Year 
MCCLXXXI, chang'd by Edmund Earl of Cornwall, son to Richard, 

1 Agas has rather misplaced the streams. His work round the border-land of his 
map is not very accurate. 



96 AGAS'S PLAN AND IIUTTEN'S SURVEY 



[iv 



(king of the Romans) into an Abbat, and fifteen Monks of the Cistertian 
Order (v. p. 72, PL). I do not think it worth my while here to 
take notice of and inlarge upon the Arms of the Earls of Cornwall, 
(now to be seen at the Entrance into Rewly- House) the Images 
of some of the Apostles (as St. Andrew, St. Thomas Sfc.) in a Closet 
on the South side of the House, the arms painted in a Window going 
up Stairs, the Coyns of King Henry the VHIth, and others, sometimes 
dug up here.' 

viii. St. Thomas' to St. Mary Magdalen. 

The Church of St. Thomas (v. p. 63, PL), once having another 
dedication to St. Nicholas, the patron of sailors, has now but few 
points of interest. The Norman style of the chancel, and the arch 
from the porch, mark a building erected in Stephen's time. Three 
of the original Norman windows remain, two of them having been 
revealed in the restoration of 1848. The double dedication of the 
church is noteworthy. It is attributed to the 'fact that the chancel 
was dedicated to St. Nicholas, and that the nave had St. Thomas 
of Canterbury for its patron. Mr. Chamberlain, its celebrated vicar, 
in his small tractate upon the church, writes thus: 'In 1521, 
Henry VIII, who, six years before, in the well-known conference at 
Baynard's Castle, had declared his intention of humbling the clergy, 
caused this church to be reconsecrated under the earlier invocation 
of St. Nicholas, St. Thomas being considered the great patron of the 
clerical order. Popular opinion and long established custom, however, 
were too strong even for this imperious tyrant, and the alias 
St. Thomas the Martyr has ever since prevailed/ 

This church stands on one of the lowest sites in Oxford, and has 
been very much subject to floods. This accounts for the floor of the 
building having been so much raised that a piscina, which would 
ordinarily be about thirty inches from the floor, is now only eight 
or nine. There is an interesting priest's door south of the chancel, 
an insertion of the Transitional period, with some uncommon iron- 
work upon it. There is also an exterior dedication cross upon the 
south-east buttress, the only example perhaps in Oxford. North of 
the churchyard gateway, there stood till quite lately a quaint seven- 
teenth-century house, and on the south side still stands an old 
endowed school. 

Gloucester Hall (v. p. 69, PL), now Worcester College, is ap- 



HQ ST. THOMAS' TO ST. MARY MAGDALEN 



proached from the south by a street now named after the college. 
Its former name, Stockwell Street, is worthy of being recalled for 
two or three reasons. The ' well ' proves to have been that called 
Plato's in Tudor days, and before that Cornwall, Cornwell, and 
Cornish-chough. The first of these names is believed to have been 
given in contradistinction to Aristotle's well, a long half-mile farther 
north, but springing from the same bed of gravel. Cornwall is 
probably from its being on the southern boundary of Cornwall close, 
and Cornish-chough has been invented as a humorous title, since 
Crow-well, near No i Holywell, occupies the opposite angle of the 
City on its north side. Our ' Chough and Crow ' are not exactly 
gone to rest, for both are beautiful and bountiful springs — the 
former almost too much so for the contractor — merely concealed by 
soil added in the process of ages. The prefix ' Stoke ' is equally 
interesting. It is among the most common of names for villages 
throughout more than one-half of England, sometimes by itself, 
sometimes compounded with some other word or words ; and there 
is also a variant, Stock. All these places are near streams ; and 
hence able etymologists assert, and almost prove, that a timbered 
ford, or one whose position was staked out *, was the original 
meaning of the word. At Worcester corner there was, a few years 
ago, plain proof that Stockwell Road crossed a stoke or fordway 
of this kind, and it seems to be that referred to in a charter of 
Thomas of St. Walery of about 1180, from the Osney Register 
(V. p. 375): ''tis his confirmation of Bernard his father by which 
he gave to Oseney, viz. 2 sellions of land to make a road at North 
Oseney near the fosse of the land of the said Canons together with 
the rushy-bed which is between the ford called Wereford and the 
tenement of the Canons/ A ford over the Were (Aldwear), and 
near to Rewley, would certainly be over the stream which feeds the 
Castle mill, and nearly upon the site of Hythe Bridge, perhaps over 
the fosse where it parted from Aldwear to surround the castle. 

The rough land to the east of the well is still known as Broken- 
hays among the older population, and the floors of some of the old 
cottages there are even now most undecided which level to take. 
This may well recall the old word haga, not in the simple sense 
of mound, but of earth-work ; the mounds having been cast up, for 
all we know, to threaten the Empress Maude. Between the Castle 
, and these hays which Agas delineates so boldly, was once the Jews' 
1 Cf. the middle syllable of Bullestakebrigge. 



98 AGAS'S PLAN AND IIUTTEN'S SURVEY [vii 



Mount, or better Justice Mount, placed by Agas within the Castle 
precincts, and embellished with a gallows. Our Chough might have 
gazed upon this ' sign of civilization ' : our Crow have sat upon the 
other at the end of Longwall. The little inlet from Old Were or 
the Castle stream, the first of those to the east of Hythe Bridge, 
clearly shown in Loggan, and just discernible in Agas, is, as we are 
sure from a view-map among Wood's miscellanea, the stream which 
ran from Plato's well. 

Going up Stockwell Street, we have on our right, on the east side, 
Gloucester Green 1 , a green no longer, but once bordered by trees, 
as shown in Loggan, and made attractive ; for the city authorities at 
one time wished this to be a fashionable part of the City, and 
perhaps looked forward to improved rents from their property in 
George Street, then Thames Street. One house, we are told, was 
the sole result of this speculative movement, and that made way for 
the Corn Exchange about four years ago (Oct. 1894). 

We now mount the hill, the Beaumont of early days — sometimes 
Beaumonts, as if there were more than one — and find Gloeester 
Haule on the west. In 1283 there was founded here a Benedictine 
house or mansion in connexion with Gloucester Abbey, hence the 
name. At a chapter of the whole Benedictine Order in England, 
held at Abingdon in 1290, it was agreed that other houses of 
the order should be allowed to share in the Oxford College, and 
to erect, at their own cost, additional buildings for their separate 
use. This explains the diversity of, and the badges upon, the five 
houses still standing on the south side of the quadrangle. Those 
on the north have perished, but in the small quadrangle there still 
remain the walls of others, deprived, alas ! of their badges or ensigns. 
These and the northern range are figured in both our maps, and 
rather flattered by Agas. North of the chapel, and now forming the 
Bursary, there still remains a building as old as the five houses, but I 
not so distinctive in design. On this side were the mansions of j 
Abingdon, Gloucester, Glastonbury, and St. Alban's ; and the shields 
of Ramsey (?) and St. Albans are still left over the gateway ; those 1 
of Tavistock, Burton, Chertsey, Coventry, Evesham, Eynsham,) 
St. Edmondsbury, Abbotsbury, Rochester, Norwich, and others, have) 
vanished. A Dugdale MS. once in the Ashmolean recorded at least! 
fourteen coats, which were known to heraldry. St. Alban's is men-| 

1 Loggan calls this Broken Hays, and gives the name of Gloeester Green to the! 
ground on the east side of Walton Street. 



vii] ST. THOMAS' TO ST. MARY MAGDALEN 



tioned above ; and it was to its munificent Abbot Wheathampstead, 
about 1420, that the College owed its first chapel and library. 
His coadjutor in the latter was the great Duke Humphrey, the 
founder of the library now often called Bodley's. Gloucester College 
came to an end with the dissolution of the Order which maintained 
it, and the buildings were left empty. The chapel very soon fell 
into ruins, and a huge tree grew up within its walls. Loggan, in 
1675, was so deeply affected by the melancholy spectacle which 
the hall presented, that he engraved on his plate the mournful 
line, ' Why hath the Lord dealt thus with this house ? ' At the time 
of its purchase by Sir Thomas White for St. John's College (Wood 
F. 28, p. 390 b), the deed, 1558, 'particularly expresses the Syte and 
Circuit of the College — Two Buyldings or Lodgings upon the sowthe 
and northe part Seaven chambers, every one in length 16 feet in 
breadth 1 2 feet. Two other buildings upon the north part containing 
in length 20 feet in breadth 18 feet. The Hall in length 60 feet in 
breadth 30 feet. — Another Buylding adjoyning to the said Hall in 
length 20 feet in bredth 12 feet — Six small lodgyngs adjoynyng to 
the sowth part of the said hall whereof two beneath and 4 above, 
containing in length 30 feet in bredthe 16 feet — The Soyle of the 
late churche in length 40 feet in breadth 20 feet — The ground within 
the Syte in length 80 feet in bredth 40 feet upon which dyvers other 
Lodgings were erected by John Willyams knight and latelie wasted 
and fallen downe — The Garden and orcherd — Two parcells of mead 
enclosed with water whereof one contains 2 acres the other 3 acres — 
(all) lately part and parcell of the land and possessions of the 
Bp. of Oxford and in our hands by reason of a surrender.' How it 
rose from its ruin by the generosity of Sir Thomas Cookes, and 
became Worcester College, how the marshy garden has been made so 
beautiful, and how successfully Mr. Burgess has converted the simple 
but well-proportioned interior of the second chapel into one of the 
finest examples of decorative art, all this is not to be said here. 

Before leaving this site, we must not forget that the Carmelites 
had an abode hard by (vide pp. 81, 82, PL). They were a second 
Monastic Order introduced by Henry III, who, in a Patent Roll 
of 1256, records how Nicholas de Meules, once the keeper of the 
; Castle, surrendered to the Provincial of the Order 'his house in 
Stockwell Street in the suburbs 1 of Oxford/ Wood says {City, ii. 

1 The Hundred is not often mentioned in deeds respecting this part of Oxford ; 
Beaumont, Rewley, Osney were so well known that ' in the hundred of Northgate ' 

H 2 



ioo AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [vii 



416) that he finds the situation of de Meules' land to be 'on that 
part where the south side of Gloucester College was afterwards 
built.' A Charter of 1282 records that the Abbot and convent of 
Osney granted and quit-claimed to the Prior and brothers of the 
Carmelites that they might in peace hold, build, and for ever possess, 
the ground which Richard called Maydeloc sometime inhabited, 
where their gate is erected, containing sixty feet in length and thirty 
feet in breadth in the parish of St. George in the Castle near the 
Huxe for a yearly rent of 16s. The Friars had evidently acquired 
a good deal of ground, and had made arrangements with the Monks 
of Osney for an Oratory, when a great stroke of luck happened 
to them. The tale of Baston the poet, and Edward the Second's 
vow after his escape at the battle of Bannockburn, will be found 
told best in Fordun's Scotichronicon, and Wood's City, ii. 420. In 
131 7 he granted to the Order his manor house near the North Gate 
of Oxford without the walls, in pure and perpetual alms (Pat. Roll. 
11 Edw. II. m. 3). In 1324 the Friars purchased divers strips of 
land in the suburbs of Oxford from Adam de Brome and others 
(Pat. Roll. 17 Edw. II. p. 2, m. 10). 

The mansion or manor house of Edward the Second's gift was 
his Palace of Beaumont, which should be known to every student of 
history as the birthplace of King Richard the First. After the 
Dissolution, it passed into the hands of Edmund Powell and Isabel! 
his wife. Many of the buildings were taken down ; one large 
hall was converted into the parish poor-house; and as if that was 
not indignity enough, Skelton tells us that it became a pig-sty. 
On the wall of St. John's College, looking towards the Martyrs' 
Memorial, and on the second storey, are some huge blocks of 
stone, not of Chichele's placing, and these, as tradition asserts, came 
from the palace of Cceur-de-lion. Among Thomas Day's expenses 
at St. Frideswyde's, 1546 (V. p. 586), stands, 'Item to a laborer 
Alexander Cooke pulling downe stone at the white fryers for the 
wall 6 days, 2s. 5^.' 1 The palace might have been preserved by 
Oxford in memory of him, if for no other reason, at least for the 
great privileges he granted to us. But, though well out of the 
way of Beaumont Street when it was made, 1825, being at the back 
of the garden of the most westerly of all the houses on the north 

seldom occurs. The last, it should be remembered, lies rather south-west than 
north of the City. 

1 The wall figures much in these accounts, and Wood asks, ' What wall ? ' The 
answer probably is, the wall of Wolsey's chapel : see above, p. 48. 



ii] ST. THOMAS 3 TO ST. MARY MAGDALEN 



101 



side, it did not escape the vandalism of that age. Even now, 
from time to time, a skeleton is exhumed from the western half of 
Beaumont Street, and then we know that that realm of surgeons 
and physicians was once the graveyard of the Whitefriars. The 
Gentleman s Magazine, 1825, i. p. 360, has the same tale: 'About 
twenty skeletons have lately been dug up in Beaumont Street in 
digging for the foundations of a house. A very curious antique key 
and the head of an arrow were discovered. It is conjectured that the 
bodies were those of young persons, most probably of soldiers who 
fell in one of our civil wars. Not the least remains of clothing or 
coffins could be seen.' From this it would appear that all remembrance 
of the Whitefriars' burying-place had passed away. The house may 
have been No. 32 Beaumont Street (Private letter). We learn that clerks' 
houses and many churches were sanctuaries more or less safe for 
a malefactor ; and this curious incident may be added from Leland 
(Coll.ed. 1 715, ii. p. 462) : 'Aboute this time ( 1305-18) John Tanner 
a Villaine, saide, that he was Sun to Edwarde Cair(n)arvon, and 
(being) pursuid, toke the White Freres of Oxford, which being afore 
the Kinges Logging was gyven to them/ 

P. 127. 'From hence wee maie see on our left hand a litle 
Village called Hincksey Lanrentii, from whence Mr. Nicholson 
deduced the Springs of his Conduit, {City, i. 448) which 
now serves both the Universitie and the Cittie. On the right 
hand you may discerne another litle Village, called Binsey, 
and att the furthest end of the Cawsy a third, called Botley, 
which is the utmost limitt of the Universitie's Jurisdiction. 
Returning backward to the High Bridge, wee see on our left 
hand Glocester Hall, and the ruines of the Beamonts alias 
Carmelite Friers, whereof wee spake before.' 

Hincksey and Binsey lie rather out of our way, and Botley too, 
but the road to it, the 'noble causeway with its seven bridges,' as 
Ingram calls it, demands a word or two. From several references 
it seems very likely that a cawsy existed here, for some distance 
from Osney Bridge, in early days, otherwise it is not easy to account 
for the need of Bulstake Bridge. It is not improbable that the 
hamlet of Wyke, a short way up the Binsey Lane, was important 
enough to be connected by a good road with Oxford. Among the 
property of Rewley Abbey, appropriated by Henry VIII and sold to 



xo2 AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [vii 



George Owen, 1541 (Ogle, Roy. Let. p. 153), were included All 
that meadow called Rewley mede lying in three distinct parts to the 
North-west of the Stone Cawsey in length from Oseney bridge near 
the Newe Cawsey leading to the new Bridge over Bullstakewater 
with all the aforesaid new Calcetum (causeway) called the Newe 
Cawsey and all the trenches on each side of the same causeway ? 
which are the metes and bounds of the said meadow called Rewley 
mede on the South-est and the whole of the trench to the North-west 
of the Calcetum sometime the property of Rewley. This causeway 
had been much improved by Claymond, President of Corpus 1517-37, 
and hence the word ' Newe.' Shepreve's life of him, now in MS. 
Wood F. 30, has the lines : 

Quis nescit longo constructos ordine pontes 

In prati medio (Botlia parva) tui : 
Quos prius hie popnlo quam sic reparasset egenti 

Invia terrigradis haec via prorsus erat ? 

ix. St. Mary Magdalen to St. Giles'. 

P. 127. 'Then passing onwards, wee come to the Parish 
Church of Mary Magdalen, which appeareth to be more 
auntient then the Castle, because it is said in the Ledger 
Booke of Osney Abby, that Robert Doily the Elder, and 
Roger Ivie his sworne Brother, gave this Church, cum tribus I 
hidis terrae in Walton &° pratis 6° decimis eidem Ecclesiae \ 
pertinentibus, to the Church of St. George in the Castle and 
to the Cannons Seculer serving God.' 

The fact of Hutten's here turning backward, and not making his 
way by Gloucester Green and Friars' Entry into the street almost 
opposite to St. Mary Magdalen Church, shows how much the district 
last under consideration seemed at that time to be severed from the 
main body of the town. Even two hundred years afterwards Worcester 
College still stood isolated, almost like a country farm or mansion. 
The Church of St. Mary Magdalen lies near to Bocardo, and on the 
same northern road, so that we may now regard ourselves as taking 
up our first track, that from Grandpont to Bocardo. The church, 
as we now see it, recalls nothing beyond the fourteenth century. 
The Norman archway to a vestry with a room above (vide Ingram, 
3) has vanished. So have also the two lancet windows which, 
c. 1720, faced north, and a north doorway besides, Early English 



vii] 



ST. MARY MAGDALEN TO ST. GILES' 



in style, sunk deep in the earth, a proof of the length of time during 
which the exterior soil had accumulated. But the two fine west 
windows, in early Flamboyant style, and the whole of the beautiful 
south aisle, the work of the White Friars, make the church a very 
interesting study. There is a very pretty statuette of the Magdalen 
on the west face of the tower, said to have come from Osney, though 
Rewley is a more probable source, as we know that in 1536 the 
churchwardens purchased some of the material of the latter Abbey 
(V. p. 303). The statuette may be of the fourteenth century. The 
tower itself (not the large window) seems, especially from the style 
of work round its base, to be of the date 1500 or thereabouts. 
To the date of the south aisle we have a clue in an indulgence of 
1337 (V. p. 298) : ' Robert Bishop of Sarum his writing, dated at Little 
Remesbury (Ramsbury, Wilts) 1st of August 1337 whereby he releases 
40 days " de injuncta sibi pena " to all his parishioners, and to all " qui 
hanc nostram indulgentiam ratam habuerint et acceptam," who will pray 
for the soul of William Bost whose body layes buried in the new 
chapel of St. Mary the Virgin in the church of the Blessed Mary 
Magdalene and for the soul of Mabille his wife whose body layes 
buried in St. Giles' Church in the new chappie of St. Michael there ; ' 
to which is added, ' This chappie is that, as I take it, on the south 
side of Magdalen parish church and hath been called the founders 
Isle.' There are remains of a crypt under the same aisle which is 
believed to have been built by the Carmelites. St. James' altar here is 
twice mentioned, viz. in 1387 and 1398 (V. pp. 267, 115). The first 
notice is from the New College documents, in a copy of a Will made 
by * Robert Wathington (perhaps Watlington) wherein he would 
have his body to be buried in St. Mary Magdalen Church before the 
alter of St. James, he leaves to the image of our Lady there half 
pound of wax, to the image of Mary Magdalen half pound also, 
to every begging Order 2s. 6d.' The second is also a Will, with 
the same injunctions as to the body of William Chyselamton, 'he 
leaves 6 marks also to make a window in the said church.' The 
Churchwardens' accounts mention (V. p. 301) Sir John's Chamber. 
' Item for covering the porch of Sir John's chamber i*jd. : for making 
the loft in Sir John's chamber over his bed yd.' Sir John was no 
doubt the Chantry priest. A priest of St. Katharine occurs in 1509, 
thus (ibid.) : ' Paid to St. Katherines preist for the whole year 40s. 
Her image in the chappie. That payment and no more was even 
to the last.' As the first chapel of Balliol was dedicated to this 



io 4 AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY M 



saint, it is supposed that the Balliol aisle, then the north aisle, was 
dedicated to St. Katharine. Her altar is mentioned 1532 (V. p. 303) : 
' For mending the Masse book of St. Katherine auter 2od.' A figure 
of St. Thomas occurs in 1538 (ibid.) : ' A hoke to hold up St. Thomas 
2d.' A list of presents given in the year 15 16 by Mr. Caxton, most 
probably the husband of Philippa Caxton whose brass is still remain- 
ing, is of some interest (V. p. 301): 'Mem. these parcells following 
is the gift of Mr. Caxton. First a scarlet goune firred with greye 
and Coffes of the same which were the Queens ; a Cappe of black 
velvet with a frontlett; 2 yards of red braunchet velvet; a harness, 
gyrdle, pendant & bokyll gylt; a diaper towell 7 yards long and 
3 quarters; two cossyns (cushions) with red harts; & a Corporax 
case of gold with 2 Corporaxe in it.' The church acquired a rood- 
loft as late as 1540 (V. p. 303) : 'Paid for taking downe of a Rode at 
the black Fryars with Mary and John and the carriage of them 
from the said fryars to the Church 20^.' All these treasures were 
soon gone: 1551 (V. p. 304) '8 tabernacles were sold out of the 
church which were for the most part on the altars ' and ' 3 aultar 
stones/ and f the old organs sold for 20s' Two years later and all 
was reversed (ibid.) : ' 1 Q. Marie they set up the altars againe.' 
One bit of church furniture is still left there, their treasure chest, 
mentioned thus in 1532 (V. p. 303): 'Paid for <a lock) and key 
to the chest that the Juells ly in 7^.' The priest of the Lady chapel 
had a bed chamber, 1509 (V. p. 301) : ' Received of the chambre over 
the vestre in which the Chauntry preist used to lay/ 

From prolonged law-suits about this church it may well be thought 
that, as Wood says {City, ii. 76), it was built by permission from 
the Priory of St. Frideswyde, but of this there is no proof. Had 
they held any right over it, the fact would certainly have been 
noted in some of their first charters. The charter of Roger, Bishop 
of Sarum (Wi. 13), 11 39, makes no reference to it, yet Wood's version 
(V. p. 404) runs, ' I give back to the church of S. Frideswyde the fair 
belonging to the same church and the church of St. Mary Magdalene 
which King Henry granted to the same church (after) the deraignment 
of Wimond who was the prior of the said church : so it is verbatim.' 
But the charter of restoration of Henry the First (Wi. 9) mentions 
nothing further than the fair, and in the summary of the deed, at its end, 
there is again no mention of the church. Perhaps there were two 
versions of Roger's charter, and Wood copied from an incorrect one. 
It is recited in Pope Innocent's Confirmation Charter, 11 40 (Wi. 15). 



vii] ST. MARY MAGDALEN TO ST. GILES 1 105 



In the Osney Chronicle, under the years 1147, 1.151, 1175, 1200, we 
have the history of the adjudication of the church to St. George's 
in the Castle, an account of the law-suit being moved to Rome, 
the determination of the church to Osney, and the surrender of 
the suit by St. Frideswyde's. The tower of the church is said 
(V. p. 303) to have been built about 1530. Such a date would do well 
for the lower part, but not for the arches which support it. It may 
refer only to some necessary outside repairs. This entry follows 
another of the same type in 1522 (V. p. 302), which mentions the 
new-building or rebuilding of the church. There were and are parts 
remaining of much older date than that. A similar statement is 
made regarding the chancel of St. Peter's in the East; both must 
be taken cum grano salis. Isolated as the church now stands, 
with its two decorated aisles north and south, we must remember 
that this was not always so. The work of clearing away the houses 
round it was only completed in 1820. Agas shows us that on the 
south more than a quarter of the space of the present churchyard 
was occupied by houses, and as much as three-quarters of the space 
on the north. This is confirmed by Loggan, who also shows that 
further encroachments had taken place. These houses having been 
cleared away so lately, several drawings and prints of them remain. 
Two more structures are visible at the north end. One is shown in 
Agas as a house with a court behind it, in Loggan as an enlarged 
Poor-house. Next comes a small timber erection, probably the Pillory 
of Northgate Hundred, with a small roof to cover the neck-piece 
and to protect the occupant from sun and rain. By Loggan's time 
a parish pound had become requisite, for the Beaumonts and 
Gloucester Green would in his time afford a large space for trespass 
by cattle. 

The remainder of the street almost up to St. Giles' Church is 
a great blank in Agas ; he has neither of the ditches which Loggan 
has shown, and whose existence excavations of late years have con- 
firmed. References to such a ditch (near Wadham Coll.), as leading 
to Beaumont, apparently towards Smith Gate, are not uncommon. 
The sewage of St. Mary Magdalen, running along the street, led to 
some law-suits with St. Giles'. The course of the sewer is not clear, 
but a branch seems to have run eastward, for in 1559 (V. p. 639) 
New College leased to Wm. Stock the President and the Scholars 
of St. John's College for a term of sixty years, one acre of 
ground in the furlong called Bemond having the way leading from 



io6 AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [vii 



Smythgate towards Woodstock on the east (i.e. by Keble Coll. 
front), the College of St. John Baptist on the west, and the channel 
or watercourse running out of Magdalen parish on the south. 
Between the two ditches shown in Loggan and the houses on both 
hands were the fore-courts or lawns of the various houses. There 
are still persons living who, when boys, were punished for trespassing 
on these, or for leaping the posts which parted one from the other. 
The posts themselves vanished about 1893. In Jeffrey's Map, 1766, 
thirteen of these fore-courts are marked off on the west, eleven on 
the east, and one of the latter is quite reserved ground. In our 
days the ninety-two elms have perished, and plane trees have 
been planted to take their place; but we have widened a street 
over-wide already, macadamised the whole, and are doing our best 
to kill by thirst every tree we have planted. St. John's College 
purchased the freehold of its fore-court in 1576, and has thus left 
us a reminder of what was once the depth of these fore-courts. About 
this purchase Wood gives us a memorandum (V. p. 640) from the college 
documents : ' Sir Christopher Brome Kt. sold to St. John's College 
all their plat or peice of ground lying before St. John's College Gate, 
containing in length from North to S. 200 and 8 feet, in breadth 
from E. to W. 44 feet &c. 5 April 1576/ 

Hutten brought us to this church along the line of George Lane, or 
Thames Street, not shown in Agas, and perhaps not existing in his 
time, though the name of Irishman's Street may possibly refer to it. 
The following extracts may also be concerned with it. The view of 
frankpledge of the north-east and north-west ward presents, in the 
fourteenth century (Tw. 23, p. 444), that a way in Northgate is 
choked with dung through lack of cleansing, and the chamberlains 
of the City are bound to clear it. A charter, c. 1200, in the Osney 
register (V. p. 375), refers to the lane from the great street towards 
the King's Hall (i.e. Beaumont Palace) outside Northgate. In the 
next charter William the plasterer and his wife gave to Osney all 
their land lying between the way to the King's Salle (salam) 
and the land late of Ernald son of Matilda, outside Northgate; 
or, as in another charter, from the aforesaid gate to the Hall of 
the King. 

For the consideration of the sites of old tenements in St. Giles' 
we take first the west side, where more than half-way between 
Bocardo and Friars' Entry was once Battayl Hall. This is 
described in a conveyance dated 14 June 1303, as a messuage 



vii] Sr. MARY MAGDALEN TO ST. GILES' 



and tenement outside North Gate in the parish of St. Mary 
Magdalen between the tenement of Thomas Bost on one side and 
the tenement of Thomas de Dodeford on the other; and in another 
instrument, Aug. 1320, conveying it to Exeter College, as a messuage 
called Battail hall situated outside North Gate, facing the church 
of the Blessed Mary Magdalen as above. In 1368 (V. p. 318) we 
have : 6s. Sd. for rent of Battlehall in St. Giles' street ; to which 
Wood adds 'falsely without doubt.' The error is but trivial, and 
Mr. Boase in his Register of Exeter College makes no remark upon 
it. The Hall was not bought to be part of the site of the college, 
but merely as a means of benefiting it. Next, before reaching 
Friars' Entry and Oxenford Hall (the name has shifted, apparently, 
a little to the south), there was in 1347 (V. p. 261) a messuage of 
John Fitzperys, given to Andrew de Halesdon, in Magdalen parish 
between the tenement of John de Suterton on the north and 
a tenement of the Carmelites on the south, which he had of the gift 
of Richard Dodeford. This appears by a charter among the New 
College muniments, and Wood adds a note ' A tenement or little 
parcell of land on the south side of Oxenford Inne owned by ' Thomas 
Snareston of Great Lynton, Cambs. Over and on each side of 
Friars' Entry was the Bell Inn, Oxenford Hall or Brampton's 
Place, of which we have among the New College documents (V. p. 256) 
this, which Wood calls 'the first writing of those that belong to 
Oxenford Yn : ' a Charter whereby Wimarch the wife of William 
Parmentarius grants to Geoffry of Hoftilli the land which was of Geoffry 
Cupparius' in the parish of St. Mary Magdalen near the land which 
the same Geoffry bought of Belsent the wife of Geoffry Fitz Alwin. 
The next from the same source, 1336 (ibid.): Nicholas de Brampton 
quit-claims to William de Brampton and Johanna his wife for a 
messuage in the parish of St. Mary Magdalen between the tenement of 
the said William called Brampton's Court on the north and the tene- 
ment of John son of William Bost on the south. But in the time of 
Henry VIII (V. p. 257), says Wood, was 'a tenement lying on the 
South part of the Bell (belonging to New College) belonging to 
the Whitefryers, through which they had their entry ; ' and again 
in 1521 (ibid.): 'Oxford Inn or the Bell was augmented on the 
south part with a tenement which New College bought of Henry 
Busby alias Fykett/ in the position as above described. ' These 
tenements,' he adds, 'are still standing (1666) and made one, and 
the building differs.' As to the Entry itself or the roadway, when 



io8 AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [vii 



the property of the Friars was at its fullest extent, there was not 
much space between their grounds and the street. The Entry opens 
into the street in a line with the north wall of the church. The 
name Great Gate is applied to this opening in the Churchwardens' 
accounts (V. p. 300), but the date is not given. In 1551 (V. p. 304), 
in the same accounts, we have: 'Paid for setting the grale in the 
fryars entry 6d.,' probably meaning an iron gate or fence l . 

Spicer's Hall is next north, but it is perhaps an earlier name 
of the last mentioned tenements or of part of them, i. e. of the private 
house of Wetewang, who was an Apothecary, otherwise a Spicer. In 
1334 (Tw. 23, p. 263) we have an incident about a Spicer's house, 
interesting in itself but perhaps not connected with this Hall. 
Suit between Osney and Richard the Spicer: The latter complains 
that the Abbot and others unjustly took his pledges (namia), viz. two 
leaves of his gate and one pan from a place called Spiceres tene- 
ment in the suburbs of Oxon, and carried them to a house of 
Richard le Bruyn and there kept them to his loss and injury. 

We next come to George Inn or Piper's Inn, of which the parish 
only is given ; the position is not known. Next Gose Court; and here 
we meet with information about the place last named: 1399 (Tw. 23, 
p. 427), Hugh Bishop confirms to Nicholas Bishop his brother 
all his messuage &c. in the hundred outside North Gate in the parish 
of St. Mary Magdalen. Then follows this note : Be it known that 
the said messuage is near the new inn called Georgesyn alias 
Pypersyn, of the abbot of Osney's on the north. Peyntor's Hall, 
if on the left side of the road, would be one door south of Alfred Street, 
as a law-suit arose to determine in what parish it lay. There was 
also perhaps here a Gamage Hall. It is but once mentioned, and 
then as being in Magdalen Parish ; therefore it was no farther north. 

Before we start at Balliol corner along the eastern side of the 
road, two things must be noticed. The first is that the Templars 
at Cowley had a house on what is now the northern part of the 
churchyard. We find (V. p. 260) among the New College documents: 
Brother Robert of Samford, agent (minister) of the Knights 
Templars in England, grants to Master Ralph de Swaclive the 
house belonging to the Knights Templars in the parish of St. Mary 
Magdalen near the Church of St. Mary Magdalen towards the north 2 . 

1 It is not unlikely that some of the notes about Thames Street may have been 
intended for this lane. 

2 One of the witnesses to this is Adam Claviger, of London, i.e. key-bearer, or 
Withekey alias Wythige ; quod nota, as Aubrey says. 



vii] ST. MARY MAGDALEN TO ST. GILES 3 



109 



Secondly, we note that south of the churchyard, at the point where 
certain parish boundaries meet, marked since 1890 by a Pillar box, 
was the historical cross at North Gate, put up, as Wood says 
(Ci/y, i. 341), in 1339, when the University successfully asserted its 
rights in North Gate Hundred. In maps later than Loggan, houses 
are shown occupying all the south face of this churchyard, and 
turning up on the west half-way to the church. Of a Magdalen 
Hall north-east of the church, and facing Balliol Ball Court, 
there is not sufficient evidence. Twyne and Wood seem to have 
wished to prove the halls to have been as many and as ancient 
as possible. 

Where Canditch and St. Giles' Street meet there was a tenement 
thus referred to in Savage's Balliofergas (p. 61): 'The corner Tene- 
ment, over-against Candy ch, was given (1377 to Balliol), but when or 
how the Tenement adjoyning to it, which is now the South-part of 
the Katherine-Wheel, came to be the Colledges, I doe not find ; the 
said Tenement seemed to have belonged to St. Fridisweds, as being 
formerly described to be on the west-part of Old Ba//io/-ha.\l . . . 
That which now is the Katherine-wheel, was given us 3 Ric. 2. (1379) 
as being described in the Deed to be directly opposite to the East- 
end of Magdalen Church/ The reference to Old Balliol Hall will 
follow when we speak of Broad Street. All that we now need to say 
is that the boundary quoted is correctly given. 

North of the corner tenement was one of St. John's Hospital called 
in 1328 Brecham's Court, occurring in a rental (V. p. 234) thus : From 
the small solar in Brechams court 3^. 2d. From the great solar in the 
same court 6s. Sd. From the little sellar 3s. lod. and from the great 
sellar js. To which Wood puts in the margin : ' Note that Balliol Coll. 
Balcourt belongs to the Mag. Coll. and a house by Balls the bedle.' 
In 1437 tne same rentals (ibid. p. 175 B) mention the tenement of 
the Hospital between the new inn called the Cardinal's hat on 
the north and the tenement of William Balkes on the south. In 
1487 (V. p. 175 A): 'in a writing whereby the College of Magdalen 
(successors to St. John's Hospital) doth demise for divers yeeres 
a plot of ground to Balliol Coll. it appears that the inn now 
(1661) called the Katherine Wheel was called Cardinall's hat 
3 Hen. 7/ To which is added in a later hand: 'this is a 
mistake, for the Cardinall's Hatt was north of Balliol College Ball 
Court, ut ex chartis eiusdem Coll. mihi liquet.' Wood's note {City, 
i. 360, note (c)) is ' New Inn or Cardinall's Hat, are Caesar's 



ACAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [vii 



lodgings and ihc houses to the new back gate of Trinity College. 
They belong to Christ Church and rented out for 40 years to Balliol 
College and Balliol College hath let some of it to Trinity College 
for their new buildings and a back way/ The Lodgings above 
noted were opposite to the Martyrs' Memorial, occupying the site 
of the south end of the new block of buildings, belonging to Balliol. 
To suppose the Katharine Wheel and the Cardinal's Hat to be 1 
on different sites makes the whole locality difficult. Now in Agas's 
representation of these, the first little quadrangular building from 
the south will probably represent Brecham's Court ; farther north, 
flush with the Poorhouse, is, at the rear, that range of seventeenth- 
century buildings left to us west of the new Hall of Balliol College ; 
and to the north of it is the line of the back way now leading by the 
Laboratory to Trinity. At the edge of the street will be noticed an 
archway (which is distinct in Whittlesey, indistinct in Agas) leading 
from Balliol directly to the north entrance of St. Mary Magdalen 
Church. A three-storied Georgian structure east of the Martyrs' 
Memorial, which we see in late drawings, had taken the place of the 
earlier Caesar's lodgings, mentioned above ; and a similar structure to 
the south went by the name of Pompey {vide City, i. 634, n. 8). 

P. 84. 'This Colledge, (St. Bernard's) alsoe, was of the 
same Order of Cistertians . . (P. 85) ' This Foundation was 
erected by Henry Chichely,, Archbishopp of Canterbury, in 
the daies of King Henery the Sixt (before hee began his 
other Colledge of All-Soules) Anno Domini. 1438. This 
building, likewise, haveing three sides, after the common I 
Suppression, fully standing, was by King Henery the Eight | 
given unto Ch. Ch. and of the Deane and Cannons there 
Sir Thomas White, Knight and Alderman of London, did, j 
in the Raigne of Queene Mary, purchase it, and the Grove, 
upon such occasion, as wee shall relate, when wee come to 
speake of St. John Baptist Colledge.' 

Going northwards from the backway into Trinity we pass to 
ground which has become famous under three names — Brend-court, 
St. Bernard's College, and the College of St. John Baptist. The first 
title (Brend-court) was borne in common with that of Whitewhanger's 
or Fowkes' tenement. It was part of the Basset rents, an old Oxford 
Lordship. In 1 3 4 6 (Tw. 23^.424): received from Joanna Whitewanger 



vii] ST. MARY MAGDALEN TO ST. GILES' 



in 



for a tenement called Brendecourt nd. In 1349 there is a fuller 
description of the property (ibid. p. 148) : Will of Robert de Wetewang 
apothecarie ; I give to John my son all my entry with three shops 
and belongings, in the suburb in the Hundred without North Gate 
which is called le Brent Court ; also he speaks of his tenement (same 
parish, &c.) called Le Spicer Hall. The boundaries are not given. 
From a loose paper in the City muniment room (Tw. 23, p. 196), of 
uncertain date, some University College property is described as near 
Brend Court on the north. In the rentals of that college, 1401 
(Tw. 23, p. 364), occurs this : From a garden lying on the south part 
of Terry's tenement and a garden formerly called Brandcourt and 
Fowke 3,9. In 1447 (V. p. 298), from the archives of the Church 
of St. Mary Magdalen : Brendcourt now Whitemonkes College ; — 
i.e. College of St. Bernard. Though Wood made this extract, he 
does not refer to it when mentioning this Court. In a roll of 
taxation of the year 1488 (Tw. 23, p. 466) stands this: From the 
Abbot of Stratford atte Bowe for the tenth of divers gardens within 
the church (ecclesiam) of St. Bernard, worth 10s. per annum; the 
full tenth 1 2^., the half 6d. The buildings of St. Bernard's College, 
erected in 1437, are usually supposed to have been the front, with 
tower gateway, and the still remaining statue of St. Bernard, and 
one wing at the north. Before Chichele had proceeded far with 
the building, he handed it over under the name of St. Bernard's to 
the Cistercian monks. (Burrows, Worthies of All Souls, p. 8.) 

Henry VIII, in 1546, granted (Tw. 23, p. 9) to his foundation at 
Christ Church, the site, enclosure, and buildings, lately Barnard's 
College; the parcels include the half-garden of Durham College. 
In 1555 (V. p. 637) Philip and Mary by Letters Patent gave license 
to Sir Thomas White Knt. to erect and found a college in a certain 
capital messuage with its appurtenances lately called Barnard Coll. 
in St. Marie Magdalen parish, to be called the College of St. John 
Baptist. The deed of sale by Christ Church to the founder, 1555 
(V. p. 580). granted their capital messuage and house called Bernardall 
and their part of the grove adjoining. A rent was reserved, and it 
was stipulated that the president or governour should be always 
a member of Christ Church, also that the Dean and Chapter should 
be visitors of the College, for the observing and interpretation of the 
statutes; but this, says Wood, was not put in. On May 29, 1555 
(V. p. 638), the founder increased the area by giving them half his 
part of a grove adjoining the said messuage. Possession was taken 



H2 AGAS'S PLAN AND IIUTTEN'S SURVEY M 



(ibid.) 1 8 June following, by Robert Morwent President of C. C. C. 
as also of half the grove with a garden. In 1558 (V. p. 639), 
George Owen M.D. by his charter dated 23 July granted to 
Sir Thomas Whyte three acres of arable land without North Gate, 
parcel of the manor of Walton (this was added to the site of the 
College), which manor the said George Owen lately had by the letters 
patent of King Henry VIII, dated 22 Nov. 1541. In 1559 the founder 
purchased Gloucester Hall through Mr. Wm. Doddington. Peter 
Mundy, in his Travels, 1637 or 1639, writes: 'St. John's Colledge 
Chappell yet a building allready guirt partly paved with checkred 
work of black and white marble as most off the rest are and to be 
paheld in imitation off Magdaline chappell.' This 'building' was 
probably nothing more than Palladianizing the windows. In Agas's 
map at the rear of St. John's will be noticed 'gardaines and an 
orcharde.' This ground is now occupied by the second quadrangle, 
built by Laud 163 1-6. The architect is said to have been Inigo 
Jones. It is an attempt to combine Tudor and Renaissance. 
Amhurst, in his Terrae Filius, No. 34, May 11, 1721 (3rd ed. 1754, 
p. 181), says: 'On the top of this turret (to the gateway tower) 
there is a little hole through the battlements, which, it is said, one 
of Oliver's cannon-shot made, when he besieged Oxford/ A shot 
is still shown in the library, said to have been found in the tower. 
Such cannon-balls have been found in the tennis-ground east of 
the Holywell schools, but this one must have strayed very much if 
the tale is true. Under the north-east angle of St. Bernard's 
College still remains a beautiful cellar, or perhaps store-room, as 
it has a fire-place. To the north of the same angle a group of 
buildings was erected in 16 13 by the cook of the college, one 
Thomas Clark (V. p. 652). In 1676 a Common Room was built at 
the north-east of the chapel, with a remarkable ceiling and beautiful 
panelling. In 1881 a group of new buildings was erected on the site 
of the old Greek Hall. 

As to Greek Hall, Mr. Boase knows nothing of its belonging to 
Exeter College, as is stated by Wood (City, i. 357, n. 9). Twyne's 
account, referred to by Wood as 1 our antiquary's Apology/ is almost 
wholly imaginary. 

St. Margaret's Hall is supposed to be the next to the north. It is 
mentioned only once or twice, and the Godstow possessions were so 
dispersed over St. Giles* parish, that it is hopeless, with such few 
and indecisive references, many of them to landmarks that have 



vii] ST. MARY MAGDALEN TO ST. GILES' 113 

perished, to fix a locality for it. It is even possible that some 
confusion has arisen with a St. Margaret's Hall on the site of Balliol. 

The case is quite different with Black Hall. The name appears 
to have adhered to it from early days, and no one who knows Oxford 
would hesitate to affirm that the present handsome seventeenth-century 
house, which once had St. Giles' pond opposite to it, is on the site of 
the old Black Hall. There is also little probability that there were 
more than one of the name about here. In one of the City charters 
relating to St. Giles' parish, anno 1350 (Tw. 23, p. 403), Alice wife of 
Richard Cary of Oxon assigned to John de Langrish and Alexander 
Spereman, Chaplain, the custody and guardianship of Nicholas the 
son and heir of John Blundell, with all his lands and tenements in 
Oxford and its suburbs ; and they again on surrendering their 
guardianship to the community of Oxford excepted inter alia a 
certain place in the suburbs of Oxon in the parish of St. Giles called 
La Blakehall. In the will of John de Bereford, dated 1361 (Great 
Book of Wills, fol. 57 ; Tw. 23, p. 528), provision is made for the 
endowment of the chantry of St. Mary in All Saints' Church. Among 
the property given is his tenement in the parish of St. Giles called 
the Blakehall. Edward Wodward's will, 1496 (Tw. 23, p. 151), shows 
that he was the owner of the 'farme of Blakhall.' In the same 
will he provides for 13J. 4^. to be divided (with other moneys) 
among the sixty-three persons upon St. Scholastica's day. In 1480 
(ibid. p. 541), Joan Gylle daughter and heir of William Dagvyle of 
Oxford, Gentleman, devises to the Abbot and Convent of Ruley 
her 'ferme place' in St. Giles parish called Blackehall. When 
Rewley was destroyed, the property belonging to it came into the 
hands of Richard Oweyn of Godestowe Esquire, who leased ' the 
farme of Blakehall and other parcells of lande unto one Nicholas 
Daye of the parish of St. Giles,' 1588 (Tw. 23, p. 259) : to this Twyne 
adds, ' The hall stood on the East side of the street about the middle 
part of it.' 

Continuing this eastern fork of the road till we are opposite the 
middle of the southern half of St. Giles' Churchyard, we should until 
about forty years ago have observed a lane, once known as Wimmil Lane, 
leading into the present Black Hall Lane. A district or fancy-garden 
place called Rome is connected with this lane, but several maps give us 
i as a more direct road towards it a continuation of the road due east from 
1 St. Giles' Church. In 1498 (Tw. 23, p. 452) the Jury presented that 
William Brase has ' cast downe a crosse at Rome without Northgate.' 

1 



ii4 AGAS'S PLAN AND IIUTTEN'S SURVEY [vii 

As the name of this place Rome occurs in the writings of St. John's 
College, we may suppose the place was on their land. On July 24, 
1609 (V. p. 651) 'the Bishop of Winton his letter to the College 
for the taking downe of the house and windmill at Rome in S. Gyles' 
feilds ... as an annoyance and unprofitable to the college/ Miles 
Winsore {Bah p. 65) counted this as the ninth hill of Oxford: 
' 9. Mons Romae seu Romanus labyrinthus.' Wood adds, ' This. 
I suppose is at the further end of Wadham Walk, where sometimes 
stood a windmill,' &c. 

St. Giles' Church in the time of Hutten presented an appearance 
much like what we now see, except that the south-east chapel has 
been recently altered. The fabric is interesting, and there must 
have been something about it which seemed to Rous (ob. 1491) to fit 
in with his improbable fiction of a University in the north suburbs of 
Oxford. He perhaps remarked the capitals of some of the shafts 
at the west end, and thought that, as they so much resembled some at 
St. Frideswyde's, they must be of great antiquity. The arcading 
along the north and south walls might suggest to him Roman con- 
struction ; and the unusual arrangement of the north aisle roofs, 
coupled with the fineness of the entire structure, would induce him 
to fasten on this as the religious centre of an earlier University, when 
he had conceived the idea that such had once existed. We know 
that, in 1138, Edwine Godgoose gave the church to Godstow, and we 
may put down the Norman and transitional work there as being then in 
existence. Near the chancel arch seem to be traces of another triple 
arch, earlier than Godgoose's time, in fact early Norman ; and in the 
north wall of the nave some windows, Norman or even pre-Norman, 
placed very high up in early fashion, lead to the inference that the 
present arcade was built under an older wall; in other words, that 
the wall was pulled through, and the columns and arches inserted, at 
some time when the church required extension to the north. That 
Early English masons could do such work is evident, to take a local 
example, from Cuddesdon Church. Of late years an exterior view 
of the northern chapels has been rendered possible, and they are a 
remarkable part of the church. The chapel at the north-east of the 
north aisle is, internally, a fine example of advanced Early English, 
and of great beauty. The tower, with four unique windows, with no 
stone staircase, belongs to the late transition style, so that most of 
the building was erected between 950 and 1180. The windows 
of the south-east chapel were altered and improved about forty years 



vii] 



ST. GILES' TO GODSTOW 



ii5 



ago, and it was probably then that the horoscope or sundial ' facing 
south and elaborated by the ornate skill of Standish the mathematician ' 
disappeared from above the porch. 

The church, as above remarked, is intimately connected with the 
strange myth, that in the ninth century the Greek and Latin schools 
migrated from Cricklade and Lechlade, respectively, to Beaumont, and 
clustered round this church. According to the Liber Monasterii de 
Hyda (Rolls Series, p. 41), the church of St. Giles outside North- 
gate was the chief church of all the clergy : but now the schools 
are within the walls, and the church of St. Mary within the said 
city is the principal church of the clergy. The passage loses credit 
at once by its being added that the transfer took place in 1354, 
as this shows what confused notions the author had of the history 
of Oxford. From this tale being generally believed in, there was 
a marked anxiety to find traces of antiquity in the parish. This 
developed itself strongly in Miles Windsore, who, as quoted by 
Wood (Bal. p. 17), says that buildings still remaining in the North 
Hundred teach us that the University flourished in the north part, 
such as the University Church of St. Giles, of old called by a different 
name ; the royal palace of Beaumont, the Gloucester College of Clare ; 
the royal hall, in English, Rewlye, of the King of Almain, the king's 
brother ; Black Hall, almost touching St. Giles' Church, Ludlow Hall, 
Crippen Hall, Brackley Hall, Carver Hall, Tackley's Inn, Margaret 
Hall, Sparo Hall, Perilous Hall, Minard's Court or Hall, Well Hall, 
with two others upon Canditch, so also Balliol Hall near to St. Mary 
Magdalen Church. He then runs on to tell of a wonderful head dug 
up in St. Giles' Street, which he thinks was Offa's, another of a 
Saxon king at Exeter, and two at Brasenose. To this some one, 
probably Wood in his earlier days, adds the remark, ' These halls are 
far from St. Mary's, near to St. Giles.' There is much more to the 
same effect in the writings of antiquaries of the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries ; but it is not necessary for us to carry the 
enquiry further. Mr. Parker's Early History of Oxford (vol. iii. of this 
series) has swept away our belief in the old fables. 

x. St. Giles' to Godstow. 

To return: — on the north boundary of the churchyard of St. Giles 
there stands a house, dated 1659, and often called the Old Parsonage. 
It seems to be near the site of a Bethlehem hospital, of which 
there are one or two notices; for instance, this of 1334, from the 



n6 AGAS'S PLAN AND IIUTTEN'S SURVEY [- 



University College muniments (V. p. 14): Thomas le Vent, chaplain, 1 
gives to John de Gonewardby four messuages, the second of which | 
is in S. Giles between the lane which leads to Beaumont on the 
south and the tenement which the vicar of St. Giles inhabits on I 
the north. The ' spitel ' is mentioned in the will (City collection) j 
of John Ocle, 1390 : who leaves to each poor person within the Spitel j 
near the church of St. Giles 2d. Not a hundred yards north of the 
church is left a stone house, almost the only one of its kind, lately \ 
acquired by the Trustees of the Sarah Acland Home. Sixty years ago j 
this stood alone in the field, and was one of three houses which gave | 
to; the neighbourhood the name of The Three Farms ; Walton Farm, j; 
near the Iron-works, being the second, and Blackhall Farm, well away 1 I 
to the north-east, being possibly the third. Within the garden of the j I 
first commenced or commences the roadway to a large gravel pit, ji J 
which has its fellow in Bevington Road and the Nunnery grounds. 
These two were rented by the parish for the extraction of gravel for j j 
repairing the roads, and in the northern one facing St. John's Road 1 
was once discovered a hoard of Roman coins. The late Professor j I 
Westwood had a firm belief that the house at the north-eastern corner I I 
of Bevington Road had been the site of a large Roman dwelling.; I: 
He had a distinct remembrance of square Roman tiles being found! I 
there in layers within the walls. This site was part of the gravel-pit j i 
just mentioned. j j 

No sooner are the Bevington and St. John's Roads passed than) I 
gravel-pits give way to a long trench on the west side of the Woodstock j 
Road, now still open in one or two places, but once continuous half-j 1 
way to Summertown. Its existence has, indirectly, had a beneficial I J 
effect upon the appearance of that part of Oxford. The damp Jl 
ditch, filled at first by road-scrapings and later on by earth excavated) i 
from cellars and foundations, has borne trees growing luxuriantly;; j 
and hence this part of Oxford, like the Banbury Road, presents j f 
features sadly wanting elsewhere. 

Had a pedestrian thirty years ago turned down St. John's Roadj J' 
he would soon have found himself on the edge of a cliff of gravel 1 
with a row of white poplars skirting a lane, crooked and rough, butj 1 
one deserving to be recorded, as that by which Charles I and his| | 
cavaliers, with six thousand troops, escaped from Oxford on June 3,} i 
1644. It was, perhaps, the most skilful manoeuvre effected in the I 
war, and led to the check to the enemy at Cropredy Bridge. Wherej f 
you pass from this lane into the present Walton Well Road, the well! 



-] 



ST. GILES' TO GODSTOW 



117 



lay on the right hand \ Following nearly the line of Kingston Road, 
the lane led as far as the west end of St. Margaret's Church, and thence 
onwards to Aristotle's Well ; but before that was reached, a tall bank 
(a short and dwarfed length of which still exists in the churchyard) 
would have been noticed. Some Roman vases and coins were found 
when this was taken down. This and the site in Bevington Road seem 
then to be traces of the Roman settlement nearest to Oxford in this 
direction. Excepting a few burials (perhaps pagan) and the insignifi- 
cant ruins mentioned, there has not yet been found any evidence in 
favour of the north part of St. Giles' parish having at a period before 
1354 been thickly, or even fairly well, inhabited. 

Many of us have seen an Aristotle's Well 2 opposite to the Anchor 
Inn on the old way to Port Meadow, but whether it was that which 
figures in the Apologia, in the Assertio, in the history of the Greek and 
Trojan parties at Oxford, or in the numerous presentments against the 
' Lady ' of Godstow, it is not easy to say. A modern tramway, for 
carting gravel from the neighbourhood of Chalfont Road as ballast for 
a railway (1849-52), disturbed the spot for a time; the roadmakers 
have covered it up within the last ten years. Whether ' Brumann 
the rich' ever existed, whether Burghmanneswell (Tw. 23, p. 383) does 
not give a more reasonable origin for its name, supported as it is by 
another spelling Bromannes (ibid. p. 374), or whether Browysmannys- 
well (p. 613) and Bromemanneswell (p. 561) are not more important 
and elegant, it matters not. An escheator's roll of 1277 and 1278 
(Tw. 23, p. 3) takes all the interest out of the affair: Brimannus le 
Riche formerly held a messuage at Brimmaneswell and a carucate of 
plough land and twenty four acres of meadow with other belongings, 
of the King in capite ; by what service is not known : the same 
Brimannus gave the above to the Abbey of Osney in pure and per- 
petual alms, but by what warrant the said Abbey holds it we know 
not; and it is worth ioo>r. per annum. The narrow road now over 
the canal leading to 'our meadow of Portmanneheyte ' has Burgess 
Mead to its north, and this road was perhaps the most frequent subject 
of the indictments which the City every now and then laid against the 
Abbess of Godstow. They presented that she narrowed, she encroached 
on, she neglected, she dug into, she blocked, she ' surrownderyd ' it, 

1 ' They have put a fireplace over it now to keep it warm,' was the mild joke 
of a stonemason at the time the road was made. The chimney-stack is the central 
one of the group of three on the north side of Walton Well Road, belonging to 
the house now No. 1 4. 

2 These two wells are shown in Mr. Alden's map in the Oxford Directory. 



n8 AGAS'S PLAN AND IIUTTEN'S SURVEY [- 



and at last they resolved to build a house at its hither end to overlook 
the way and keep the reeve's man ready upon the spot. All this pother 
about a miserable road nine feet only in width in Elizabeth's days ! 
These old records tell us a great deal about the road, but they never 
say that the road also conducted people over a ford to Binsey, and 
so on to Seckanworth, as it is known to have done. 

P. 130. 'Hence, according to our former use, wee must 
passe to the furthest limitt of our Universitie Northward, 
which extendeth it selfe beyond Wolvercott, even unto the 
Crosse standing upon Godstow Bridge, att the very doore of 
that Monasterie.' 

Hutten here makes a sudden move to Godstow, and though the 
spot is somewhat remote, this north-west angle of our township 
shall be visited. To the north of Port Meadow a bridge of three 
arches is visible, called Toll Bridge; the nearer margin of the road 
going over it has been for more than seven, perhaps even for eight, 
centuries a city boundary. Tracing that boundary westward, we should, 
as late as 1894, have seen it make a double turn in order to enclose 
a piece of garden close by, that seems just in the way of the road 
coming from the north direct for the meadow. That piece of garden 
was once called Crosspond, and the apple-tree in its centre was 
planted there perhaps ninety years ago. There were then dug out 
some squared stones of a good size ; these stones were the steps of 
the cross erected to Rosamund. It was not, then, as Hutten says of 
it, at 4 the very doore ' of the monastery, and a Moderator in Divinity 
ought not to have said so. It was really at the gate of Toll Bridge, 
by which people went into Godstow proper (Ogle, Roy. Let. p. 201). 

Beyond the three-arched bridge, the Fair-close lies on the south, 
for the Nunnery once owned a fair, then a valuable right. Then 
the road crosses the old stream of the Thames by a bridge of two 
arches, both dating back to the thirteenth century, but the western 
arch has had a round head let into it ; passing these, we come to 
the point of an island thickly clad with trees. A third arch is 
probably hidden in the bank here, as old drawings seem to show. 
Beyond the third bridge, which is very modern, with elliptical arches, 
lies the churchyard ; for coffins have been dug up from the bottom of 
the river close under this bridge. A walled enclosure lies to the left, and 
a sycamore shades part of the luxuriant grass. It casts its shadow 
over the first burial place of Fair Rosamund, where once she lay 



vii] 



ST. GILES' TO GODSTOW 



119 



beneath a hearse resplendent with silken banners and waxen tapers. 
The tale with all its exaggeration, all its truth and untruth, has been 
told so often, that it will be well to confine oneself to the more prosaic 
duty of chronicling the architectural features of the place. Going 
onwards and westward, through a former Guesten Hall, we come to 
a rather straight artificial brook. A little thirteenth-century archway, 
somewhat patched, spans this, and is the limit of the Sanctuary field. 
We turn back, and the brook just crossed now presents a walled side, 
the stones fast retreating behind the vegetation. The brook can be 
traced southward and then westward, till, near a small cowshed, it 
passes into the walled precinct of the Nunnery. A few years ago 
its exit might still have been seen close to the one doorway which 
opens towards the river. Along most of the walling, at regular 
distances, the wall has been patched about breast-high ; the patches 
were loop-holes in the Civil War. Standing at the little bridge over 
the Sanctuary brook, we look upon a fine fifteenth-century entrance 
gateway near a large and modern gravel pit. To the right or south 
of that, half buried in the wall, is a portion of a diagonal buttress 
perhaps a century older. It was an angle of the range of convent 
buildings which ran down that side, looking out to the garden on 
the west, and then returned from the shed eastward to the chapel. 
The northern edge of the enclosure is not straight. From the place 
where the indentation is, reaching almost to the new cutting to the 
river, a fair conventual church once extended, with a tower at the 
west end, which stood till the hurricane of New Year's Day, 1764, 
blew down its three remaining sides. Those who do not despise 
such studies should descend to the basement of the City Buildings and 
see what lovely work once adorned that tower. The chapel at the 
south-east is fifteenth-century, and its east window is still later, perhaps 
altered with moneys given by Bishop Fox, the founder of Corpus. 
The western part of the chapel was of two stories, the upper one for 
the nuns, the lower for the chaplains, attendants, and menservants. 
Beneath the chapel floor is still the embalmed corpse of Rosamund, 
and by her in the north-east corner lies a second nun. 

P. 132. 'And now returne wee back againe to the North 
gate, from whence, on the left hand, wee first descry Balioll, 
and Trinitie Colledge, sometymes called Durham Colledge, 
as wee said before. On the right hand wee see the Cittie Wall, 
and some Tokens of that Ditch, wherein the Bishopps were 



AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY N 



burned. The Ditch is called Candich, because the reflex of 
the Water against the Wall seemes to resemble a certaine 
kind of shincing whitenes to the eies of the Beholders.' 

We now follow Hutten back to the city and to Bocardo Gate. 
Of this one feature should be mentioned, the portcullis, a heavy 
framework which would require a strong machine room to raise and 
lower it with rapidity. This is noticed (Tw. 23, p. 238) in a city 
book of Chamberlains' Expenses, anno 1325: Repairing walls 
of the Maiden's Chamber at North Gate, for a bolt to the door 
of the same 12^. Also for a beam of timber bought for the 
portecolis at North Gate 6d. (porte-a-coulisses or gate running in 
grooves). The city tumbrel and the kuckynstol come in the same 
account and in many a one besides. In 1545 (ibid. p. 248) we have' 
mention of the tower and pound of Northgate. Next we will consider, 
and that only in passing, the prison held in the bastion next west of 
Bocardo. We read of it as the prison made afresh for public women 
in 1 3 10, so it was an early institution. In 1317 workmen were 
appointed to the cleansing of the prison for public women. In 1291 
comes ' repairing the walls of the maidens' chamber/ but next year 
and in 1358, they repair and build a 'house for whores.' We read 
these and many such, but never that the ' chamber for light maidens ' 
was empty. The foundations of this prison were dug up in 1870, 
and its site included in the United Methodist Free Church in 
New Inn Hall Street {City, i. 255, note 4, by Mr. Clark). 

xi. Broad Street and the Posse. 

The east half of the town is now to be surveyed, each street taken 
in order, beginning with Broad Street, which starts north of Bocardo, 
and runs eastward. The earlier name of this Horsemanger or Horse- 
monger Street does not refer to any manger or mangers provided 
for horses ; it is very unlikely that either the city or any of the 
carriers who frequented the neighbourhood, should in those early 
days when England was ' the hell of horses/ have put up a trough 
for their refreshment. Horsemonger gives a better meaning, for the 
waggoners and carriers lived near the gate, and a trade in horses would 
be likely to grow up in so suitable a road. The name Canditch, so 
far as at present known, does not occur before 137 1 ; the other name 
is found at least a century earlier. 

The site of Balliol has been referred to already, and remarks were 
made upon its western boundary. So far as present information goes. 



vii] 



BROAD STREET AND THE FOSSE 



121 



St. Frideswyde's property, Carnage House or Camache, may best 
be put next to the corner, though Wood wished to place it near 
Friars' Entry. Between 1180 and 11 90, Hugo de Plugenet gave to 
St. Frideswyde's in pure and perpetual alms (Wi. 489) one messuage 
outside North Gate, Oxon, out of the tenement which Alfwyn the 
waggoner held, reserving a rent of 2d. A little later, 1200-12 10 
(ibid. 490), Robert Burwald quit claims to St. Frideswyde's all his 
right in the land which was Alan Romanger's. 

The third tenement from the corner seems to be that described in 
1 3 18 (O. 41) as William de LoigenhulFs, situated between the 
tenement of John de Croxford on one side and the tenement of 
John Sparrow on the other; everything is in its favour, even to 
Sparrow Hall being near it. A Register of Congregation, anno 1462 
(Wood, D. 3, p. 115), gives us a Parsarina Hall in this locality, 
probably for Passerina, but its usual title is Old Balliol Hall. In 
1379 (Savage, Balliofergus, p. 7) the University granted Balliol Col- 
lege a lease of it, described as ' scituate between a Tenement of 
Saint Frideswids on the West part, and a certain Garden (of Balliol) 
on the East, and extended it self from the Kings-street or Kings 
High-way of Candych on the South, to the Garden of Tirwhit Master 
of the House on the North. The area whereof (Garden and all 
I suppose to be meant) was 96 Foot in length from North to South, 
and 47 Foot in breadth at the South end, and 41 at the other. The 
name of Sparrow- Hall, which the University calls it by, might be 
given it before our Founder first took it of them. ... In some Writings 
it is said to be bounded by the corner House on the West, which 
must be true of part thereof, the whole (Garden and all) being 96 Foot 
in length, extending a great way farther.' 

The next messuage, the fourth from the corner, goes by the two 
names of St. Margaret Hall and Hammond's Lodgings. Its extent 
seems to have varied from time to time, as parts of it were taken by 
Balliol for College rooms. In 1339 (Hustings Rolls) it is 'La 
Margerethalle situate between the tenement called La Newebaillolhalle 
on the one side and La Oldebaillolhalle on the other.' It is generally 
believed that Old Balliol Hall was again occupied by the College 
scholars after New Balliol Hall became too small for them. John de 
Eu (O) had, as appears from an inquisition of 1284, bought up 
three pieces of property here. 

The fifth messuage is New Balliol Hall or Marey's Hall. 
In 1284 (V. p. 113) Dervorguilla bought three acres of land lying 



AGAS'S PLAN AND IIUTTEN'S SURVEY [vii 



together in Horsemonger Street in St. Mary Magdalen parish, between 
the land sometime of Jeffery le Saucer on the one side and of 
Walter Feteplace on the other. About 1*290 (Wi. 146) the Prior 
of St. Frideswyde's made an exchange with William de Eu of certain 
rents, &c, and quit-claimed to John de Eu all right in 6s. yearly 
rent which he was wont to receive of the same John from 
a messuage called Mareyshalle situated between the land which was 
of Philip de Eu on the east and the land of Geoffrey de Sawcer 
on the west in Horsmangerstrete, &c. 

Of the sixth and eighth plots we have in 1302 (V. p. 114): John, 
son and heir of Walter Feteplace, gives to two clerks (the agents of 
Dervorguilla) two places of land, in the same street and parish as 
above, of which one place lies between land of Balliol College 
on one side and land of John the Slatter of Eynsham on the other ; 
and the other piece lies between the land once of the said John on 
one side and the land of John de Sewy on the other ; and again, 
1 3 10, the same two clerks grant to Balliol College the two places 
of land which they had by the grant of John de Feteplace, lying 
in Horsemongerstreet between the land of John le Slatter on the 
west and the land of the Durham Monks on the east, for the enlarging 
of the abode of the scholars of the same. The endorsement is 'of 
two places outside our gate,' meaning east of it. The royal licence 
issued the same year (V. p. 117) mentions the size of one of these 
places as one hundred and twenty-four feet long and thirty feet broad. 

This has cleared up the space along the Broad Street front, and 
accounted for most of the land in the rear. Perhaps Middleton 
Hall, if we had more particulars about it, would fill up the north-east 
corner of it. The following clearly refers to a plot in the north-west, 
anno c. 1291 (V. p. 114) ; John le Sawser, son and heir of Geoffrey 
le Sawser, gives to Dervorguilla's agents a certain part of his ground 
in St. Mary Magdalen parish, lying on the east of the church, 
between Balliol land on one side, the land of Walter Bost on the other, 
and reaching in length to the land of the Durham monks on the east. 

A short row of young trees is shown by Agas in front of the College, 
i. e. away from the spectator, to the south : Balliol as yet had not 
extended its buildings towards the west. It became a magnificent row 
in later days, and was not removed till 1 77 1. Both in Agas and 
Loggan a curved post-and-rail fence is drawn enclosing the trees in 
a forecourt like that before St. John's. In later drawings the fence is 
a stone wall, and the area is generally rectangular. 



vii] BROAD STREET AND THE FOSSE 



Near the south-west angle of this space an iron cross has been 
placed at a spot in the roadway where a stake was found. The 
arguments for and against its being the site of the martyrdom are 
here inserted without apology, because Hutten, our author, is the first 
to speak of the locality of the burning. There are three places to 
be considered: (i) the brink of the ditch, behind the houses south 
of Broad Street near the Bishops' Bastion ; (2) in the middle of the 
street north of the same Bastion, and (3) in front of the Tower 
gateway of Balliol. The last was the site generally accepted during 
the eighteenth century 1 . 

Arguments for the place being: — 



A. Near the Bastion in the 
ditch. 



B. Where the iron cross 
is placed. 



Before the Tower 
gateway. 



1. Archbp. Parker (contem- 
porary) : ' Cranmer saw this dread- 
ful and terrible spectacle from 
the highest part of his prison and 
prayed for them.' 

2. Agas's Map, thirty-two years 
after, 1588, makes the road open 
to the walls, i. e. no houses so far 
east. 

3. Hutten, who died about 
seventy-six years after the event : 
' Ditch wherezVz the Bishopps were 
burned.' 

4. Wood {Annals, ed. Gutch, 
ii. 126): 'Over against Balliol 
Coll. where now stand a row of 
poor cottages.' (Apparently the 
first five tenements erected in the 
middle of Canditch were built 
1636, vide Turner's Records.} 
Query, on brink of Canditch. 

5. Foxe, before 1684: 'in the 
ditch over against Balliol College ' 
(ed. 1684, iii. 429). 

6. Ingram, before 1830: 'The 
exact spot is usually pointed out 
by a transverse stone in the cross- 
way, opposite the door of the 
master of BallioPs lodgings, be- 
tween it and a bastion of the city 
wall, which still remains nearly 
perfect at the back of the houses 
now inhabited by Miss Hoskins 
and Mr. Dudley.' 

1 For a general review of the 
(N. S.), vol. iii. pp. 233-56. 



1. Archbp. Parker, 
before 1575 (v. A. i.) : 
'The position ? chosen 
as a lesson for poor 
Cranmer.' 

2. Pointer, before 
1749 : 'On the outside 
of the College, over 
against the Master's 
Lodgings, in the Path- 
way between the Col- 
lege and the Street, 
is placed a narrow ob- 
long white stone, edge- 
ways, in Memory of the 
Martyrdom.' 

3. A stake found 
there in 1875 with 
ashes round it. 

[If Cranmer went on 
the leads all three spots 
would be visible to him, 
but the windows to his 
chamber were, as now, 
eastward and west- 
ward.] 



1. Foxe, before 1684: 
' The Master of Balliol 
spoke to Cranmer 
when bound to the 
stake.' N.B. a later 
event. 

2. Peshall (p. 242), 
c. 1 773, 'opposite Baliol 
College'. . . 'the stone 
to which they were 
chained yet remains.' 



3. Brewer, 18 15: 'on 
the paved way directly 
opposite to the chief 
entrance ' and ' a flat 
oblong stone, which 
marked the precise spot 
on which the fatal 
stake was placed was 
not removed till within 
the last few years/ 

4. (c. 1875.) 'Some 
stakes, not so many as 
five, found near the 
Tower Gateway,' &c. 

5. ' Under the kerb- 
stone of the pavement 
immediately opposite 
the College gate there 
is (c. 1870) a large mass 
of wood ashes extending 
over several yards.' 



question, see Proceedings of Oxf. Arch. Soc. 



I2 4 AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY M 



Agas's correctness about Broad Street has been questioned, but in the 
middle of the map, as here, he is generally careful, at least in his 
measurements. As to the early Lodgings at Balliol,they did not reach so 
far as now; if therefore the speaking was to the two bishops, the localities 
B and C must be given up. Peshall's ' chaining ' is very characteristic. 
There seems a step gained by all this, viz. that wherever Bishops 
Ridley and Latimer were burnt, there is some probability that Cranmer 
perished opposite the College gateway. 

It is not likely that the name Canditch is compounded of the 
Latin word Candida and the English 'ditch.' The word camp was 
suggested some years ago by the writer, who noticed that the word 
was once far more extended in meaning than now, and certainly 
camp-ditch is a more likely derivation, and might easily be softened 
into can-ditch. As a street name it reached from the angle of Balliol 
to Smith Gate. The City Court Rolls of 1465 (Tw. 23, p. 387) 
contain the enrolment of a deed whereby Thomas Snareston, son 
and heir of Thomas Snareston, late of Woodstock, granted to Stephen 
Havyll of Oxford, brewer, and Johanna his wife, four cottages with 
gardens adjoining them in the parish of St. Mary Magdalen in the 
suburbs of Oxford, situated upon le Candyche between the King's 
way which leads from Smythgate, Oxford, towards a field commonly 
called Beamont on the east, and a tenement which was lately Henry 
Barwyke's on the west; and the cottages and gardens extend from 
the King's way which leads from the house of the Austin Friars towards 
Durham College on the south, as far as the garden or land which was 
lately John Spycer's, and now John Tregorram's, on the north. An 
inquisition of 1371 (Ogle, Roy. Let. p. 199), made before the escheator 
of Edward III, mentions Canditch as at the top of Broad Street : the 
Warden of Merton Hall has appropriated to himself and his house 
a place of land containing two acres in the suburbs on Kanditch, 
viz. from the gate called Smythyate to the pit called Crowell, which 
place of land is parcel of the farm of the town, in which place there 
used to be a market daily held of all kinds of necessaries, and 
called Jaudewens markett. 

Sundry building operations have, of late years, taken place along 
the line of the ditch, and these have enabled a better idea to be 
formed of its dimensions; and when labourers have been found 
working at one part of it, they have always been ready to give informa- 
tion about other portions which they have explored. The fosse seems 
at first to have been sixteen feet broad at the surface and sixteen feet 



vi, vii] 



BROAD STREET AND THE FOSSE 



125 



deep, but for about the eastern third of George Street, and down 
Broad Street, it appears to have been made by joining a chain of older 
deep ponds. One foundation near the Bishops' Bastion had to be 
carried twenty-two feet deep, partly through pond mud, before the 
gravel was reached ; and this was where the surface ground lies quite 
five feet lower than the road. The outer line of the passage between 
Exeter Chapel and the house to the north of it, was the line of 
the south face of the old city wall, well certified by documents, draw- 
ings and excavations. Northward fiom that point, allowing about 
six feet for the wall, and forty feet for the house, the entire depth 
of Canditch, or of a pond it passed through, was found there to 
be eighteen feet six inches, including three feet of black mud at the 
bottom. Then came the pavement six feet six inches wide, and 
a cutting northwards, twenty-one feet long, across part of the road. 
At about five feet north of the kerb the total depth was nearly ten feet, 
having two feet six inches of earth which had been thrown into the 
pond below that, and eighteen inches of black mud upon that, thus 
reducing the actual depth to about six feet. Further north a huge 
cutting for an old sewer rendered measurement impossible, but for 
several yards beyond there were indications of an ancient roadway. 
The Sheldonian Theatre has a basement floor supported by square 
piers. About twenty years ago these piers began to sink, and the 
floor above became uneven. At a few feet below the floor the piers 
were found to be on very bad foundations. Fresh footings had to 
be made, and further excavation to the depth of several feet was 
necessary. The ground below was pond mud, so charged with water 
that the vibration caused by steyning round any hole made the soil 
round adjoining holes perceptibly vibrate, even when fifteen feet 
distant. 

At the north-east angle of the Old Clarendon Building, a small 
current of water still crosses Cat Street. From sections made across 
Broad Street to the east of the Turl, it appeared that there had once 
been ponds there, varying in width from about a hundred and fifty 
feet near the Turl to a hundred and twenty feet near Exeter College 
and the Ashmolean, and again under the Theatre. A broad coloured 
stripe on the City Surveyor's map indicates a range of City property 
extending along most of the city wall on the north. This has 
been built on the ditch, after first filling it up with bones, rough 
earth, sweepings of churches, and the refuse of the leather merchant. 
North of the wall near New College is a gravel walk more than 



126 AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [i, &c. 



twenty feet wide, marking an old parish boundary. It once lay 
between the Town wall and another smaller wall inside, and was 
ground to which the City, after a struggle of more than a century, 
was unable to prove its claim. It is the old fosse, as distinct from the 
fishponds outside the smaller wall. In Broad Street and on the 
northern margin of Holywell Street, at a depth of three or four feet, 
well-worn stones forming a primitive road are met with, but the width 
of this road barely equals that of the narrowest part of Holywell 
Street. The slope begins near Bath Court, almost under the edge of 
the south pavement. It seems also that rather less than halfway 
along George Street the pools under the wall cease to be traceable, 
and end before the pathway to Bulwarks Lane leaves the street. 
When the corner by Cro-well is reached, where Long Wall Street 
begins, the fosse becomes very indistinct. Under most of the east 
wall there seems to have been a kind of morass. 

At the rear of No. 4 King Street, the ditch was found to be about 
twelve feet wide, and to run some little way from the wall, which was 
there just six feet thick, made of small stones and mortar that had 
perished. Not sixteen years ago, water stood at the south end of the 
Botanic Garden, indicating an earlier connexion between t h fosse 
and the Cherwell. It is to this corner of the City wall that we may 
refer the following writ of Richard II, 1380 (Ogle, Roy. Let. p. 83) : 
Whereas, as we have received information, divers discords and quarrels 
have lately arisen between you (the City) and the Warden and Scholars 
of the house of Mertonhalle, regarding this matter, viz. that when you 
at our bidding for the strengthening of our town, duly caused the 
trenches, walls, towers, gates and enclosure of the same to be repaired 
or cleansed, at your own heavy cost and expense and that of the com- 
munity, certain persons on behalf of the House above mentioned, 
collected in great multitude, and arrayed in warlike fashion, asserting 
that one of our Royal ways near the said ditch 1 , whereby a common 
way for the said warden and scholars and others had from of old 
been wont to exist, had been totally blocked up by the soil and 
gravel taken from the said trenches in the course of such cleansing 
as aforesaid, to the great annoyance of the passers along, cast back 

1 It is worth explaining that, as Milham Bridge was not built till after this date, 
Merton men coming in from the other side of the river went not through Eastgate, 
but turning down Rose Lane (once Trinity and Shaftesbury's Lane), worked round 
into College by what are now called Merton fields. Cattle driven in by this road 
were a great annoyance to that college in later days. 



vi] 



BROAD STREET AND THE FOSSE 



127 



the earth and gravel into the same trenches, and forcibly, with carts 
and otherwise, filled in the same, which are known to have existed 
there from time beyond memory, and moreover, so armed and arrayed, 
went by day and night through the streets and places of the town, 
lying in wait for our people, threatening many of our lieges there 
with many threats as to their life and limbs, and making for our 
disinherison and prejudice, to the no small loss and injury of the 
community, and, as they assert, of the passers by, and against our 
peace : we, therefore, anxious as well for the tranquillity and quietness 
of those studying there in our university, as for the preservation 
everywhere as we are bound of our own peace, order you on pain of 
forfeiture of all things that you can forfeit, that, abstaining for the 
future from all gathering together of men for this purpose, and from 
all evil doing, and from all rancour, you do not presume to do 
secretly or openly anything which may tend to the disturbing of peace 
or to the commotion or terror of our people or of the warden and 
scholars there. And know ye that we intend to send there shortly 
certain persons with authority from us to survey the said trench and 
nuisance and finally to quiet the aforesaid dissensions. 

The signs of a fosse towards Corpus are not so numerous, but they 
abound farther on towards the Meadow Buildings of Christ Church. 
No measurements of the fosse along the south side of the City have 
been seen. The inviting subject of Canditch has carried us far away, 
so we will return to Broad Street. 

P. 132. ' This Suburb is long, and reacheth from Bocardo 
unto Holywell Parish. There is noething in it greatly worthy 
to be remembred for Antiquitie, but onely on the right hand 
that old round Building of Stone att Smithgate, which is said 
sometimes to have beene a Synagogue of the Jewes, inhabiting 
in or about the Citty. This is the common received opinion ; 
but I have understood since, that it was a private Oratory, 
built by a certaine Ladie, and dedicated by the name of 
St. Margarett's Chappell. And unto this place the Ditch 
is altogeather damn'd upp with Rubbish and small Cottages 
builded thereon, and on the left hand the Augustine Friers, 
where now Wadham Colledge standeth, haveing yet left behind 
them a memorie of the Augustine Disputations, begunn first 
there, and, upon occasion of a Plague, removed to St. Marie's as 



128 AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [vi, vii 



wee said before. Nothing else is to be seene in this Strecte, 
but onely the opposite Walles, enclosing Wadham Colledge 
Grove on the one side, and the Groves of Trinitie Colledge 
and St. John's on the other.' 

Walter de Mertons College, founded at Oxford in 1274, marks the 
permanent establishment of the University here. The Monastic Orders 
soon recognized it as a place of education to which their studious 
members should be sent. Gloucester established its house in 1283, 
and Durham, even more distant, in 1289. 

Durham College lay east of Balliol. In 1290 (Tw. 23, p. 48): 
The King gave license to Thomas Semer of Oxford to give three 
and a half acres of land in the suburb of Oxon and to Thomas 
Leewys (Lesewys) to give one acre and to Walter le Bost to give 
one acre in the same suburb to the prior and convent of Durham to 
hold to them and their successors for ever. And in the same year 
(ibid.) a similar license was given by the same King to Laurence le 
Juvene to assign to the same Durham convent a toft with its 
appurtenances in the same suburb of Oxford, to John le Sclater the 
like, to Henry of Diteneshale the like, to John Feteplace to give two 
tofts, to Richard of Dadyngton the like, and to Gilbert the son of 
Amicia to give five acres of land in the same suburb. Between 1295 
and 1298 (Warton, Life of Pope, p. 275), Godstow Abbey (Mabilla 
Wafre, Abbess) granted to the Prior and convent of Durham, all their 
plough land which they had from a certain cross ditch in Beaumont, 
between land of Philip O (Eu) and land of Roger Semer, whereof 
three acres lie near land of Walter Bost on the north, and one acre 
lies on the south of the same Walter Bost, between the land of Thomas 
Lesewys and the land of Roger Semer, and one head of this land 
abuts on the walls (of the College?) towards the west and the other 
head towards the Royal Way of Beaumont on the east (Parks 
Road), together with certain rents : also to the same prior and 
convent all their vacant plots near Perilous Hall in Horsemonger 
Street, at a rent of 10s. Some of these acres must have afterwards 
formed part of the site of St. Bernard's College. There seems to 
be no change in the site until the days of Henry VIII, when in 
1546 (Tw. 23, p. 10), among the endowments of Christ Church 
is included half the garden of the College of Durham in St. Mary 
Magdalen parish. The rest of the site Edward VI, or his agents, 
made over to the Church of Durham, and shortly afterwards the 
same agents, George Owen and William Martyn, became possessors 



vi] 



BROAD STREET AND THE FOSSE 



129 



of it themselves. They, in 1554-5, Feb. 20, conveyed to Thomas 
Pope of Tyttenhanger in the county of Hertford, Knight, a messuage 
called Dyrham Coll. with its appurtenances, including half the grove, 
lately in the tenure of Walter Wright doctor of the civil law. The 
grant recites that King Edward VI granted the said messuage or 
college to them 4 Feb. 7th of his reign (1552-3), they paying 26s. 2d. 
per annum to the King, against which rent Geo. Owen covenanted to 
indemnify the College. 

Opposite to Trinity Gate is the end of Turl Street, once really 
possessing a ' twirl ' or turnstile, a cross on a post set in a narrow 
doorway. In a City deed of August 18, 16 14, the gate is called 
? The Turning Gate or the Whole in the wall.' The older name for 
the street, as far as present documents inform us, is ' The Street by 
All Saints/ or ' from All Saints to St. Mildred.' No trace has been 
found of the imaginary Silver Street ; it may go to keep company 
with St. Andrew's and Dantesbourne Churches. 

On the Twirl-gate side of Broad Street, and the width of three 
houses to the east of Turl Street, there was at a period a little 
later than Agas a timber-framed house, built for Alderman Wright, 
a renowned politician. This disappeared about 1850, and a portion 
of it reappeared in the Turl, near Exeter College Chapel, altered in 
its dimensions, but the old timber preserved. 

The Ashmolean and Old Clarendon Buildings have a history 
tolerably well known. 

We cross the street, and near the iron gate of Trinity we observe 
some ancient cottages, one of which may be on the site of Boner 
Hall, Baner or Banner Hall. The Oriel documents cited below 
give some information about its position. In 1299^ (O. p. 56), it 
, is called Messuage of John the Peynter, in the parish of St. Mary 
Magdalen, and is leased for life to Philip of Wormenhale at 40.?. 
per annum. By 1303 it had changed landlords, and (ibid.) Nicholas 
the son of Peter de Middleton once a Burgess of Oxford grants to 
Philip of Wormenhall, Oxon, a certain messuage called Banerhall, 
situated in the parish of St. Mary Magdalen in Horsmonger- 
strete, between a tenement of the hospital of St. John and another 
.tenement belonging to the church of St. Mary Magdalen. In 1329 
Thomas de Wormenhale son of Philip gives it to Adam de Brom 
and Richard de Overton, clerks, by the name of Banerhall. Adam 
,de Brom, by his will, proved in the City Court, 1332, devised to 
his clerk, Richard de Overton, his tenement in the suburbs of Oxon 



AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [vi 



in the parish of St. Mary Magdalen, called le Banerhalle which he 
lately acquired of Philip of Wormenhale. At a later date, Richard 
of Overton transferred it to Nicholas de Misterton, chaplain, and in 
1345 Misterton to William de Daventre, fellow of Oriel. All these 
intermediate transfers took place while the authorities were waiting for 
the royal license in mortmain. 

Boclyn or Great Bodyn Hall, and probably Little Bodyn Hall 
also, follow next. In 1292 m (V. p. 171) John de Weston and 
Ysolda his wife confirmed to Nicholas the Master and the Brethren 
of S. John's Hospital the gift of Robert Bodyn of a messuage in 
Horsmangerstrete between a tenement of Thomas de Hengessey 
and a tenement of the Master and Brethren. But another charter, 
probably of the same year, says (ibid.) that Robert the son of Robert 
Bodyn gave two messuages between a tenement of the Master and 
Brethren and a tenement of Petronilla daughter of Geoffrey de 
Hengesey called Perylusehall ; a case of relatives, as it seems, 
residing three doors away from each other. In 1294 (V. p. 232) 
the order, perhaps in position, perhaps in which the rents were 
paid, is — (1) Bodyn Hall near Perilous Hall; (2) another hall from 
the same holding (query Little Bodyn) ; (3) Brakele Hall ; and (4) 
Deep Hall; Perilous, which would be between (3) and (4), and 
paid rent to Oriel, is here omitted. In 1338 (V. p. 216) it is stated 
that Brackele Hall is situated between Great Boydon Hall on one 
side and the Hall of Oriall on the other, without Smithgate. 

Perilous Hall is historically and distinctly connected with the 
site of the present Kettle Hall. The first mention of it is about 
1295^2 (V. p. 627), which has been already noted under Durham 
College. The charter there cited mentions Bost's land, probably 
a part of what we met with under Balliol College site. 

Of Deep Hall there exists (V. p. 172, no. 6, &c.) among the records 
of St. John's Hospital a series of charters, c. 1230 and onwards, which 
all seem to belong to this Hall, and, from the names of the adjacent 
owners, east and west, can be safely ascribed to it. According to 
these, its owners were, in succession, Elias Helleknave, c. 1230, 
Richard de Ypwell, Richard Plummer, Robert le Rat and Petronilla, 
sometime the wife of Nicholas de Wythull, who in 1263 m gave to 
the Hospital the messuage there called Depehall, situated in Horse- 
mongerstrete as before, viz. between the land which was Walter 
of Beaumont's and the land of Angelus le Bolter (i.e. maker of bolts 
for the cross-bow, a trade akin to that of the Fletcher and Fitcher). 



vi] 



BROAD STREET AND THE FOSSE 



Robert le Rath, still having rights over the property of some kind, 
quit-claimed them to the Master of the Hospital, one Nicholas. 

Bryd Hall, which is twice mentioned, 1317, 1321, but merely 
as a boundary to other property, is in this parish, and described as 
outside Smith Gate. Well Hall in 1463 was a garden, but no 
boundary of it is given. The angle was occupied, as now, by an inn 
with the title, so useless to us, of New. A little consideration of the 
parish boundary determines its position. In 1463 it appears (Twyne 
23, p. 104) that John Walton Abbot and the Convent of Oseney 
leased to Richard Lekys certain tenements, among them a garden 
of Robert Marcham's called Wellehalle in Horsemangerstrete near 
Le Smythgate. In the Oseney Rental of about 1400 we have Wood's 
note (V. p. 469) : ' In St. Mary Magdalen parish the last tenement 
there, next to Well Hall, is called " Tenement vocatum Newyn," with 
other tenements joined to the same.' The north arm of Canditeh 
was not thickly built upon ; there seem to be but six houses, one of 
which has been mentioned before as occurring in 1465 (supra, p. 124). 
A note of Twyne' s (23, p. 543) refers to another, George Haville by 
name, lessee in 151 1 : 'he willeth that they who shall be infeoffed in 
my Brevvehouse in the sayd parish and also in my house uppon Can- 
ditch before the Austen fryers shall pay yearly the summe of four 
markes for evermore toward the fmdinge of one preist to pray for 
my soule at the Altar of our Lady of pite in the church (of St. Mary 
Magdalen).' 

With regard to the position of the Austin Friary (for history, 
see PL 79, 80), there is some doubt. A gateway still exists opposite to 
St. Stephen's House, which has taken the place of a fifteenth-century 
one, shown in several prints. It gives access to an enclosed space 
inside, south of Wadham College quadrangle. From near the large 
tree on a lawn there two skeletons have been dug up, and these may 
be signs of the former cemetery. If so, the present Dining Hall of 
Wadham College would roughly correspond with the site of the 
Chapel of the Austin Friars, and the Friary buildings occupy much 
of the space whereon the College was built. Not a particle of the 
former structure is visible on the maps, and it is easy to trace the 
cause in the base usages to which the plot was put when in City 
hands. Judging from Agas's map one would doubt the possibility of 
I the old archway having survived. Loggan's faithfulness in depicting 
the young College of Wadham, which was begun in 1610 and 
finished in 16 13, deserves notice; he even indicates the cresting over 

k 2 



AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [vi 



the gateway mentioned above. The Friary is of earlier origin than 
either Gloucester Hall or Durham College, as it was founded in 1268, 
under the patronage of Henry III. His Patent (City, ii. 447) names 
two properties, which are, virtually, as in most cases, donations of the 
owners, but transferred to the King's name for greater security of 
tenure : — (1) That land which we had of the gift of Roger the 
clerk of Cumenore, in the parish of Holy Cross ; and (2) that land 
in the same suburb and parish which we had of the gift of Master 
Martin de Bruton; the rents chargeable on both being in all i\d. 
In 1269 (ibid.), we have the Charter of Bogo de Clare, Rector of the 
church of St. Peter in the East, whereby at the instance and command 
of his patron, the Lord Henry King of England, he grants to the 
prior and Brethren of the Order of St. Augustine dwelling at Oxford 
a part of his land in his parish of St. Cross between the King's road 
reaching towards Beaumund and the land of Mr. Walter Byllingdon, 
to construct therein a chapel in which they can celebrate divine rites. 
But John de Coleshull, the Charter goes on to say, was really the 
prime mover, as he gave to God, to Bogo and his successors and also 
to his Church of St. Cross, 4s. of yearly rent arising from a messuage 
which Lumbard of Grekelade a Jew held in the Jewry, in St. Aldate's 
parish. Lands seemingly lying to the north were given later on; 
and the position could not have been very desirable, for it had a large 
ditch in front, reaching up as far as Keble College, which was not 
filled up till early in the seventeenth century, when the road was raised 
ten feet. Trinity College garden still shows signs of this depression. 
The great fair here was probably held amid the ruins of the Friary. 
Twyne (23, p. 141) sums up the changes of owners of the spot 
thus: 'The Augustynes in Oxon sold 1552 by Henry Duke of 
SurTolke and Thomas Duport to Henry Bayly, who sold it afterward 
to William Fryer and he to the City of Oxon/ In 1578 (Tw. 23, 
p. 597) we learn from the Mayor's accounts that certain men were 
appointed to agree with Mr Frere touching the bargain and sale of 
all the interest which the towne had in the Augustine fryers, unto 
Mr Fryer who had it of the towne for £20 upon the surrender 
of John Webbe. Here in the margin Wood writes 'false,' and Smith 
underlines the word and puts: 'This is Mr Wood's remark, but 
notwithstanding this remark and what Mr Wood relates in his 
account of Wadham Coll. the towne certainly had home in the 
A. Fryars.' Smith was quite correct, for in 1586 (ibid. p. 606), 'the 
towne agreed to purchase the Austyn friers and the fayre and 



vi] 



BROAD STREET AND THE FOSSE 



T 33 



Mrs Catharynes house worth £15 a year of Mr Frere for £430 and 
if the Citty dislike the purchase within three yeres, then W m Frere or 
his heyres to pay bake to the citty £400 and have the Fryars again.' 
Also next year (ibid.) : ' That the Citty goe forward with Mr Frere for 
the purchase of the grove and John Fletcher's house and all the rest 
of the ground of the Fryers for £180.' The sale by the City to 
Dorothea Wadham widow late wife of Nicholas Wadham of Mere- 
field in the County of Somerset Knt. in 161 1 (Wood F. 28, p. 265) 
mentions ' the priorie togeather with the fayre called the Augustyne 
Fayre within the sayde Scyte yearely to be holden.' Earlier than this 
there was a decree of the Council (Tw. 23, p. 592), in 157 1, to allow 
'Mr Edges to have a lease of 21 yeares of the tenement and shoppes 
in the Austyn Fryers for 40J. yerely and to do all manner of repara- 
tions about the Fayer place: the Citty to have the use of the 
pounds there to drive Portmede/ 

The octagonal chapel of Our Lady next claims our attention, and 
about it there are two different theories. One is that it is upon 
a bastion of the city wall, the other that it was a chapel on a short 
bridge or causeway which led from Smithgate to Beaumont Street. 
In support of the former the three maps now published, by Agas, 
Hollar and Loggan, have been brought forward. These really are but 
one as regards this point. The knowledge of the position of the wall 
about here had been lost before Wood's time : an order was issued by 
the city to search for it in order to settle one point relating to Smith- 
gate in the great Merton lawsuit. Hollar's map is virtually a copy 
of Agas's, and Loggan worked from one of them as a guide, with 
Wood to assist him. Foundations have been found in Cat Street 
running north and south, which were part of the city wall, and which 
showed that it turned northward here to reach as far north as this 
Chapel. In favour of the Chapel-bridge idea, or of its being detached 
from the walls at Smith Gate, there have been brought forward several 
arguments, some not very powerful, but one tolerably convincing, 
viz. that the plinth of the chapel is continuous round the east and 
south-east sides, and shows no indication of a wide wall having been 
joined to it. Those who advance this theory point to other facts: 
(1) Throughout the course of the north wall at least, the high ground 
marks the line of the walls, and the low ground the part outside the 
walls. (2) The ridge is direct from a bastion in the passage called 
St. Helen's towards the south-east of the Theatre, near which a 
bastion is known to have been situated. (3) The edge of this ridge 



AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [vi 



is very clearly marked, just as St. Helen's passage is entered from 
New College Lane, and does not lead to the octagon chapel. (4) 
The foundations seen in Cat Street (north and south) follow the line 
of houses known once to have been there, and are not wide enough to 
belong to the city wall. (5) A re-entering angle was almost unknown 
in early plans of fortification (one near St. Michael's churchyard is 
modern). (6) No document has been found which mentions such ] 
a corner as the first theory demands. Since this matter was ventilated, 
the amount of pond-sediment has proved much greater than was 
formerly believed, and is now supposed to extend some feet on the 
south of the chapel. 

As to this chapel being a synagogue of the Jews, an octagonal 
building of this character would, in Hutten's days, have been some- 
thing unusual, and therefore would demand an exceptional origin to 
be attributed to it. Though the panel over the south entrance gives 
plainly an angel, a scroll, a lily-pot, and a kneeling Mary, some 
of our antiquaries have given it the name of St. Margaret's Chapel, 
a name by which it is never called in documents. As early as the 
fourteenth century a paper of the Mayor's court (Tw. 23, p. 166) 
speaks of a quit rent out of Our Lady's chapel at the Smithe- 
gate 4d., seemingly for an encroachment. The parish boundary of j 
St. Peter's-in-the-East runs north of it, so that it is not in Holywell 
parish. The next reference, 1366, from the Small Red-book of the 
City (Tw. 23, p. 172) shows that it is the Vicar of St. Peter's who pays 
this rent of \d. for the occupation of the turrellum of Smythegate with 
the image of St. Mary the Virgin. The Latin word turrellum is not 
so strictly confined to a small tower of defence or bastion as greatly 
to affect the question above mooted. An instance occurs in which 
it is applied to the round turrets at the east end of St. Peter's; and 
a small chapel of this kind, a species of dwarf tower, would be some- 
thing like what the word would suggest in medieval days. These 
two references have an interest apart from that which arises from fj 
the word used, because they show that the chapel was built earlier 
than from the character of the masonry would be supposed, some { 
of the earliest portions (e. g. the angular engaged shafts and string- 
course bosses) having been almost obliterated on the sides towards 
the street, but remaining on the side towards the east and north-east. ] 
After the Reformation the churchwardens of St. Peter's brought away I 
a reredos or tabella from this octagonal chapel to their own church, j 
This chapel should not be confounded with Our Lady's House, of 



vi] 



HOLYWELL 



135 



which Wood (D. 3, p. 269) says, It is 'the house adjoyned to 
St. Mary's entre in Cat Street as I have seen ' : this is further con- 
firmed from the account on a following page, £ A tenement set on the 
E side in the middle of Cat Street with a garden annext called our 
Lady Haul 32^.' This is among the rents of St. Mary's Church and 
dated 1553 (ibid. p. 276). In 1583 (Tw. 23, p. 600) there were 'cer- 
taine appointed to treate with Martyn Colledge about the right and title 
to a piece of ground or ditch without Smythgate and an order taken 
that your chamberlaines should search the foundation of the towne 
wall by Toldervey's house that so it may be knowen to the Warden 
and fellowes of Merton College that they have no right to any house 
or ground within the same wall. It seems to be in Toldervey's 
backside dwellinge in the East-side of Smithgate.' 

xii. Holywell. 

The few halls and places of note to the north of Holywell Street 
will always prove a puzzling matter, as they are so seldom quoted. 
Sand Hall, Personer Hall, and Almshouse Place are therefore omitted 
here. Fowke Hall is worth mentioning as the suburban house of 
Richard Cary, the lessee of the Domus Conversorum, 1352 ; and 
6d. rent from it, and the three acres of land belonging thereto, were 
assigned by John his son to St. Mary's Chantry in St. Martin's Church 
(Tw. 23, p. 549). At the extreme east we arrive at one of the many 
possessions of St. John's Hospital. In 1271 (V. p. 227) Henry the son 
of Roger le Waterman quit-claims to the hospital of St. John all right 
and claim in the entire land which Roger the Waterman his father 
once held of the Plospital, viz. the messuage situated between the way 
which leads to the mill of Holywell on one side and the hall called 
Gryfiyn on the other. The ground on which the small tower 
there is built came to the Hospital by exchange. The Magdalen 
College muniments contain a writing of 1431, between Henry of 
Abingdon, Warden of Merton, and Richard Tewe, Master of the 
Hospital, concerning the exchange of a piece of land by Crowell 
included in the hospital garden, for a piece between Horsmyl lane 
on the west and Nightingale Hall on the east: to which is added 
by Wood — ' probably their land which the tower in the wall now 
occupies' (V. p. 227). 

This is the end of Holywell Street on its northern side. On the 
south side of the street, as the City fish-ponds dried up when shut 



136 AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [v 



off from their supply from the west, and as population increased, 
Merton College leased divers plots for building purposes ; and 
hence the varied specimens of seventeenth-century houses on that 
side. It will be noticed that none of them are shown in Agas, 1578, 
whereas in Loggan, 1675, there are only three plots without houses 
in the entire range. Many of these houses were built in 161 5 as 
a provision for the habitation of those who had to leave their dwellings 
in Catstreet when the eastern parts of Bodley's New Schools were 
built (Hester's Papers). Some of these are described as being near 
the water-course which Hutten speaks of later on. 

At the east end of the street along which we have travelled a road 
runs north and south, Long Wall and St. Cross Road, and at the 
intersection there were, at different periods, several objects to attract 
observation. (1) The pillory. About 1270 (V. p. 226), Johanna de 
Burgh gives a rent from a house in the east of Holywell, between the 
way which goes to Holywell mill and the garden of St. John which 
was once William's of the pillory, situated in the said street near 
the stone cross near to Crowell in the parish of St. Cross. (2) The 
little tower, a square bastion like those already referred to which were 
on each side of East Gate in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. 
(3) The gallows, put up by Merton, the lords of the manor, that people 
might be warned to behave themselves when they entered a new 
lordship. This gallows figures in the history of the University, for 
we read that when its members were ordered to take off their hats 
at St. Mary's service they upheld their privileges, and vowed they 
would 

'Be off to All Hallows, 
Or the Church by the gallows,' 

which would be either St. Peter's or St. Cross. The same edifying 
structure received the name of Gownsman's Gallows about a hun- 
dred and twenty years ago, as we learn from Archdeacon Hare's 
Story of my life (i. 448), where Dr. Routh, the President of Magdalen, 
exclaims: 'What, Sir, do you tell me, Sir, that you never heard of 
Gownsman's Gallows? Why, I tell you, Sir, that I have seen two 
undergraduates hanged on Gownsman Gallows in Holywell — hanged, 
Sir, for highway robbery.' (4) Their place must have been taken, 
before 1800, by a milder instrument of the law's vengeance, a pair of 
stocks, as is shown by a drawing of Nattes' in 1804, and by one 
of about 1820 in Fletcher's copy of Gutch. The gallows shows very 
plainly in Agas, and it will be noticed that he puts Holywell as the 



v] 



HOLYWELL 



137 



name for Crowell. While the present neighbourhood is occupying our 
attention, it is as well to note the omission of the alure to the west wall 
of Magdalen Grove — ' gardaines ' as our map calls it. 

P. 133. 'The rest of the Ditch hath yet Water standing 
in it under the Towne Wall, enclosing on the one side New 
Colledge, and on the other Tenements leading to Holywell 
Church, which Church is consecrated by the name of St. Crosse, 
and is a Chappell of Ease, as is alsoe the Church of Wool- 
vercott, unto the Parish of St. Peter's in the East. For though 
the wholl Suburbs beare the name of Holiwell, from a certaine 
Well att the East end thereof, yet the Church is dedicated to 
the Holy Crosse.' 

Following our guide we take the road to the church, but we must 
first explain that it is the well north-west of the tower which Hutten 
regards as giving a name to the district, and that in calling it ' a well 
at the east end thereof,' he means at the east end of the suburbs. 
Loggan, it is true, draws a ' Hollywell ' at the east end of the church, 
near his compass under the final letter of the name, with a pathway 
leading to it as if it were a place much frequented. This well was 
also highly esteemed, and its remnants may be seen by looking over 
the cemetery wall a little east of the Burgon memorials. But it was 
not held in such veneration as the well now under the altar in the 
chapel of the Manor House, at one time turned into a bathing place. 

The church of the Holy Cross, or of the Invention of the Holy 
Cross (v. p. 96, PL), has a chancel arch that may well carry us 
back to D'Oilly's time, the star ornamentation on the abaci being 
cut so very shallow. It is probably not earlier, for when Domes- 
day book was compiled there was but one church in D'Oilly's manor, 
viz. that of St. Peter. The south side of the tower arch is later in 
style; but a drawing of 1751 has preserved evidence of a doorway 
of Early English type on the north side. The same drawing suggests 
a north arcade to the nave, such as exists now ; and Debased windows, 
with two square holes at the west, one for the gallery, the other 
for the pews beneath, were worked into or inserted in a wall which 
filled up the arches. The tower then stood clear of north and south 
aisles. Agas gives us a priest's or squire's door in the north wall of 
the chancel. His tower is twisted slightly round like others noticed 
in the introduction. His windows are not carefully placed; and 



138 AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [vii 



when he, or his engraver, endeavours to represent the hipped roof 
of the staircase of the tower, we see him at his worst. The little 
range of buildings looking towards the churchyard are the eight 
church-houses which were demolished in 1896. 

On the north side of the church, is drawn the Manor House, 
the abode of the Napiers in Elizabeth's days ; and a bridge over 
the mill-cutting, just outside of Agas's map, but shown in Loggan, 
is still called Napper's Bridge. The pigeon-house occupies a site 
very near to that of the cock-pit in later times. 

We return to Crowell, the sluice for which was dug out about 
twenty years since, and looking along Magdalen wall we mark a certain 
gateway into the Grove, blocked up now, but old people say they 
remember the oak gate which hung in it. From that gateway straight 
down to Holywell mill we may perhaps find room for Runcival Street 1 , 
occupied in the fifteenth century by servants or dependents of St. 
John's Hospital, described as living outside the Hospital Garden. 
The fourth road visible here is that 'along the walls' or 'between 
the long walls,' wrongly called ' the long walk/ 

P. 138. ' From hence there is an easie prospect downe- 
wards, on both sides, haveing noething to be seene in it but the 
Towne Wall, enclosing New Colledge on the right hand, and 
another faier Wall enclosing Magdalene Colledge walke on 
the left.' 

xiii. Ship Street to St. Peter's in the East. 

' Returning, therefore, back againe unto the North Gate, 
wee will take all the Streets and Lanes on the East side 
of the Towne in order as they lie. And, first, the Church 
of St. Michaell is hard by us on the left hand of Bocardo, 
and giveth entrance into a Lane of the same name, wherein 
there is noething observable, but a few small Cottages on the 
Towne Wall on the left hand, and the backsides of Houses 
and Gardens on the right, 'till wee come to Jesus Colledge.' 

As soon as we had passed the east boundary of St. Michael's 
churchyard, going along what is now Ship Street, there should, 

1 Wood (V. p. 227) gives other variants of this name, Bevesval and Benceval. 



vii] SHIP STREET TO ST. PETER'S IN THE EAST 139 



seemingly almost as late as Elizabeth's reign, have been a Laurence 
Lane, branching to the left towards Balliol College, and a Coles- 
bourne lane almost facing it on the right. Just to show that the 
former is not a mere freak of imagination, here is a document or 
two in evidence. Twyne (23, p. 257) notes the counterpart of a lease 
dated 1 February 1545, made by Richard Gunter the mayor to 
Richard Flexney of Oxford, fishmonger, of a tenement situate in 
a lane called Laurenceslane adjoining to the churchyard of St. Michael 
at North Gate at the east side of the same church, rent 6s. 8d. 
A meeting of the council about the same time (Tw. 23, p. 587) agreed 
that Ralfe Flaxney shall have 1 a tenement sett and being in a lane 
called Laurence Hall lane adjoininge to the churchyarde of St. Michael 
at the east end of the same church.' The Hall went by another 
name in early times. In a city account of 1427 (Tw. 23, p. 507) a 
rent is mentioned, of 10s. per annum receivable from John Shawe for 
the hall which is called Stapull-ledyn-halle now Laurence Hall. The 
leaden steeple probably means a turret over a circular staircase, covered 
with lead, not with the usual shingles ; and the words ' east end 
of the church ' may possibly include the entrance passage to the 
old Ship Inn, from whence egress northward would be near the 
projecting angle in the walls. Tracing this lane southward, we seem 
to lose it for a time till we come to the west fence of Jesus College, 
and then we learn from drawings that when Market Street w r as crossed 
it ran southward along the west side of the present market and so 
into the High Street. 

New Inn, as mentioned before, was the medieval structure facing 
the church. It became an appendage to Burnell's Inn in St. Aldate's. 
This is apparent from a St. Michael's rental of 1424 (Tw. 23, p. 508) : 
Received of John Hertipole lately the tenant of the Master and 
Scholars of Burnelyn now London Colledge for our Tenement formerly 
Dionysia Burewald's and lately John Gybbes. It was leased by the 
parishioners of the church for a term of a hundred years. And 
Twyne adds: 'note that John Gybbes in his time again included 
it in his inn situated in the same parish, and the same John Gybbes 
and Walter Daundesey blocked up again a certaine Lane, called in 
our indenture Someneres Lane, by their buildings rebuilt there, and 
that the said Lane of old time was called Dewylane, afterward Denys 
Burewald Lane, which note for a truth.' It seems rather improbable 
that St. Michael's Lane itself was closed, though Twyne thought this 
was the meaning. There may be a way out of the difficulty by 



140 AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [vii 



supposing that 'blocked' refers to a merely partial obstruction of 
the way. 

The position of Elm Hall and Stoke Hall, both somewhere near 
here, has not been ascertained. Leadenporche Hall (perhaps 
Willoughby), one of several of the name, would come next, probably 
near the Jesus stables. Mr. Boase, in his Register of Exeter College 
(O. H. S. xxvii, pp. xiv, xv), supplies us with the only clear piece 
of information as to its site. Thus: 'On 20 May 1323 Stapeldon 
granted them (the Rector and scholars of Stapeldon Hall) Ledene- 
porche in Cornwall street, between North gate and Smythe gate, which 
the Bishop had received from John (son of William) le Spycer and 
Alice his wife/ ' On 3 Nov. 1336 Alice widow of John de Mayden- 
stone quitclaimed to the Rector and Scholars for Ledeneporche, 
between Bruneshalle on the east and the tenement of Robert de la 
Bache on the west.' An old endorsement describes it as Ledeneporch 
in the parish of St. Michael, a garden near White Hall. A like 
endorsement occurs on a second lease to Richard Salesburgh of 
Oxford; Leden porch between a tenement of the same Richard 
on the west and a place Fouks-yne on the east. No date is given, 
but Wood thought it of the time of Richard II. As to its being one of 
the Willoughby Halls, the only authority is Wood's surmise (V. p. 86) : 
' in Bryan Twyne among the archives of Corpus, p. 59, is an extract 
of ancient halls, out of a rentall which belonged to St. John's Hospital, 
in which I find thus : Willoughby hall in the occupation of Exeter 
College in the parish of St. Michael at North gate which perhaps 
may be the same with this Ledinporch/ In City (i. p. 68, note 
5 (a)) Wood's MSS. add: 'In the middle of this lane, about 
Jesus College ball-court, Exeter College hath a tenement. (Soe 
Mr. French).' By 1504 the site had become empty (V. p. 321) : 'In 
an account it appears that Exeter College garden (in Somnores 
Lane, where I suppose Leadenporch hall stood) was situated on the 
west side of White Hall.' Regarding White Hall we have this in 
the Chancellor's accounts of 1447 (D. 3, p. 80): White Hall which 
is called Little, near the northern walls, i.e. not an encroachment 
upon the way-under-the-walls but on the same side of the way as- 
Jesus College. Plummer or Plomer Hall was near Laurence Hall, 
and as the University Register for 1447 shows (D. 3, p. 81), it must 
have been at a corner: Plomery's Place, lying between the Hall of 
St. Laurence on the west and a garden of the Abbess of Godstow 
on the south. To put it north-east of the site of Jesus College 



vii] SHIP STREET TO ST. PETER'S IN THE EAST 141 



makes it suit the above, but it supposes a second Laurence Hall in 
the same Lane. 

P. 138. ' Jesus Colledge, whose Garden haveing passed there 
lieth a faire Streete before us, (P. 139) crossing our way, and 
passing through a posterne Gate into the Suburbs over against 
Trinity Colledge. And here wee should proceed on our waie, 
but that the now Chappell of Exeter Colledge hath stopt our 
passage.' 

The street which comes at the end of Ship Street is The Turl, 
whose name has already been discussed. Previously to 1623, the 
passenger could have gone on, across the street, due east, keeping 
the city wall, or what remained of it, on his left. He would go through 
the present Lodgings of the Rector of Exeter, through his garden, 
south of the Sheldonian Theatre and north of the Divinity School. 
Hutten writes 'the now chapel,' just as we say 'the then monarch/ and 
he means what to him was the present chapel. The chapel of the 
College had been removed a short time before. 

In 1852 or 1853 a bastion was laid bare in the second or north 
quadrangle of the College. In 1698 (Phillips MSS. 16043, P- 4°) 
we have a long deposition made by Dr. Bury upon the question at 
what time the right of way was stopped against the public ; and 
slight traces of the roadway, a gutter probably, have been observed in 
the Rector's garden, as well as of a wall and road touching it, south 
of the Theatre. Further east still, the site of another bastion, and of 
the road north of the Old Schools onward to Cat Street, are clearly 
marked, with measurements, on a map in the Bodleian, executed when 
the area south of the Old Clarendon Building was about to be cleared 
for its erection. On the south of this street, called Somenore's 
and even Summers (i. e. Summoner's) Street, which at this point ran 
only a few yards south of Broad Street, there stood, behind posts and 
rails, the buildings of Exeter College, then presenting an appearance 
such as in Bereblock's drawing, made for Queen Elizabeth's visit, and 
reproduced by Whittlesey in the margin of his map. When looking 
at this, we should remember that the tower still remains, almost 
hemmed in by buildings, at the east end of the modern chapel. 
Observe also in Bereblock's drawing the key that crowns the western 
gable of the old chapel ; it is an architectural whimsey as curious as 
any in Oxford. Agas's sketch of the college will now be understood, 



142 AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [vi 



and two buildings will be recognized which run straight south from 
the front range — Bentley's Nest and the old Refectory. 

East of the college, but after an interval which Agas does not 
mark, came the Divinity Schools, built on ground acquired from 
Balliol; then a passage north and south, once the north end of 
the Schools Street, Pig-market in later phrase ; and then the Marian 
Schools built on the foundations of the older Oseney Schools. The 
Marian Schools seem long in proportion, but surely Bereblock cuts 
them too short, perhaps to suit his page. Doubtless both artists worked 
to the best of their ability; but why have they, like all historians 
of old Oxford, left us in doubt about the east porch of the Divinity 
School ? We can see what looks like a preparation for it. Was it 
ever carried out ? Or shall it be said that its existence is mythical ? 
The documentary evidence about the old buildings on the site of 
which Exeter College stands, need not be repeated, but the Divinity 
School site is accounted for as follows. In Savage's Balliofergus 
(p. 34) we read that in 131 7 'Jeffrey Horkstow and Richard de Staynton, 
gave (to Balliol) a Tenement within the Walls of Oxford, in the Parish 
of St. Mildred ; which is that whereon the Divinity Schools stand, 
as is evident by the Lease thereof granted to the University of 99 Years 
beginning 1427/ 'The Lease is therefore expired 1 now 135 Years. 
The Rent is 7.?. per annum : The measure of the Ground is precisely 
set forth in the lease, together with the situation thereof, by the 
name of one void place of land within the Walls of Oxon, situate 
between Exeter Colledge on the West part, and the School-street 
on the East : from whence one end abbuts upon Exeter-lane 
towards the North [this Exeter-lane was the Pomcerium between 
Exeter Colledge and the Town-wall, which before the building 
of the present Chappel there, was our way to the Schools] and |. 
the other Head of it abbuts upon the Ground or Tenement of 
the Abbot and Convent of Dorchester, and of Balliol-hall, by Mildred* 
lane, to the South-ward; and it contains in length from North to 
South, 171 Feet and 5 Inches ; and the greatest breadth thereof 
in any place is 130 Feet.' As the building measures internally only 
eighty feet by thirty-two, it is clear that the ground quite up to the 
City wall (as far as the Theatre, and to the east as far as Queen Mary's 
Schools), is included in the above, and it follows that the ' via sub 
muro' was stopped before 1427 in this part of Oxford. For the 



Viz. anno 1661. 



vi] SHIP STREET TO ST. PETER'S IN THE EAST 143 



Bodleian of modern days additional ground on the west was purchased 
of Exeter. 

Torald School comes next, when the old Schools Street is passed. 
There still exist parish boundary-crosses on the north and south fronts 
of the Schools; it is therefore the first house in St. Mary's parish 
along this street. It is described first of all in 1259 as the house 
at the corner with an elm (V. p. 456), and it had a Hall joined to 
it. In 1276 the house is not mentioned, but a new solar above 
the Hall of Torald paid rent (V. p. 425). In 1278 the cellar at the 
corner is mentioned, as well as the upper room (V. p. 461), implying 
perhaps that both were used for lectures. There was much fluctuation 
in the demand for schools both in Schools Street and Cat Street. 
Other corners about here are so well accounted for, that the angle 
of the Schools nearest to the south-east of Sheldon's Theatre can 
scarcely be anything else than the corner of Torald's School. 

Littlemore School came next, as we gather (V. p. 474) from the 
Oseney rentals, and it was in Cat Strete, west of the street, but 
whether as far north as we are considering, i. e. touching Somnore's 
Lane, is not clear. 

Going farther east, crossing Cat Street and keeping under the City 
wall, we come to the site of the modern Hertford College, the corner 
tenement of which was Great Black Hall in Cat strete, frequently 
quoted as a west boundary of Hert Hall Boase, O. H. S. xxvii. 284-8). 
A charter of St. Frideswyde's of the year 1314 {Wi. 539) places it 
within the gate of Smythegate, and in Wood's City (i. 596) the Hall 
is described as opposite Smith Gate. The changes in and about 
this corner of Hertford College have been numerous since Cole 
drew his map in 17 13, and excavations made about 1895 have 
reminded us that its entire west front has been thrust back about half 
the width of the present street. There were also houses blocking up 
the north end of Cat Street, and causing the middle of the Smith Gate 
opening to face a point, in Hertford College, about twenty-five feet 
along New College Lane eastward. The general direction of most of 
the boundaries was, both in front of and behind the Old Clarendon 
Buildings, east-north-east, not parallel with the northern face of 
Bodley's Schools K Agas makes as little as possible of these angles 
and projections, and even Loggan deals tenderly with them, both wish- 
ing Cat Street to look a more reasonable outlet than we know it was 

1 This was probably the direction of the City wall, to judge from the part of it 
laid bare when the area south of the Clarendon Building was opened in 1898. 



144 AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [vi 



before the days of James I. The latter engraver places a Maypole 
in front of Hert Hall (north of it), apparently secured at its base 
by being wedged in the hub of a massive cartwheel as was the 
country fashion : it is in fine contrast with the gallows shown by 
Agas in other places. Hart Hall, the next building to the east, 
is still in part left to us, the oldest part of the present College. Many 
particulars of it, once the home of the Scholars of Stapledon, 
whose Hall became Exeter College, are given in Mr. Boase's Register 
(vol. xxvii. of this series). 

The next Hall is a Seld or Shield Hall, but its north face 
stood some feet farther north than the present north side of Hertford, 
reaching within thirty feet of the imperfect bastion in St. Helens 
Passage. It is frequently given as the east boundary of Hert Hall. 
From this point to the west of New College Chapel is uncertain 
ground. No arrangement of sites seems to suit all the documents. 
The difficulty is to determine the direction of the old road or lane 
which we will call by the name St. John's Street as Agas does, 
though he is clearly in error. It ran from the corner of Black Hall 
through the northern half of the cloisters of New College till the 
chapel wall was reached, then turning south close under the chapel 
and the college gateway, it joined the present lane near the north- 
west angle of Queen's College. Such at least is a plausible inference 
from Wood's paper (MS. F. 28, p. 136), which Dr. Woodward supplied 
to him : The mayor aldermen &c. confirm to the lord bishop of 
Winton, to the warden and scholars and their successors, a certain 
lane or common way which extends from Hart Hall eastwards 
toward the enclosure {clausum) of the said college and thence to 
a corner of the said college towards the south near the enclosure 
(clausum, therefore not cloister in either case) of Queen Hall, that 
they may block up the said way, destroy it and include the site 
with the other lands of the College and for ever have and hold 
it as their own : instead thereof the Bishop shall make another 
lane and so apportion it for ever in a suitable place on their own 
soil, for the greater reputation and quiet of the college and for the 
convenience of the entire town. The cost of the lane was £100 
paid to the Mayor. In the agreement of August, 1379, as the 
City records show, the old lane from Hamerhal southward was to 
be excepted, and it was not till November, 1388, that the cloister 
was arranged for and the consequent change made in the direction 
of this lane. By the earlier arrangement (ibid.) the College was 



vi] SHIP STREET TO ST. PETER'S IN THE EAST 145 



answerable inter alia for the construction repair and perpetual 
maintenance of eighteen perches of the wall west of the great chapel 
towards Smithgate, the perches being our own of i6| ft.; by the 
latter it was allowed to throw down a round tower and twelve perches 
of wall, and to build another tower thirty-four feet square, and to 
rebuild the wall along the said twelve perches. These twelve perches 
reach from the west face of the chapel to the east edge of the house 
near the imperfect bastion in ' Hell-lane ' or St. Helen's Passage. 

ft. in. 

The distance from chapel wall to cloister wall is 168 

Thickness of cloister wall 30 

Thence to the east side of the bell-tower . . 19 10 
„ west „ „ „ . 30 9 

„ ,, east side of the brick house . . 142 1 

Total 212 4 

Returning to Shield Hall from our necessary digression, we proceed 
eastward, and passing over a house of one of the Torolds, we 
come to Maiden Hall. Of the position of this, the most distinct 
description is in a charter (V. p. 246) whereby, in 1387, the 
Master and scholars of the Hall of the University granted to Geoffrey 
Wykam, professor of theology, a house in the parish of St. Peter 
called Mayden Hall, situate between Scheldhall on the west side and 
Hamer Hall on the east. In the early part of the next year New 
College took a lease of it, in order to enlarge their premises. The year 
afterwards, in another description (ibid.) its north boundary is given, 
viz. the street by which people go from Smethgate towards the 
college of St. Mary, while Hammer Hall becomes More Hammer 
Hall, and the south boundary is a garden belonging to Queen Hall. 
Though Great Hammer Hall is in 1387 and 1389 (V. p. 246 bis) 

f put east of the last, we have in 1388 (V. p. 249) an Oven 
Hall intervening, as appears by an indenture showing that William 
of Wyckam bishop of Winchester gave to John Bokeland Abbot of 
Oseney and Hugh Banbirey prior there, £20 for a tenement in 
St. Peter's parish called Hamer Hall and for a garden of the said 

1 Abbot and Prior and convent lying near a hall called Ovenhall on 

I the west part of the said hall. This place may have been too 
insignificant for notice, or perhaps its boundary line had been 

1 defaced ; at any rate it is almost impossible for Oven Hall to have 
been east of Great Hammer Hall, otherwise measurements to the east 



146 AGAS'S PLAN AND IIUTTEN'S SURVEY [vi 



along the walls would now and then be reckoned from it and not 
from the other. So Dr. Woodward puts it, and adds : ' This More 
Hammer Hall then did . . . tak up the ground of about the easterne 
halfe of the cloysters soe farr as to the Chappell or the College Gate.' 

Eastward lay a very large piece of property, extending from the 
west end of the chapel to the City wall in one direction and 
from the north wall of the City to Queen's College Lane on the 
south. That this last has remained steady, as a respectable land- 
mark ought to do, is tolerably plain, as well on other grounds as 
from the evidence of one or two early house-fronts still remaining. 
This large area, though given up to New College in 1379, is best 
described in a document of 1415 (V. p. 247): John Gybbys 
mayor of Oxon gives evidence concerning the place where New 
College was founded; that at the time of the foundation of the 
said college and for many years previously, the place had been 
empty barren and derelict without inhabitants but dangerous on 
account of a concourse thither by day and night of evil doers 
congregating there ; now many years ago many deep pits and j 
caverns had been made there by the abstraction of gravel and 
sand, wherein thieves and malefactors often lay concealed, whence j 
homicides took place and other evil deeds many and intolerable j 
were perpetrated; this gave rise to alarms and great disturbances j 
of the peace, and the seeds of discord were scattered or sprung I 
up both in the town and in the university; moreover into the \m 
same spot were cast dung, corpses of dead animals and their Im 
intestines, and whatever else was stinking or unpleasant was l | 
hidden or buried. So runs his testimony. The City, the Mayor, j I 
Littlemore, St. Frideswyde's and the Trinitarians were the separate j I 
owners ; and in their transfer they treated their properties en masse j | :; 
without specifying the several parts which they held. The various j I 
legal processes through which buyers and sellers went before the |; 
transactions were complete, are carefully noted (V. pp. 247-251, and M 
more fully MS. F. 28, pp. 12 1-2). One of these documents treats of | 9t 
the Underwalls, then possessed by the Trinitarians ; and if any one I, 
will take the trouble to work out the lengths of their two sections 1 
of the City wall still enclosing two sides of the New College site, he | f 
will, by checking them with a good map, have a proof that our 1 j 
standard of length has not much changed since 1379. It is a charter j r 
of confirmation to the Trinitarians, previous to their transferring their j 1 
property to the Founder of New College on Aug. 1, 1379. By this j \ 



vi] SHIP STREET TO ST. PETER'S IN THE EAST 147 



charter the Mayor and commonalty of Oxford confirm to the Brethren 
of the Holy Trinity at Oxford three separate pieces in the Underwall 
of Oxford, being those which they have hitherto held. Of these one 
piece reaches from the postern nearest towards Smith Gate to the 
yard of the chapel of Holy Trinity beyond East Gate, joined on the 
north side to the chapel of the same, and held by the Brethren 
as a perpetual gift of the Prior and Convent of St. Frideswyde. 
It is in length from west to east sixty perches and from north to south 
twenty-six perches and two feet. Two other plots are then men- 
tioned, reaching to Runcival Hall. Another charter of this series 
refers to a garden of Queen's College, north of St. Peter's Church. 
The portion of the walls which the Bishop agreed to repair is defined 
in the agreement between the Town and himself (Tw. 23, p. 139) 
as the repairing and restoring and perpetual sustaining of the said 
wall from the postern called Wyndesore Postern near to Smythgate 
(an error of Twyne's for Eastgate) as far as another postern near 
to East (should be Smith) gate. A glance at the difference of 
masonry will show that fully threequarters of the eastern wall was 
rebuilt or refaced internally, at a date later than the rest. 

A page or so back a review was made of the halls west of New 
College chapel, and facing the north wall of the City ; there are now 
to be considered some other halls south of these. South of Great 
Hammer Hall was Little Hammer Hall, having its position well defined. 
South of this, and facing the westernmost section of the present New 
College Lane was Temple Hall, acquired from Queen's College in 
1392 (MS. F. 28, 122 b). Queen's College then quitclaimed to New 
College all its right in a garden 1 where Tempell Hall was formerly 
situated, between the lane from St. Peter's to Smethe gate on the 
east, the garden of Hert Hall on the west, a garden once called Little 
Hammer Hall and May den Hall on the north, and the gardens of 
St. Thomas's chantry in the church of the Blessed Virgin Mary and 
a garden where lately was the hall of St. Nicholas on the south. 
St. Nicholas Hall stood at the angle, as above, and from its size 
or position caused this longest section to be called 'the Lane from 
St. Nicholas Hall to St. Peter's Church.' Temple Hall had Denda- 
more Hall to the south, as appears from a Queen's College docu- 
ment (V. p. 127), dated 13 15, whereby John the son of William de 
Colesbourne of Oxford grants to farm to William de Osberston 
a messuage called Le Temple Hall in the parish of St. Peter, 

1 This is the present garden of the Warden of New College. 
L 2 



148 AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY M 



between the tenement of the Hospital of St. John called Le Hamers 
Hall on the north, and a tenement of Oseney called Dendamour 
Hall on the south; rent iooj. per an. Beyond St. Peter's church 
and to the east there was a plot of ground, seemingly the south 
wing of New College gardens. In 1391 (V. p. 244) Queen's College 
transferred, together with Temple Hall and certain void plots, other 
plots between the Town Wall on the east, St. Peter's graveyard 
and S. Edmund's Hall on the west, and the walls of the gardens, 
tenements of the Hospital of St. John, towards the High Street, 
on the south. This piece of ground was once New College ball- 
court ; in Agas it is called their orchard. There is another document 
granting seizin of the same, which also gives us, as the north 
boundary, the garden of the Vicar of St. Peter's, itself a doubtful 
point, though we know that his house was in the north-east angle of 
the churchyard. 

Whether the long section of the lane extended eastward towards a 
postern in the city wall is a question almost answered by a document 
of 1378 (V. p. 247) which records that John Gybbes mayor, Thomas 
Somerset and John Shaw bailiffs and the entire community of Oxford 
granted to Adam of the Ryver Alice his wife and Hugh his son 
(who had been supervisors of the north and east walls from the gate 
Smithgate as far as East gate when they were repaired) a void place in 
the parish of St. Peter reaching in breadth from the corner of the 
house of the vicar of St. Peter facing the same church, as far 
as the postern of John of Windsore in the great wall of the 
town towards the east and from that postern lengthwise near the 
aforesaid wall towards the west to a certain boundary (meta) of the 
wall, which boundary Richard of Selewode once mayor made before 
the first pestilence : on the inside of which wall there were four 
boundary stones : (Twyne adds : ' I do not understand : '). The pay- 
ment was to be one rose on St. John Baptist's day. If the lane ran 
in a direct line it would have passed just under the wall at the north 
of the churchyard, and though Agas places the vicar's house in the 
way, Loggan leaves sufficient room. 

From the study of many old documents belonging to the property 
in this neighbourhood, we are led to the conclusion that somewhere 
in a lane produced to Windsore postern, there were Stevens' land 
and the Anchorite's (perhaps they lay north of the church or near 
the vestry); that on the north side facing the vicar's house were 
Spalding's Court, Bokeland's Tenement and Bull Hall (V. p. 252); 



vi] SHIP STREET TO ST. PETER'S IN THE EAST 149 



that beyond the vicar's house (east) stood Marcel or Martel's house 
(V. pp. 196, 228, 231); that next in succession came Wlpis, Middle 
and Corner Halls (V. p. 231), southward and facing the churchyard; 
I and that on the south side there were other halls also looking into 
the churchyard. The general impression obtained is rather that of 
I a village green with cottages dotted around it, as in pre-enclosure 
1 times, irregularly, without any formal fences or rows of buildings. 

Haysche Hall (V. p. 231), the property of St. John's Hospital, is 
described in 1294 as in the graveyard, which, as far as can now 
be surmised, lay to the south-west. The Crutched Friars had their 
second habitation somewhere upon the lane, produced as supposed 
: above. Maryol Hall also lies near here ; ' about the east end of 
St. Peter's Church' is Wood's remark {Cily, i. 105); and, judging 
from the order in a rental of St. John's Hospital, there should be 
! a Chimney Hall further on. 

At the Eastern end of the lane was the City wall ; and access was 
attainable, by a postern, to a strip of ground now called Long-wall, 
in Agas's time almost vacant and with only a small stream coursing 
down it. This was the result of an agreement that the warden and 
I fellows of New College should entirely block up and for ever get rid 
of the trenches, stews, or fish ponds under the tower at the north 
angle towards the east and south, between Smith Gate and East Gate, 
that is between the two stone walls of the town (Hester's papers). 
! Excavations on this side of the City reveal a subsoil greatly differing 
from the gravel elsewhere. It is a soft peat, and to keep in good 
: repair a road over it would be very difficult. Twyne (23, p. 397), 
quoting from a bundle of charters about S. Cross, gives a letter in 
I Norman French, to the following effect : — Edward, elder son of the 
• noble King of England and France, Duke of Cornwall and Earl of 
Chester, to our beloved the mayor and bailiffs of Oxenford, greeting. 
J As we have understood that the way between East gate in Oxford 
' and Crowell towards Wodestock has become so hollow and perilous 
\ that no one can pass by there without great mischief ; and as this 
j way is that by which our very dear Lord and father the King 
j is accustomed to take his passage towards the neighbourhood of 
Wodestocke, and the neglect (le legier) may do him mischief here- 
after, which God forbid, we ask you and the council that as soon 
; as possible they amend the road and make it fit to traverse both 
■ for the King and for all men : Given at our court of Byfleet the 
third day of January. The writer is clearly Edward the Black 



150 AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [vi 



Prince, and the date either between 1340 and 1360 or between 
1369 and 1376. The reply to this is almost as polite as the 
Prince's message (Tw. 23, p. 396): 'Before we give orders for 
the repair of the road between Eastgate and Crowell on the way to 
Woodstock we humbly submit that your Lordship would please to 
understand that your servants have never been charged with the 
maintenance of this road nor do we know to whom it doth pertain. 
We would beg the lord the King to issue a writ to the sheriff of 
Oxeneford to inquire what people ought, and have been wont to 
repair the said road, and we will do the utmost in our power to 
assist in the matter.' It is clear however that the City had to attend 
to the fosse there. In the accounts of 13 10 (Tw. 23, p. 227) occur 
charges, For the men appointed to drag the pool outside East Gate : 
and again in 1395 (ibid. p. 239) To watching the fish and those also 
pertaining to the Brethren. 

Before we make our return journey, a few architectural features 
of the very remarkable church of St. Peter should be noticed. At 
the east end are two turrets, the four small openings in each of 
which (now closed) were apparently made for an outlook over the 
streams ; a species of watch tower to guard the approach to East 
Gate. The eastern gable shows on both sides that a habitation of 
two stories in height once existed over the groined roof of the 
chancel, perhaps a priest's room. A way from the north would 
admit anyone to the turrets. The vestry at the north-west shows 
that there was once a house there, in addition to that in the corner. 
The exterior arcading south of the chancel with one or two orna- 
mental shafts should not be overlooked ; nor the remarkable porch, 
with a groined room over it forming a convenient muniment room. 
Observe too the Early Decorated tower, with walls rapidly diminishing 
in thickness, like Carfax and the earlier tower of St. George within the 
Castle ; the glorious south door, now of two orders and a half, but 
once of four of nearly equal width, the outer one smothered up in 
the porch walls, the inner one trimmed away by the barbarians of the 
eighteenth century, the double row of star ornaments now being 
scarcely traceable and the doorspace robbed of its original proportions. 
It will be for the next century to lower the porch floor, show this 
inner order, and so reveal the beauties of the doorway. In the 
interior there are to be observed the unique groining of the sanctuary ; 
the so-called chain moulding, which proves to be made up of sections 
of older groining ribs, and of Norman ornaments, most probably from 



m] 



MARKET STREET TO ALL SOULS 



the imposts of an earlier chancel arch ; the blank doorway south 
of the chancel, very primitive Norman or even Saxon ; the arrange- 
ment of the ambulatory, remarkably complete for so small a structure, 
having four spiral staircases ; the design of those staircases ; the fine 
Early English arcade on the north of the nave ; and the two beautiful 
Decorated windows on the north. But the central point of interest is 
the twelfth-century crypt, having capitals of peculiar design to several 
of the shafts, and four of the bases ornamented with spurs formed 
by the heads of lizard-shaped animals. There are survivals of Scandi- 
navian and Roman taste in some parts of the church which are not 
easily accounted for. 

The churchwardens' accounts, now beautifully preserved, begin in 
1444; one page of a preceding year has been lost since Wood's time. 
(For the Grimbald myth, see PL pp. 42 and 101.) 

New College again is richly deserving of notice, the cloisters, bell- 
tower, chapel and hall, as good examples of Wykeham's design, the 
subsellae as remarkable examples of carving which the present age 
half neglects. It is when the entire group of buildings is viewed as 
a whole, that the unwise treatment of 1674 calls up the deepest 
regrets. There certainly were square windows here and there in 
the original design ; but the conversion of the simple and effective 
windows into sash-openings, and the addition of a third story to three 
sides of the quadrangle, destroyed the beauty of the design and 
dwarfed the very two erections which showed the master's hand. 

xiv. Market Street to All Souls. 

P. 139. c The next Lane from Bocardo in the Corne 
Market is called Jesus Colledge Lane, and bringeth us to 
the South side of that Colledge, and endeth in Alhallowes 
Streete, where wee were before, haveing noething but some 
few Tenements, Backsides and Garden Doores on either hand. 
And here betweene the Posterne Gate (which was mentioned 
before) and this Corner on the left hand, there are faire 
Entrances into two Colledges, opposite one to the other, vizi. 
Jesus Colledge (on the left) and Exeter Colledge on the 
right hand.' 

Jesus College Lane is known also as Cheyney, Adynton, Bedford, 
Holdierd and St. Mildred's, the latter title being also applied, more 



152 AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [ii, vii 



correctly, to its eastern continuation, south of Exeter College. It 
is now Market Street. The pillory most probably stood at the 
entrance of this street, but till the whole of Nicholas Bishop's Collec- 
tion has been examined we cannot be sure, for there are notes there 
about its removal. It seems not improbable that the west part 
of the lane was Colesborne's, the property of Osney, and that the 
lane which was blocked up and led to a contest with Bishop may be 
one which went south through the Roebuck Inn and came out west- 
wards through the inn gateway. The history of the affair, 1427, is taken 
as follows from Nicholas Bishop (Tw. 23, p. 412) : On the Wednesday 
next before the feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, 

at the time of the making of the stone wall of the free tenement of the '< 

Abbot of Osney situated on the south side within Colesborne Lane, 1 

d 8 John, canon-brother and manciple or kitchen-steward of Osney, ( 
told Nicholas Bishop, the writer, that the said Abbot and Convent 1 1 

had a common way or curved lane in that lane called now Coles- i 

bournelane, as is still partly shown, towards their free tenement, 1 
inhabited by James Porter and held by him of the said Abbot \ 0 

at 1 6s. per annum. This tenement extended lengthwise from the 2 

lane called Colesbourne to the lane now called Cheney Lane; and I 

a certain Henry a brewer and Aubrey his wife in the time of ( 

Edward III or thereabout, as it is said, maintaining this common way tl 

or lane with drawers (ductoribus) of water and having ingress and f 

egress for their horses and waterbolges daily, it happened in 1328 C 

that certain scholars of Chymney Hall were injured and bruised there C 

by the panniers with the said waterbolges, whereupon the said scholars ll 
took a staff or two from the said waterbolges and assaulted Henry | 1 
Brewer and killed him, and afterwards that lane was blocked up. 

The ' chain ' was at the East end of the Lane (Godst. Chartul.). i 

The northern side, as soon as the street is entered, belongs to 1 

Christ Church, seemingly a part of their Osney property. Before I 

Jesus College is reached, probably comes Corner Hall, but there it 

is no evidence to bring forward. ' In St. Mildred Street, within 1 

St. Michael parish north ' is nearly all the information given in five J| 

documents. Nun Hall is perhaps next, but also quite uncertain. l\ 

Great White Hall, however, is well known to have been near the I 

south-east angle of the present Jesus College; it is shown in Agas [ 

and is well known to those who have explored the Jesus documents. ai 

There is an early notice of it among the Osney writings : Luke !j 
de Wurthe, being then Vicar of Cowley and dominus of Edmund | 



vii] 



MARKET STREET TO ALL SOULS 



T 53 



Hall, gave c. 1200 f. (V. p. 397), to Osney 40J. \od. of rent in the 
town of Oxford which he bought of Sir Fulke de Rucothe Knt. viz. 
of the land which Mr. Thomas de Bristolle once held in Old- 
herdestreet 1 is., of the land which John Suppethuf held in the same 
street iu., about the time of Robert the son of Robert Oweyn and 
of Philip Burgeis. Wood notes 'Whether this Oldherdestreet be 
Silverstreet — Noe. — The same was afterwards called Cheyney Lane 
and 'twas called Oldherde street from one Thomas Holdierd. In the 
means you must note that this was once a Street but by purpeytures 
became a lane. ' Thomas Holdierd occurs, c. 1224 (V. p. 520), where 
the witnesses are more easily dated. In 1447 (Wood D. 3, p. 86), in 
a register of the Chancellor's Court, the two White Halls come side 
by side — the Greater ' in the parish of St. Michael in the chained 
(catheno) street,' and the other ' under the Walls.' Perhaps the 
most useful document for position is one of about 1262 (Wi. 638) : 
where Lambert Burewald gives his house in the parish of St. Mildred 
between the land of William de Ho towards the west and the land 
once of Thomas le Prude toward the east, showing it was not quite 
an angular tenement. Chimney Hall on the south side is said 
by Wood to have been half way along the street. There exists in the 
Oseney muniments at St. Frideswyde's a series of documents about 
this Hall, called in 1259 in. (V. p. 519) the stone house of the Toralds, 
Peter and Robert. A Jeffrey Toral, relationship uncertain, gave it to 
Osney in 1259 (ibid.). Wood supplies the position in 1348: ' in 
Cheyney Lane on the South side in St. Mildred's parish, next on 
the east side as I think of the backway into the Rowbuck, as in 
a dimission of 22 Edw. Ill it appears.' 

The street ' where wee were before ' is the Turl, or preferably 
the Street to the Turl ; and its southern half is now to be considered. 
The first spot of importance was St. Mildred's Hall or Pompe 
Tenement. It was well known to Miles Windsor who speaks of it 
thus (Bal. p. 42) : Mildred's Hall not far from Mildred's Church 
in a garden, or behind the house of the Maiden's Head; and 
Mr. A. Clark recognizes it {City, i. 124, note 8) as No. 10 Turl 
Street, the house next south of the Maidenhead. In the records of 
the Chancellor's Court, 1445 (D. 3, p. 71), we have: d s Scharp 
lays down caution for a certain garden in the parish of St. Michael 
situated opposite Lyncoln College between St. Mildred's Hall and the 
land of the Abbess of Studely which garden is the land of Abendon 
Abbey. The Abingdon property may have been only a lane, as is 



154 AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [vi 

probable from the next document, of 1384 (Tw. 23, p. 351), wherein 
Wm. Bergeveney and three others, supervisors of nuisances, present 
that a certain earthen wall containing in length seventeen royal ells 
in the parish of St. Mildred Oxon, with the adjacent place between 
the tenement of the Abbey of Osney called Mildredhall on the south 
and the tenement of Stodle on the north, is the wall of the Abbot 
of Abyndon with the aforesaid place, and this wall the Abbot is 
bound to keep in order : John le clerc and Alice his wife, tenants 
of Abyndon Abbey, say that the wall has fallen down ten feet to the 
injury of the Prioress of Stodle; order issued for repair. Earthen 
or turf walls were not much in use in the fourteenth century ; from 
these to the palings which Agas gives us, and thence to the stone wall 
or iron fencing, we may observe three stages in the methods of enclosing 
property. The remainder of this side of the Turl we shall see 
hereafter. 

P. 140. ' But wee follow on our waie directly betweene the 
Southside of Exeter Colledge and the Northside of Lincolne 
and Brasen Nose Coll. Att the end of which Lane there is 
an Entrance from St. Marie's into the common Schooles.' 

Crossing Turl street as thus proposed, we come to the site of 
St. Mildred's Church and churchyard. The church lay wholly 
in what is now the north part of Lincoln first quadrangle; the 
churchyard reached up to Exeter College wall, indeed at the eastern 
end it may have encroached upon their present boundary 1 ; it also 
reached about six feet into the Turl. The church, as described in 
documents, seems to have been in a line with Little Deep Hall, 
described in a rental of St. John's Hospital of the year 1294 (V. p. 232) 
as next to the church and east of it. The churchyard is mentioned 
in 1439 (V. p. 58) when Edmund Andever the Prior of St. Frideswyde's 
granted to John Beke the Rector of Lincoln College and to the Fellows 
of the same two messuages in Oxon, whereof one commonly 
called Brendhall, upon which was then built the tower over the west 
gate of the College, lay between the garden lately of Robert Graumford 
of South Newton on the south, and the cemetery lately of the church of 
St. Mildred on the north. In 1435 (Tw. 23, p. 392) the Burgesses 
of Oxon leased to Mr. John Cooke Warden or Rector and to the 

1 This may account for a grave found in Exeter, containing a number of small 
silver coins, and the stone figure of a king's head now secured in the cellar wall at 
the extreme south-east, and said to be over the spot where it was discovered. 



MARKET STREET TO ALL SOULS 



155 



Scholars of Lincoln College for the enlargment of the College a 
certain parcel of land adjoining the said College in St. Mildred's 
lane containing in length from the west towards the east (beginning 
from the east angle of the cemetery of the church lately of St. Mildred, 
Oxon) one hundred and three feet; the width at the same angle 
being thirteen feet, at the middle eleven feet and two thumbs : and 
the breadth of the said lane from the same angle being seventeen 
feet nine thumbs 1 , and in the middle sixteen feet, and at the east 
end of the said parcell of land twenty-three feet. Dated at Oxford, 
1 Aug., 13 Hen. VI. 

South of the churchyard or of a lane on its south side came 
Brend Hall, the first mention of which is in a coroner's inquest 
of 131 3, at the time of the contests between north and south (Tw. 
2 3> P- r 55) : Matthew of Keuthelekys in Wales was found dead in 
Brendhall near the Church of S. Mildred, stabbed by John de 
Fulney with a knife. 

The grant from St. Frideswyde's Priory to Lincoln College in 
1439, quoted above, also shows us the situation of Graumford's 
garden, elsewhere called Craumford's Hall. This Hall, Mr. Clark 
tells us, was, at the time of the foundation, void ground, and here 
the Bishop began his building 2 . 

Proceeding south, Hampton Hall is to be noticed with its alias 
of Little Bodyn. The first notice of this occurs in about 1262 
(Wi. 636), when Juliana Bodyn gives a small rent from it, for 
charity's sake, to St. Frideswyde's. In 1328 (V. p. 11) the Hampton 
family have possession of it, possibly through marriage with the 
heiress of the Bodyns, and Eva de Hampton and two executors 
of the will of John de Hampton, sometime Apothecary of Oxford, 
acknowledge to ha^e received of William de Hampton, Clerk, 
£33 l 5 s - m P art payment of £45, which the said William owed 
them for the purchase of a hall called Hampton Hall in the Parish 
of St. Mildred. When this William died, 1336, the property is described 
(ibid.) as between the tenement of John the Saucer on the north and 
the tenement once of Nicholas the mercer on the south. In 1347 
(V. p. 12) John de Bereford, as one of the executors of Margaret, 
daughter of John Bost, and others, granted it to Masters Roger of 
Aswardby and Laurence of Radford, Fellows of University, as she 

1 A thumb's width is about one inch : — a foot rule, a thumb rule, ' by rule 
of thumb.' 

3 History of Lincoln College (1898), p. 4: cf. also City, i. 124, note 4. 



156 AGAS'S PLAN AND IIUTTEN'S SURVEY [ii 



wished it to be sold. It is mentioned as Bodyn Hall, c. 1262, and 
again in 1374, when it is made evident that the two names apply 
to the same hall, for University College being behindhand in a reserved 
rent upon the hall, it was agreed in 1374 (Wi. 464) at the parvise in 
St. Paul's, London, that the college should partly pay and partly give 
security to St. Frideswyde's for a rent of five shillings from Hamptone- 
halle of old called Bodyn. 

As to the College which occupies the sites of all these old Halls, 
it may be truly said that Lincoln is a typical example of college 
building. It is mainly of two stories, and only partly disfigured 
by the modern and foolish addition of embattlements. The hall 
has been restored nearly to its former condition and the old roof 
skilfully put back into working order. The kitchen is a substantial 
structure, whose history is probably unknown; and in the basement 
of the north range there is a solid wall clearly different from the 
masonry around it ; the shafts of two or three pillars may also be 
of an early date; but besides these there are no apparent traces 
of St. Mildred's Church. The chapel is a notable example of the 
survival of Gothic design in Oxford. It should be studied in con- 
nexion with the hall of Exeter College, a design carried out about ten 
years earlier. 

Next after the south boundary line of the old St. Mildred's parish, 
the halls on the south of the true St. Mildred's Lane, called (V. p. 83) 
' the Lane to St. Mildred's Church from Schools' Street,' demand 
attention, those on the north having been already examined in Mr. 
Boase's Register of Exeter College (vol. xxvii. of this series, pp. xiv. sqq.). 
To the east of St. Mildred's churchyard an annotator to Wood's City 
(i. p. 122, n. 5 (8)), probably William Smith, places a lane ('venella'). 
This is shown also in Agas, where it has a small gateway at its 
north end close to a turret-like building intended for Lincoln College 
kitchen. This will account for Brasenose having windows looking 
over Lincoln Grove. Beyond the lane eastward came Little Deep 
Hall ; ' Deep ' because the street, which was at one time a receptacle 
for house-rubbish, had gradually risen in front, and steps down into 
the building had become necessary ; and ' Little ' by way of 
distinction from six others. Then came Winton Hall, whose 
history begins very early, c. 1215 (Wi. 626), when Master Alard, 
sub-dean of the Church of Wells, quitclaimed it to Thomas, son of 
Wydo. The next charter (ibid. 627) is rubricated as the grant of the 
same land by Agatha, wife of Thomas son of Wydo, to John Halegod, 



VM 



MARKET STREET TO ALL SOULS 



157 



wherein are contained the two Winton messuages. The next (ibid. 628) 
(1 230-1 240) is a grant by John Halegod to Thomas of Winchester, 
clerk, of two houses lying between land of Walter Feteplace and land 
of Thomas de Bedeford. These names would not, by themselves, 
identify the property: but the name Winton Hall is that, by which 
it appears in the Cartulary of St. Frideswyde, to whom it was given 
by the same Thomas of Winchester. In 1331 (V. p. 13) and 1372 
(ibid.) the Hall is described as west of Olifant Hall. In 1 430 (ibid. p. 54) 
the messuage called Depehall in the parish of S. Mildred is described 
as between the church of St. Mildred on the west and a garden or toft 
of St. Frideswyde on the east. Winton Hall had therefore been 
converted into a garden and the buildings had disappeared. In 1439 
(V. p. 58) St. Frideswyde's granted it to Lincoln, as a messuage called 
Wynton Hall, lying between the tenement once called Little Depehall 
belonging to St. John's Hospital and the garden of University College 
on the east, and containing in length from north to south (on its 
east side) along the garden of Hampton hall, as far as the messuage 
of John Warwyck and John Barbur, fifty-one rods and two feet, 
and from the north (on the same side) along University College 
garden to the garden of Roger Folkys, forty- six rods ; and on the 
western side, containing from north to south as far as the Garden 
of Hampton Hall, thirty-four rods and three quarters and two 
thumbs ; and in breadth (at the north part) twenty rods and two 
thumbs and (at the southern part) which is angular, at the 
beginning of it eight rods and two and a half feet, and at the 
end of it, near John Warwyke's messuage, four rods and one 
foot. There are other documents confirming the position east and 
west. 

Passing eastward, Olifant Hall, sometimes Unicorn Hall, is 
found. A deed (V. p. 13), the date of which is not wholly legible, 
gives the boundaries east and west : Nicholas de Shordich con- 
veys to Roger de Lodelow, A 0 Ed. . . . 5 et Franciae 1 2 \ two 
tenements (Olifaunt and Culverd) Olifaunt hall being then situated 
between Sheldhall on the east and a tenement of St. Frideswyde's on 
the west — perhaps Winchester Hall. The halls were given by Roger de 
Lodelow to University College in 1353. In 1372 (ibid.) University 
College leased to John Ware, draper of Oxford, an empty place 

1 Edward III assumed the title of King of France, 25 Jan. 1339-40, and the 
document must therefore be dated of England the 25th and of France the 12th, 
i.e. Jan. 1350-1 to Jan. 1351-2. 



158 AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY 



lately called Le Olyphant Hall between Wynchestrehall on the west 
and a tenement of the same college, called Shieldhall, on the east. 
The measurements given in the false charter of Champyrnay may perhaps 
have been accurately estimated ; it has a garden (Tw. 23, p. 365) eight 
perches in length and two and a half perches in breadth, and for 
all services &c. it pays per annum a red rose at the feast of the Nativity 
of St. John the Baptist, when asked for. It was bought of University 
College in 1463, and is the eastern boundary of Lincoln. Then came 
Shield Hall, one of at least eight of that name, also belonging 
to University College. It is first mentioned in the charter of Nicholas 
de Shordich, quoted above, and in the Champyrnay false charter the 
dimensions are given thus : ' The second messuage is called by the 
common name of Shield Hall and has a garden of seven perches 
in length by two in width and pays per annum for all dues &c. 6s. at 
the two terms of the year.' Then came St. Thomas' Hall, or Staple 
Hall, ' the most East of the three Halls the College had together ' 
(Smith, Univ. Coll. 90). The King's Hall of Brasenose (V. p. 22) 
held it in 1461 as a garden, for in the grant by John Marton, master, 
and the Scholars of Durham Hall to Mr. John Tristhorp, Rector of 
Lyncoln, of Hampton Hall, Sekyll Hall and Olifaunte Hall, the eastern 
boundary of the last is given as the garden of University College, 
commonly called Sheild hall, in the occupation of the scholars of 
Brasenose Hall. 

Ivy Hall stood next, once the property of our Lady of Stodele. 
There is a notice of this Hall in 1402 (Tw. 23, p. 410), from a rental 
of Studley ; 'expenses about an agreement for Ivehall 14^.' In 1435 
the Principal of Brasenose Hall rented it (ibid. 409). In a list of 
Halls licensed by the Chancellor's court in 1438 (Wood, D. 3, p. 66) it 
stands as ' Ivy next to Brasenose Hall ' ; and that it was to the west is 
clear from an account of rents of Stodley Priory (Tw. 23, p. 246), where 
the order is Sheldehall, Peryhall, Ivyhall, Brasennosehall. Wm. Smith 
{City, i. p. 122, n. 5), who in his seventy-seventh year took great 
pains in ascertaining the history of University College, also places it 
here. At the corner came University Hall, distinguished as ' Little.' 
The authority last quoted says it is never called Jussell house or 
Russell, and he seems to have taken the trouble to annotate this in 
Wood's MS. (V. p. 32), where he states that 'the writer (1375) of 
a charter at University College among those pertaining to St. Frideswyde 
was under an error,' and going on to say that ' the domus angularis 
afterwards " The Small Hall of the University " was distinct from 



vi] MARKET STREET TO ALL SOULS 159 

Jussell's tenement which was called Brasennose Hall and lay on the 
south of the angle tenement/ and that ' Jussell's tenement was passed 
to Flemyng who passed it to his son R. whence it passed to Simon 
Bolindon Canon of Lichfield who sold it to the University for the use 
of Durham's scholars.' A rental of St. Frideswyde, 1375 (V. p. 491), 
rates Jussell House as separate from this hall. Apart, however, 
from these minute details, Little University Hall deserves notice, not 
for any supposed foundation by Alfred the Great, but because the 
purchase of it by the University out of the moneys of William of 
Durham marks the earliest beginning of the collegiate system. The 
account given by Smith {Univ. Coll., 7-9) is as follows : William 
of Durham bequeathed to the University three hundred and ten 
marks, and with this legacy the University bought in the year 
1253, of the Prior and Hospital of Brackley for thirty-six marks in 
gersumam, the angular or corner house standing in School Street, 
since part of the front of Brasenose College. In 1508, John 
Rokesby, master (V. p. 292), and the fellows of University College 
granted to Richard Sutton Esquire and eight others, clerks, Brasenose 
Hall and Little University Hall &c. for the term of ninety-two years, 
paying yearly a rent of £3 renewable at the expiration of the term 
for a like term. 

After Jussell's Tenement, Brasenose Hall came next towards 
the south. The name was given to it because it had on its 
door a knocker, with a human or animal head like those which 
are called sanctuary knockers. The knocker now in the Dining 
Hall of Brasenose College is believed to have belonged to the Hall 
whose place and title the modern college has assumed. The nose 
of the head, that of a lion or leopard, is so marked a feature that 
it may well have given its name to the entire knocker. When in 
early times the City and the University were at strife, the students 
sometimes resorted to migration, and it is believed that on one of 
these occasions the knocker was carried away with them as a species 
of tutelary badge to Stamford. In 1890. the College reacquired it, 
and have given it a place of honour in their Dining Hall. 

The southern boundary of the hall was, in 15 10 (V. p. 293), the 
Oriel tenement called ' Salesury and S. Marie's entry.' The history 
of these tenements given by Smith ( Univ. Coll., p. 10) is as follows: about 
the year 1262, the University purchased with William of Durham's 
legacy from Simon of Balinden, a canon of Lichfield, a property on 
the south side of their first corner house in School Street. Whatever 



i6o AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [ii 



name it had then, it was certainly called Brasenose Hall in 1279. 
The forged document of Champyrnay of whatever date (Tw. 23, p. 365) 
supplies us with some measurements : one tenement is called Brasnos 
and has a court or small garden containing in length 1 three perches, 
in breadth fourteen feet and as much in length : next follows another, 
called ' Russell at the corner/ and has a garden five perches and 
two feet in length and three perches four feet in breadth. In 1508, 
Oct. 20 (Tw. 23, p. 126), John Rokesburgh, Master, and the Fellows 
of University College demised to Richard Sutton Brasenose Hall and 
Little University Hall with gardens &c. abutting on the east upon 
part of Schools Street, on the south upon an hall and garden called 
Salysbury, on the north upon a street or lane extending from School 
Street towards Lincoln College and on the west on Lincoln College. 

Little St. Mary's entry and Salesurry Hall follow next. In 
I 333 (O. p. 59)' among Juliana Feteplace's demises to Richard Tekne 
of Northampton, Salisbury Hall is described as a messuage and two 
shops in the parish of St. Mary the Virgin situated near Le Brasenose 
on the south and called le sale de Syrrae ; this, though a strange \ 
form, is doubtless nothing more than a corruption of the usual name, i; 
The house and two shops facing the churchyard, for that of St. Mary's 
reached thus far to the west, give quite an air of rusticity to the spot. 
In 1392 Oriel College acquired the property of the gild of St. Thomas, 
in St. Mary's Church ; and this included a messuage called Salisyrry i 
between Le Brasynnose on the north and the Entry of Juliana Glasier j 
on the south. In the same year (O. p. 30) Oriel leased the same for a |; 
hundred years to John Maddesdon and Robert Abyngdon at Smythgate, 
skynner, on condition that they should find a fit chaplain to celebrate 
morning mass for the souls of the King and of divers benefactors 
to the church, and also provide the holy vessels, garments, books and | 
other necessaries. St. Mary's Entry and Salisbury Hall have a common 1 
east boundary, and have generally passed by the same instruments of | 
conveyance, as in 1508, Oct. 20 (Tw. 23, p. 126), when Oriel College 
demised to Sir Richard Sutton and others Salesury and S. Maryentre 
with gardens and buildings as they lie between Brasennose Hall on 
the north, Little St. Edmund's Hall on the south, School street on [ 
the east and land of All Souls College now in the tenancy of | 
William Chamber on the West. The All Souls land is shown in the 
map reproduced by Skelton {pi. 55*) 2 , and proves that the depth of 

1 Sic. Perhaps miscopied by Twyne. 

2 PL 14T, in the Edition of 1843. 



|vi] MARKET STREET TO ALL SOULS 161 

these properties, east to west, was about a hundred feet. Twyne 
(23, p. 127), without mentioning dates, but probably referring to the 
time of the building of Brasenose College, says : * St. Mary entre 
was demolished and layed into Brasenose Coll. quadrangle — one 
would guess . . . that Salisbyry hall lay between that and the College, 
and I take it to have been part of a lane and shutt up, which ran in 
a straight line with that behind St. Mary's Church yard, and had 
an exit south of Lincoln College in which stood three halls now 
made part of the site of Lincoln Coll. and held by quitt rent of 
Univ. Coll/ It should be noted that Wood [City, i. 83, note 4) 
suspected that the churchyard of St. Mary's had once extended to 
the westward ; he adds : ' a token of which was the digging up of 
bones at the west end of Brasnose College Chapel, 15 or 16 feet 
deepe, because the ground hath bin soe much raised.' This has been 
confirmed by excavations made in 1895, in digging the trenches for 
the footings of the new house, distant five feet south from Brasenose 
chapel. There were then found a bronze coin of Antoninus, some 
ancient skeletons of prehistoric type, and some bits of Roman 
pottery. The workman proved very satisfactorily that a skeleton 
near the south-east buttress was put in upright. This seems to 
have been one reburied in Wood's time. The extreme state of 
decay of many of the skeletons points most plainly to a period 
when Schools Street was a lane across the churchyard ; and some 
of the Christian graves were actually under the pavement. Old as 
these interments were, they were in made ground. At the angle 
toward St. Mary's there remained the untouched gravel of the Oxford 
district, over it twenty inches of the usual red, loamy soil, and above 
that five feet eight inches of added soil. The six skeletons found 
i near that angle were found at ten feet ten inches below the present 
pavement. A very early wall ran east and west thirteen feet nine 
inches to the north of the seventeenth-century house still left standing, 
and a remarkable catch-pit with filtering apparatus was also found, 
drawings of which have been preserved \ 

Little St. Edmund Hall, or the House of Lucy de Worth, came 
next to the south. The first mention of it as yet found is in an 
Osney rental of 1261 (V. p. 459, i.), on which Wood says: 'The 
house of Lucy de Worth had a Principal, it is said there to be in 
the Cimiterio B. Mar. Virg.' It seems to have been on the spot 
excavated in 1895. The names of several Principals are given in 

1 Vide plan; MS. H. H. p. 161 1. 
M 



i6 2 AGAS'S PLAN AND IIUTTEN'S SURVEY [ii 



Wood's City (i. 592), several others occur in the Osney rentals. 
In 1491 (V. p. 293) its south boundary is given: 'The Abbot and 
Convent of Ousney let to farme to John Mertock A. M. and Bac. of 
Physic 1 , at the feast of S. Michael 1491, little Edmund Hall between 
the garden of John Caswell (belonging to Godstow) & St. Mary's 
entry on the north.' The Oriel charter of 15 10 (ibid.) describes 
their tenement called Salesury and S. Marie's Entry as situated 
between Brasenose on the north and Little Edmund Hall on 
the south. In speaking of Haberdasher Hall hereafter, another 
document will be quoted, quite enough to prove the position 
of Lucie Worth's tenement 'to the hilt,' or as W. Smith phrases 
it, 'to pin the basket.' Winsore, with his usual disregard for proof 
(Bal 83), assures us that 'Edmund Hall near Brazenose Coll. 
was built by St. Edmund.' The college which occupies the sites 
of all these halls can claim a fair place among the architectural 
beauties of Oxford : the gateway is unequalled and characteristic, 
sufficient to guide any real architect in remodelling or rebuilding 
the ugly design of Wren over the ' fair ' gate of Christ Church ; it 
is free from the heaviness of earlier specimens, yet severe enough 
for a college. The former Principal's Lodging over the main 
entrance has undergone many changes, but is still highly characteristic ; 
the ceiling, apparently original, is designed in an earlier style. Just 
south of the entrance tower is an old doorway with a wicket 
probably from an early hall. The roof of the chapel, said to have 
been removed from St. Mary's College, now Frewin Hall, is a pleasing 
variety of gothic, the whole structure a strange but clever mixture 
of renaissance and medieval design. This completes the Brasenose 
College of old times, for it was not till 1887 that the college extended 
its bounds southward and built a second gateway, this time into | 
High Street, masking also its new front to that street with a gothic 
facade. 

Our author must have seen the eastern side of Schools Street j 
filled with houses, but apparently not encroaching so much on the 
churchyard of St. Mary's as had formerly been the case. This side 
of the street it will be as well to take from south to north, so that 
Pilet School in Schole Lane, or Glasyn Hall, is first to be con- 
sidered. It is not till 1624 that we find Twyne (23, p. 127) writing, 
' Glasyn hall alias Pyllets is the littell old buildinge nowe Brasennose 
College Stable,' and the position of this stable is shown us in the 
1 The donor of the Lectern at Merton, d. 1503. 



ii, vi] MARKET STREET TO ALL SOULS 163 

1736 map. Pylet is a rather common family name, and Glassen no 
doubt refers to the extra display of windows in the building. It and 
some Pylett schools apparently near to it, figure from 1 258-1 462 
(V. pp. 418-476) in the Osney rentals, sometimes as upper schools, 
sometimes as lower, and sometimes as both. Wood (V. p. 464) under 
the year 1377 remarks that it is the first time he finds Glasen Hall 
so called. These lists of Schools generally follow one order with 
a little more consistency than is found in the lists of Halls in the 
Chancellor's books. In 1392 (V. p. 471) the Tenement and the School 

; are classed as one. Deep Hall, or Balehorne's Tenement, is described 
by Wood (Ci/y, i. 134) as situated between land of Eynsham Abbey 

t on the north, and land sometime of John Pilet on the south. The 
Deep School, otherwise Helle School, of 1276 (V. p. 425), must be 
disiinct from this, standing farther north, between Alienore Schools 

! and the Cellar at the corner near Torald's. The position is roughly 
given as far back as about 1225^ (V. p. 489), but the bounds given 
belong to owners not elsewhere mentioned as far as is at present 
known. It was Osney property, and is found in its proper place 

\ in the rental of 13 16 (V. p. 460); Deep Hall is absent; but 
there come Schools over Balehorne's stalls (or selds), to which 
Wood appends 1 Deephall,' and on examination these seem also 
farther north. In the Oriel documents about the year 1226 
(Shadwell, Catal. Munim. Oriel, ii. 6) is a charter giving four 
boundaries : Robert de Fletham, Rector of the Church of St. Mary's 
demises to Richard Mason or Plasterer (Cementarius) of Abendon, 
all that tenement in the Street of Schools in the parish of St. Mary 
which was of the gift of Dionis the daughter of Symon Gildynsmith 
for a light within his church situate between a tenement of the Abbot 
of Oseney on the one side and a tenement of Walter Feteplace on the 
other and reaching back from the King's Highway which is called 
Schools Street to a tenement of Anketil for the term of his life, he 

. ' paying no rent during his superintendence of the work in progress on 
St. Mary's Church, and after the completion of such work paying 

i ' a rent of twelve shillings silver. Among the witnesses are William 
the apothecary, William the binder of books, another of the same 
trade, and three others; William the ligator we shall come across 
again, and when his occupation assumes the Norman form Lyour 
it is strange to meet with the word among witnesses. In the list of 
Halls in the Chancellor's accounts of 1449 (D. 3, p. 84) come the 
following, in order: Glass Hall, Deep Hall joined to Glass Hall, 

m 2 



164 AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [vi 

Brasenose, another reason for supposing it to be distant from 
St. Mary's about one-third of the entire length of the street. 

Stapull Hall, the next north, occurs frequently in the Osney 
rentals, and seems from the order in 131 7 (V. p. 419) to be Belew's 
House. At this time there were on that side of the street mainly on 
the site of Bodley's Schools sixteen Halls belonging to the Abbey, one 
belonging to the University, and two to other owners. The order 
is so regular that we can be sure that they stood (1) Glassyn, (2) 
omitted as not Osney's, (3) Steeple, and (4) Black. In 1527 
(V. p. 292) a few further particulars are given : John Cottisford, 
Rector of Lincoln, let to farm to Richard Lister Esquire Attorney 
General Staple Haulle with a garden and scite of the same situate 
in Schoolstreet between Black Hall on the north and a tenement 
opposite Brasnose Coll: called Glasynhall on the south containing 
in length towards Scoolstreet fifty-eight feet; towards Glasynhall 
eighty feet, towards a tenement of St. Frideswyde in Cat street, on 
the east, eighty-six feet; and towards Blackhall eighty-eight feet: 
and Lyncoln College let it to Brasenose in 1556 for 20s. a year. 
But in the bounds of Blackhall in 1530, Staple Hall is stated to 
have disappeared, so that a new house had been erected. Twyne 
(23, p. 127) has drawn a plan to show the position of the several 
Halls, Black, Staple, and Glasen, in 1527. Blackhall is drawn in the 
1736 map (Skelton 55*) as extending from the middle of the west side 
of the Radcliffe Camera northwards to the middle of the entrance to 
Brasenose Lane. Its west face corresponded with the edge of the 
street on that side, being about twenty-four feet from the front of 
the College, and ran directly for the boundary cross in the south wall \ 
of the Bodleian Library, while its width was from the edge of the old 
road as far as the side of the Camera ; its grounds, however, reached 
well beyond the present north approach to the same building. It is 
conspicuous in Agas, but placed rather too far south to correspond 
with the map above noted. 

Pasc Hall, to all appearance part of the University Schools, com- 
menced north of the last, after a small interval which extended slightly 
beyond the present posts beneath Heber's tree, and its west front 
followed the same line toward the boundary cross there. There is 
a notice of this Hall of about the year 1303 (Tw. 23, p. 103) : Alicia 
of Abendon Prioress of Litelmore demised to John de Warham, 
parchmentmaker of Oxford, a cellar with solar and curtilage belonging 
to a hall called Paschalle, except a small area of ten feet part of the 



MARKET STREET TO ALL SOULS 



165 



said curtilage in which the servants of the prioress and convent 
can place their ladders and tools for mending the hall, &c. On 
the back is this memorandum : The place formerly built and called 
Paschalhalle is now a garden which John le Barbur, of the parish 
of St. Mary holds for 30^. Wood {City, i. 90) supplies some other 
particulars. 

In passing along Somnore's Lane, Exeter Schools, north of the 
present Divinity School, were omitted, and the series of five Osney 
schools which faced them and the west end of the Divinity School now 
remain for consideration. These adjoined the University Schools, 
and were called Burchester Schools and Cruste School, Alienore 
School and Helle School (?), following in this order northwards. 
With Mr. Clark's note upon these [City, i. 89), and Gutch's edition 
of Wood's History of the University (vol. ii. pt. 2, pp. 730-755), 
should be considered Bereblock's view of the five schools rebuilt 
by Queen Mary probably on the same foundations, after their 
desolation in her brothers time. Two early structures in addition 
to the Littlemore Schools before mentioned lay to the east of these 
schools, Stockwell Hall the northern and St. Mary's Entry the 
southern of the two, but the positions are not very clearly defined. 
The south-east angle of the Bodley Schools, called the Logic School, 
was occupied by some houses of Magdalen, and the transfer of the 
freehold to the University took place but a short time ago. Our 
Lady's House, probably that of the priest of the Octagonal Chapel, 
a Cat Hall, and perhaps an Arthur Hall, probably faced these last on 
the Hertford site. Arthur Hall, if the order of the Exeter Com- 
putus Roll in 1329 (V. p. 318) is to be taken as our guide, would 
come between Hart Hall and Sheld Hall, and consequently be an 
alias for a Micheld Hall, as in Boase (Ex. 285(6)), which describes 
Hart Hall as between the tenement of the University called le Black- 
halle on the west and the tenement of the prioress of Stodleye called 
le Micheldhalle on the east. Unless we regard Micheld as a corrupted 
form of Sheld, Arthur Hall must be farther south, perhaps even as far 
as the edge of the closed lane between Hertford and All Souls. With 
regard to Cat Hall, Smith, or some annotator upon Twyne (23, 
p. 371), seems to have known its position: in the Hustings Court, 
Monday after Lady Day, 14 10, the supervisors of nuisances presented 
that between the tenement of Mr. William Faryndon [in the margin 
Twyne notes that he was lessee of a tenement called Cat Hall which 
adjoins Arthur Hall on the north which adjoins Hart Hall on the 



166 AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [vi 



north {vide pyx F. N. 40 in the Schools Tower)] situated in the parish 
of St. Mary Oxon and the tenement of Stapledon College, there 
stands an earthen wall containing in length eighteen rods north and 
south. Other notes place it between a tenement of the University 
(Black Flail) on the north and a tenement of St. Frideswide (Gode- 
knave Hall) on the south. It is described as a garden in a Chancellor's 
list of 1451 (D. 3, p. 91). Continuing south we find Herborew Hall, 
belonging to St. John's Hospital. It is given as the north boundary 
of Godeknave Hall c. 12 15 (Wi. 410), and this agrees with the 
Hospital Charter 1249^. (V. p, 217), whereby Henry son of Simeon 
of Oxford grants to Andrew Halegod that messuage which is called 
Herburwe Hall in the parish of S. Mary the Virgin in Catestrete viz. 
between the land sometime of William the parson of Boclond and 
the messuage which was once Roger Godegnave's. Godegnave 
(Good knave or squire) Hall, Stanlake Hall or Lysewyes' tene- 
ment comes next, the property of St. Frideswyde; in 1309 (V. p. 138, 
xxv.) William called Oerl of Gloucester and Rosa Balle his wife, one 
of the coheirs of Thomas Balle of Oxford, and the other coheirs, her 
sisters, granted to Thomas de Stanlake a messuage in Catstreet 
situated between the land of St. Frideswyde on the north and a 
tenement once of Simon the bookbinder on the south. This agrees 
with the charter above of 12497ft. In a document of 1314 (ibid, 
xxx.) is mentioned a Thomas de Stanlake called of Grandpont 
in Oxford, leading Wood to the conclusion that Grandpont Hall is 
the same as Stanlake Hall. The question of Lysewyse being a third 
name is rather too tedious to enter into. 

Tinchwick Yn comes next, an inn, which in 1442 (V. p. 140, xlix.) 
is given as a south boundary of a tenement of St. Frideswyde, and if 
this is Godknave Hall it is not clear why Grandpont Hall is omitted. 
Under another description, viz. Bereford's tenement, it appears to be 
north of St. Thomas' Hall. In 1442 (ibid. 140, li.) the Abbot 
and convent of Oseney convey to Richard Andrews, Warden of All 
Souls, their tenement lately called St. Thomas Hall, lately between the 
tenement of John Bereford on the north and the hall lately called 
Bereford Hall on the south, upon which the chapel of the said 
college has been built: rent 36^. 8^. Godgnave and Grandpont 
Halls with Tinchwick Inn now form the second or north quadrangle 
of All Souls, in which once stood some cloisters, at a distance of 
about twenty feet from the chapel, as Agas's map indicates, and 
this position is confirmed by Loggan's very similar but more refined 



MARKET STREET TO ALL SOULS 



167 



sketch. In 1491 (V. p. 148) Wood notes an epistle written by 
the college to Thomas Overy precentor of Wells that he would 
be pleased to bestow some moneys toward the finishing of their 
cloister, and (ibid.) in the same year another epistle to James 
Goldwell bishop of Norwich wherein also his help is implored, 
telling him also that three parts of their cloister was finished and 
when all was done they intended it for processions for private 
prayers and for burials. Here again other documents demand the 
insertion of a hall or tenement of St. Frideswyde, for Godgnave is 
too far north to suit other statements. St. Thomas' Hall has been 
mentioned fully enough under Tinchwick Inn just above. Next is 
the corner house which it is better to take here than when the High 
Street is being considered. This was Charlton's Inn or Berford Hall, 
and its history is well known. John de la Wyke, our Berkshire 
acquaintance, granted it to John of Northampton and two others before 
1366 (V. p. 137,1.); John of Northampton to three clerks and Robert 
Brom in 1366 (ibid.) ; Robert Skeron to two John Broms, as Bereford 
Hall lately called Cherlton's Inn (ibid, ii.), in 1430 ; and the two John 
Broms to Archbishop Chicheley and two others in 1437 (ibid. iv.). 
John de Bereford, the mayor, who owned the Swyndlestock, by his will, 
1 36 1, gave for the support of his chaplain in All Saints 30^. rents, from 
Batheshyn in St. Martin, and 23.9. \d. ' from a certain messuage with 
shops joined to it situated in the parish of All Saints which I now 
inhabit,' with other benefactions for the same purpose, so that the 
Bereford Hall by St. Mary's was not his residence at that time. 
The buildings of All Souls must not be left without paying a tribute 
to the beautiful architecture of the first quadrangle and its glorious 
chapel with its most exquisite reredos, finest of all the restorations 
made in the Victorian age. Too much can scarcely be said about the 
beautiful ancient glass in the ante-chapel, especially as a west window 
there, the one farthest to the north, contains some delicately-worked 
portraits of the founder and other celebrities. They were removed 
from the old Library (on the east side of the first quadrangle), and 
consequently being intended for close inspection, were executed with 
great refinement. The old Library as now restored is a beautiful 
example of an Elizabethan room. 

We will now consider some places omitted lying in the lane north 
of St. Mary's Church called School Lane or Little Lane, which still 
exists but in a widened form, and we again begin at the west end 
where stood Pylet Hall. G-odstowe Hall is next to that on the east, 



i68 AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [ii 



as is shown in the Godstowe cartulary. Wood refers to Twyne's 
extract from the Latin Godstowe Register, f. 113, in which it is more 
fully described as facing the little shop (stanulla x ) of the cemetery of 
Blessed Mary at the north, and he adds a note of Twyne's : It was 
a bookbinder's house as appears in the same place. The passage 
does not appear to be in the English version of the cartulary, but the 
following refers to the same property : ' Royse Abbesse of Godestowe 
... to John Stanys, bynder of books of Oxenford, leased to ferme and 
remytted one mese in St. Mary parish in the next strete to the Church 
of our Lady in the northe parte, Isette betwene the Abbot of Oseney's 
house the which was Icalled somtyme the halle of Pylate and the 
howse of William Bretham of the other, to them and their successours 
paying 8s. of yerely rent ' (at the four terms of the year — repairing 
and re-entering clauses follow — no date). 

Further on came a tenement of Osney and then Corner Schools 
or the Great Schools, the property of Oriel College. This was 
bought by Richard de Overton in 1333 of John son of John of West 
Stretford, and Lord of the same, and is then described as a tenement 
in St. Mary's parish called Great Schools, facing the church of Saint 
Mary on the north at the corner of Cat-street, situated between 
a tenement of the Abbot and convent of Osney on the west and 
a tenement which Thomas de Hamme 2 holds of John, son of 
William of West Stretford, the father of the vendor, on the east. 
By divers mesne conveyances, in one of which it is described as north 
of the church, at the corner which leads to Cat-street, in which the 
Decretals were wont to be read, the property passed from Overton's 
hands to those of other members of Oriel, until in 1362 it was finally 
acquired by Oriel : Overton's purchase was doubtless made out of 
moneys bequeathed by Adam de Brome, for the benefit of the 
College. 

In the assignment in 1442 of the Oxford property of Oriel to the 
City (Ogle's Royal Letters, p. 99) it is described as a messuage in 
Cat Street at the corner, facing the Church of Saint Mary between 
a messuage of William Ffowler of Buckingham on the north and a 
small lane leading to the cemetery of the Church of Saint Mary on 
the south : about which it may be asked whether the ground north 
of the Old Convocation House was not part of the churchyard at 
that time. Thomas de Hamme's tenement on the east, i. e. beyond 

1 Diminutive of stallum, stall or shop. Du Cange. 

2 Probably a bookseller and stationer : see Madan's Early Oxford Press, p. 369. 



vi] 



MARKET STREET TO ALL SOULS 



169 



the corner and in Cat Street, was only a small stall not worth 
consideration. 

Then probably, to the north, came the ' armer house ' of the 
parish, for which the churchwardens in 1538 (D. 3, p. 273) found 
a lock and key, and which was therefore, most likely, parish property. 
To this, among many indistinct references, we have one which shows 
that it may have been a Littlemore possession, 1481 (D. 3, p. 258): 
\ For id. rent, annual, from the tenement of the Prioress and Convent 
of Litlemore in the same street (Catestrete) between Magdalen 
tenement on the north and a tenement of John Clerke on the south.' 
North of this would be the tenement of Magdalen, touching the 
south-east part of the Camera, as the 1736 plan shows us. 

After a small space, and taking in nearly one quarter of the 
Camera, came the Exeter Schools, and therefore facing the 
modern doorway to All Souls' library. In the St. Mary's accounts 
(D. 3, p. 273) of the year 1538 stands the item 'for an annuall rent from 
Exeter College for a house in Cat Street between a garden belonging 
to S. Frideswyde on the north and a tenement of the abbess of 
Godstow on the south nd! Further north as far as the Bodley 
Schools, on the east side of the street, was the St. Mary's orchard. 
It occurs in 1582 (D. 3, p. 281): A Charter whereby Edmund 
Bennett Mayor and the two bailiffs did dimise to severall parishioners 
of St. Marie's for 300 years a certain garden ground backside or 
orchard in Cat Street (here Wood puts in ' in the middle ') in 
St. Marie's parish between a common garden of All Souls on the 
South and a garden of Hart Hall on the north, a woodyard belonging 
to New College on the east and on the west side a stable. The 
measurements are supplied by Gutch {Coll. and Halls, p. 283 n.), 
from the Act of Parliament which authorized the sale to All Souls, 
forty-four yards east to west, seventeen yards and three quarters 
wide at west end, and eleven yards and a half at the east; it 
would, therefore, have included the garden of St. Thomas' Chantry 
and Herborew Hall. 

The 'Entrance from St. Marie's into the common Schooles' of 
which Hutten speaks was not very convenient. On emerging from 
under St. Mary's tower a turn had to be made towards Brasenose 
College Chapel : then the way was along Schools Street quite to 
the north-west angle of Radcliffe Square and there two more sharp 
turns, right and left, completed the journey. The group of buildings 
from St. Mary's direct to Broad Street was designed for one central 



170 AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [iii 

way (the Palladians of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries 
were miserable without their ' vista '), and it is only the closing up 
of the basement of the Radcliffe which has put a check upon that 
design. 

The building of the western end of Bodley's Library, next to Exeter 
College, was begun in 1634 and finished in 1640. It has a groined 
roof (under the Selden Library) which should be noticed as a very 
late example of fan-tracery. Bodley did not see even the eastern 
end completed, as he died in the early part of the year 16 13, and 
the Proscholium was not completed till later. The very complete 
account by Mr. Clark in Wood's Life, especially in vol. ii. pp. 63-65, 
should be perused in connexion with this. Beautiful as the ceiling of 
the Divinity School is even now, it is difficult to imagine what 
a wonderful room it must have been when the broad windows were 
resplendent with heraldic devices and when, the greatest gem of all, 
the grand throne of Divinity still existed. Happily for us there is no 
need to lament over the sale of the very benches and bookcases of 
Duke Humphrey's Library nor over its half-ruined walls covered with 
weeds and hellebore ; we live in better days and Bodley is flourishing. 

xv. High Street, First Section; Carfax to 
All Saints' Church. 

P. 140. c But wee returne from henee unto the Conduit att 
Carefax, and there take view Eastward of the High Streete, 
which is the fairest and longest Streete of the Citty. For it 
beginneth from the Conduit, and is continued, on both sides, 
with Cittizens Houses all the length.' 

The third course towards the east of the City commences at the 
Conduit and extends to East Gate and no further. The street was 
much narrower at the west end in Hutten's days, for the houses on 
the north side of this part of High Street were some years ago set back 
several feet. It was at a time when architectural taste was at a low 
ebb, and the houses then erected have not added to the beauty or 
dignity of the street. 

Halfway towards All Saints Church on the north side, near the site 
ascribed to a two-faced pump of some celebrity, must have stood 
CroxforcVs Hall or Inn, once Romayne Hall. From many documents 
(V. p. 54) it appears that in 1229 four shops existed on its west side, 



p, ii] HIGH STREET 171 

seemingly demanding a lane or street with a west border. Between 
the Mitre and the western boundary of All Saints parish there is now 
no such lane, but Coleburne Lane was at that time continued 
southward into the High Street, nearly along the west side of the 
Market, as old drawings prove. From the evidence of a document of 
1384 (V. p. 59), Croxford Hall probably adjoined Harding Hall, which 
evidently lay back from the Corn Market ; and therefore Cole- 
burne Lane, south end and west side, is the most likely locality. 
It became Lincoln property, and that College once owned most of the 
Market. It was a corner house, as in an undated charter of Roger, 
Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry (V. p. 55), to which Wood appends 
the remark : ' This is a mistake most certainly except there were two 
Croxford's Innes for one lay almost as high as the two-faced pump.' 
But Wood {City, i. 82) wished to place it between Broadgate's Hall 
and Haberdasher's (probably but one building with two names), which 
are in St. Mary's parish, and our Hall is not. 

Elden Hall probably stood close to the eastern edge of the Market, 
where is now a railway office. It was not Lincoln property, or it 
would, most probably, have been sold with the rest of the Market 
site. It belonged to University College, and it is referred to as such 
(without its title) in a charter about The Mitre {Cz'/y, i. 79). 

This is the next inn, and seems from its cellars to have been 
originally two houses (Gill's and Dagville's), as is also shown by 
documents. In 1306 (V. pp. 55, 56), Philip of Wormenhale transfers 
to Robert of Watlington for the term of his life the messuage situated 
in All Saints parish between the tenement of the same Philip on 
the east and the tenement of John the son of Walter le Orfever 
on the west except a certain place at its north end : rent 33^. 4^. 
Wood adds, ' It is the Miter without doubt.' In 1488 m. (V. p. 65 b), 
Edmund Gille gives to Richard Northcote and others all that tene- 
ment in All Saints parish between the tenement called Dagvills ynn 
on the west and the tenement of University College on the east. 
Unless east and west have become transposed in this Charter (yet 
there are two versions both alike), the whole of the area will be in 
confusion ; and it is well known that DagvhTs was at the corner. The 
Mitre gateway, as far as can be judged at present, was at first Gille's, 
and the part at the corner next the Turl was Dagville's. The will of 
Joane Gille in i486 (Tw. 23, p. 541) seems to imply this, as it 
leaves, under certain conditions, ' to the town and Chamberlaines of 
Oxford the two tenements on the west side of Dagfeildes-ynne in 



172 AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [Hi 



the parish of All-hallowcs for evermore.' Later on the tenement 
of University College is called that 'on the west side/ 

There is a series of cellars belonging to this place, of extraordinary 
interest. At the corner of the Turl is a mixture of seventeenth- 
century and fourteenth-century vaulting. Under the next house to 
the north, in the Turl, appear pointed arches close to the pavement, 
as in the Carfax cellar, of which the east wall here is almost a duplicate. 
Then comes a square compartment with early Decorated vaulting- 
ribs and short engaged shafts, also an old window looking west. This 
part is left uninjured, and causes the raised ground floor in the wine- 
merchant's office. Lastly, under the next house north, a very narrow 
one, comes simple semicircular or barrel vaulting, in rough, grouted 
masonry and very thick walls. This seems to be six or seven hundred 
years old at the least. There is of medieval work above ground 
but very little to show at the Mitre, merely some chimneys and 
roofing over the central parts at the back. 

So much about the north side of this street, as regards the first 
section of it. The south has now to be looked to. At the angle 
where St. Aldate's meets the High Street, stands the corner tenement 
of Oriel, thus described in 1356 (O. p. 32): when John Tekene 
granted to John Wynewyk vicar of Rothewell, to Richard Tekene 
and another one half of certain shops and cellars in the parish of 
St. Martin at a certain corner of the four-ways between the tenement 
called Cnaphall and the land of the prioress of Stodley. Another 
charter by Henry de Stodley of Oxon, anno 14 10 (O. p. 55), has been 
already quoted under Knap Hall ; he was the owner of the second 
house there, which may be Boken Hall {City, i. 150, n. 4). 

The Postboys Inn and its neighbour, Nos. 139 and 140, were 
celebrated inns in the eighteenth century — fine timbered houses with 
barge-boards of good design, as we learn from old drawings, 
and are probably the two dark, old structures ' over against the 
two-faced pump.' Swanbourne Inn was the name of the house now 
No. 136. 

Kent's Hall, now probably the Chequers, No. 131, must have been, 
judging from the remains of a fine mantelpiece, the abode of a person 
of wealth. It is in a part of the High Street often called All Saints' 
Street, but sometimes, more loosely, St. Marie's Street, as in the 
following ' indenture between Robert the Abbot and the convent of 
Osney and Richard Kent, Alderman, and Joane his wife concerning 
four shoppes in All Saints' parish (Chequer Inne) . . . These shops 



HIGH STREET 



173 



were afterwards in the tenure of Edward Freere, about the Checquer 
inne, and there is mention of the tenement of the Chamberlaines of 
Oxon, which I suppose is that where the Goldsmith lives, sometimes 
an old lane.' Traces of this lane still appear. In Rawlinson, MS. 
D. 1268, this is further explained (p. 20): 'A lane with a dore below 
the Checquer where Wilkins the goldsmith now lives, went downe 
to St. Edward Lane, now Boar Lane, and to St. Edward schoole.' 
A little house here, with three small gables toward the street, 
No. 130, has, a few feet to the rear, the last visible remaining 
example of timber framing with curved angle-pieces. The passage 
east of that shop leads to a remarkable house or hall, once the 
Police station; and at its south end there existed till 1896 a pretty 
example of a house with exterior pargeting, once bearing the date 
1611. 

The house east of the Wheatsheaf passage, destroyed in 1896, had 
clearly been a fine house of about 1480, as indicated by several pieces 
of stone cornice-work. The red loam of Oxford was there seen at 
eight feet four inches depth. The next house, the prettiest in the entire 
High Street, proves to be of two periods in the front, c. 1620 and 
1740, but its west frame might probably be as old as 1350. From 
near this house, quite up to Carfax, the encroachments on the former 
road, made at two distinct periods, can still be clearly traced. 

We now come to the corner of Alfred Street or Bear Lane. It 
had its name from a house which has borne the names of Parne or 
Pirne Hall, the Tabard, and the Bear Inn. The name has been 
transferred to the lane which runs from its southern end to Oriel. As 
the lane led down to the east end of St. Edward's Church, the earliest 
name of it was St. Edward's Lane. St. Frideswyde's owned the corner 
house, and so in 1277 (Wi. 396): Robert Prior of St. Frideswyde's 
grants to Thomas called le Pape and to Juliana de Chilrethe his wife 
and to their only son for their lives the corner messuage called 
Pirnehalle, with one stall, where formerly was the entry into that 
messuage in All Saints parish situated between the land of Oliver the 
Seinter on the west and a street called Seint Edwardes lane on 
the east : rent two marks : thirty marks paid down. The following, 
of the year 1331, in the Great Book of Wills (Tw. 23, p. 512), is 
strongly in favour of the hall being also the same as Pine's : William 
Pirye gives and bequeaths a hall with appurtenances in which Henry 
de Campeden was wont to dwell in the High Street near St. Mary's 
Church with three chambers and a cellar with a stable and brew- 



174 ACAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [u 



house to his Executors, Robert de la Mere and Matilda de Milton, 
his maid, subject to a certain life interest, with directions to sell the 
hall and distribute the money for his soul and those of his benefactors. 
It will be noticed that it is near St. Mary's Church, and not near 
All Saints. In 1431 (Tw. 23, p. 379), John Bereford and Johanna 
his wife quitclaim to Richard the Prior of St. Frideswyde for a 
messuage shop cellar and solar in the parish of All Saints, between 
a tenement of St. Frideswyde on the west and the lane which leads 
to the church of St. Edward Oxon on the east, which messuage is 
called of old Le Tabard ; to which Smith adds, ' where is now the 
sign of the Bear/ The name Tabard also occurs thus, in 1457 
(D. 3, p. 103): 'the Sign of the Bear in the parish of All Saints, it 
seems was called the Tabard as elsewhere and, before, Parne Hall.' 
Its last name, The Bear, is connected with a disturbance about the 
stealing of deer from Shotover in 1586 (Boase, Oxford, 131). 



xvi. High Street, Second Section ; All Saints' Church 
to Cat Street. 

P. j 41. ' From this Church of Allhallowes, the Streete 
runneth on both sides, without interruption, till you come to 
St. Marie's Church on the left hand, and the Lane leading to 
St. Mary Hall and divers Colledges on the right. Att the 
West end of St. Marie's Church wee see the East side of 
Brasen Nose Colledge, and the Entrance of the Schooles, of 
which wee spake before. Opposite to Brasen Nose there are 
two old Halls, Black Hall and White Hall, now in their tenure, 
and serving for their use. Att the East end of St. Marie's 
is Catt Streete, leading to the Schooles, and opposite thereto 
a Lane leading downe to Martin Coll.' 

This section of High Street begins with All Saints Church, to which 
a short time must be devoted. The old church with its Gothic spire, 
showing so grandly in Agas and in Loggan, fell from the same cause 
as the old St. Peter-le-Bailey Church. The remains here are even more 
scanty than there, one beam and one tomb. There is even a doubt 
about its exact site, for nearly one third of the present building has 
been well overhauled, and no signs of earlier foundations have been 
disclosed ; but walls of medieval masonry have been unearthed to the 



HIGH STREET 



175 



north and within the churchyard. There is a drawing of this church, 
known to a few, most of whom question its accuracy ; it is signed 
J. B. (for one of the Bucklers), 1827. It was probably executed for 
Mr. Wyatt, the picture dealer, in whose collection it was found at his 
death. In this drawing the chancel and the nave are under one roof ; 
at the north-east stands a small chapel, probably that of St. Anne, 
and a south aisle extends the full length of the building. The two 
east windows are of reticulated tracery; the chapel is earlier, and 
there are two Decorated windows in the north wall of the nave. 
This corresponds with Loggan's sketch in his map, but in Agas 
there is no south aisle, but a full-length north aisle with lean-to 
roof ; both of these can scarcely be correct. Agas's spire claims 
some attention. He appears to have aimed at showing a covering of 
shingles, which does not appear in either of the other views ; he also 
puts something like four small gables just above the square tower. 
The churchwardens' accounts give no details of the fall of the 
spire : they were too busy looking after the shillings received for the 
sale of some of the old material, but they notice a yearly gratuity to 
the sexton of St. Michael's, whither the congregation was transferred 
for a time. 

The churchyard, like that of St. Mary's, came several feet further 
into the road than at present. The part of the street adjoining the 
church was once called the Butchery, the market then extending as 
far as this ; and the wooden slabs for the stalls are frequently men- 
tioned in the City accounts. There are also references to a pig-market 
here. There was at the north of the church, and reaching east as 
far as Schools Street, a back lane. The west end of it north of 
the churchyard was not closed till the seventeenth century. The little 
passage or cul-de-sac east of the churchyard was a branch from it, 
as old maps show. 

About halfway between this passage and St. Mary's Church still 
exists the entrance into an old labyrinth, now destroyed, called 
Amsterdam, which tradition reports to have been a lane. Nothing 
is known as to what stood between the churchyard and this lane. 
It would be a mistake to place Haberdasher Hall here. Twyne, as 
has already been explained under St. Mary's Entry, believed in the 
existence of this lane. 

Returning to Turl Street, Sekyl Hall is the first place to be 
noticed. It was south of Lincoln College, and the first record of it is 
in 1349 (V. p. 10), when John son of Nicholas the Mercer grants to 



176 AGAS'S PLAN AND IIUTTEN'S SURVEY Ql 



John de Bcreford and John le Sealer a messuage in the parish of 
All Saints, between the tenement called Hampton Hall on the north 
and the School of St. John's Hospital on the south. Hampton Hall, 
Seckyll and Olifaunte Halls were all three transferred in 1461 by 
University College to Lincoln College. Smith (City, i. 123, n. 4) 
calls it the first house lying in All Saints' parish; north of it was 
St. Mildred's parish. The school of St. John's Hospital came next, 
and then some houses, and a hall 'which the Rector occupies' 
(V. p. 223). Some of these houses are known as the 'tenements 
behind the churchyard of All Saints,' and one is mentioned as early 
as 1290 (V. p. 55) as the messuage in the cemetery of All Saints 
facing the chancel; another belonged to St. Anne's chantry, in All 
Saints (V. p. 65 a). Somewhere up the passage west of All Saints, 
or in the lane there, stood Borouwaldescote Inn, changed afterwards 
into Borewaldescote. It was in All Saints' parish, belonged to 
St. John's Hospital, and occurs pretty frequently in their rentals. 
About 1426 (V. p. 241) it took the name Broadgates Hall, and is 
interesting to us as having had the privileges of a sanctuary \ 

Near this, somewhere about the site of the new entrance of 
Brasenose College, was Haberdasher's Hall. As it was an Osney 
property it occurs frequently in their rentals, also as Spicer's, 
Apothecary's, and Ailnoth. The garden of Little St. Edmund Hall 
was to the north of it in 1530, so that the supposed lane had become 
stopped by that date. As it stands first in the parish rentals, which 
adhere very much to the same order, the succession of names can 
be easily traced. In 1258 (V. p. 458) it was called Thomas the 
Apothecary's; in 1317 (V. p. 418) Spicer's (Speciarii) ; in 1377 (V. 
p. 463) the tenement of Alenot. South of St. Edmund Hall itself, not 
its garden, was a garden of Godstow, 1491 (V. p. 293), while south 
of that again was Magdalen property, reaching down to the corner 
of Brasenose, which continued to belong to Magdalen as late as 
1736. 

Thus far, about the north side of this part of the High Street. 
It is now to be seen what noted places once existed on the south 
side. Stodeley's Inn occurs in a New College rental of 1499 (V. 
p. 264) thus: From John Iseham the Vintner for the tenement called 

1 Some New College leases, examined since this was written, prove that the 
little house between the passage into Amsterdam and the new gateway to 
Brasenose College occupies the site of this Hall. In City, i. 81, four lines from 
loot of page, the words ( saving one ' should be deleted. 



HIGH STREET 



177 



Stodeleyn yn, facing the door of the Church of All Saints 53.?. ^d. 
a year. A Spicer's Hall may come here, but the name is so common 
that nothing definite can be stated; moreover, the word had the 
same meaning as Apothecary, a name common to several halls, 
whose descriptions it would be very difficult to determine. The 
Ram Inn was the present Nos. 113 and 114, where the passage still 
remains, about two doors west of King Edward Street The pas- 
sage is the boundary between All Saints' parish and St. Mary's. In 
Hoggar's map, 1850, it runs south quite into Bear Lane. Wood 
(V. p. 63), writing in 1660, tells us that it occurs in an account 
of the latter end of Henry VII. The arched doors and windows 
in the front of No. 113 existed till within eight years ago. Mr. Clark 
{Lincoln Coll., 1898, p. 12) tells us that Emelina Carr, wife of John 
Carr, esquire bedell of Law, in 1436, directed that the property in 
All Saints' parish which she had inherited from her father (i.e. Ram 
Inn) should pass at her husband's death to Lincoln College : and 
that the High Street portion of this was then a house with a shop 
on each side of the entry. St. Thomas Hall, afterwards the Swan 
Inn, was the first house in St. Mary's parish, and sometimes known 
as the Borehead. It, like the lane beside it, went quite through to 
the lane on the south. Among the Oriel MSS. (Shadwell, Catal. 
Munim. Oriel, iv. p. 8) is one of Ysolda Spycer, dated 3 Aug., 1297, 
by which she gives a tenement with three selds in the parish of 
St. Mary between a tenement formerly John Log's on the east, 
and a tenement in which William le Espicer her husband lately dwelt, 
on the west. In 1346 (ibid. p. 11) Richard Atte Pole (at the pool) 
near Taunton, Somerset, heir of Sir John de Schordych lately 
deceased, conveys {inter alia) to Nicholas de Shordych, clerk, his 
younger brother, his right in St. Thomas' Hall between a tenement of 
John de Maideston son of William le Spicer on the east and a tenement 
of Philip de Ew on the west: also in two shops (together with the 
great gate) belonging to the said St. Thomas's Hall situated in 
St. Edward's parish between a tenement of Godstow called Bridehalle 
on the east and a tenement of Robert the Bedell called Maidenehalle 
on the west, thus distinguishing the property at the High Street end 
and at the Bear Lane end. In 1348 (ibid. p. 12) part of the property 
is styled the Great Gate. In 1349 (Tw. 23, p. 146), in an Abingdon 
rental, occurs : From S. Thomas's Hall which was formerly Walter 
le Spicer's, by the hands of the heirs of John of Eynsham at the same 
times, in equal portions, 2s. In John Spicer's will, made 1331 (Tw. 

N 



178 AGAS'S PLAN AND IIUTTEN'S SURVEY [ii 



23, p. 513), the hall is mentioned as having three shops. It occurs 
frequently in the Oriel documents, sometimes as Boreshead, and is 
known to have been on the west side of the present King Edward 
Street. Lastly, in 1447 (Tw. 23, p. 205), it paid a marc of free rent 
to Queen's College. 

The Swan Inn was the same as the eastern half of the above 
hall, and extended itself further to the east, as its cellars were cut 
through in the making of King Edward Street. Wood's remark 
(O. p. 63) on a deed of 1393, a conveyance by John Brydde to Oriel 
College of two messuages on this site, is : ' Swan— which is the 
tenement on the east side of the Swan that now (c. 1664) is.' It 
bore the name of Swan-on-the-hope ; another inn at St. Martin's 
had the same name, and a Tabard-on-the-hope, afterwards the Bear 
Inn, was near — the affix merely implying that the sign was stretched 
on a circular frame or hoop. 

Tackley's Inn or Bulkley Hall was two doors to the east of 
this (Shadwell, iv. p. 3). Its splendid cellar still exists, one of the best 
pieces of domestic Gothic of the middle Decorated period which we 
have left. It has strong groining ribs, but no engaged shafts, the 
ribs disappearing into the wall, reminding one very much of the vault 
of the old Convocation house. The same scheme of ventilation 
shows here as in Knap Hall. The entrance under the shop to the 
east is mostly untouched; near it is a quaint bit of carving, a man 
clinging to some mouldings and turning his head round to see who 
is coming down the stairs ; but what seems to have been a window at 
the west has been much altered. At the rear of the same premises, 
and accessible by a passage a short distance down King Edward 
Street on the left, there is still remaining another old window, unique, 
but, if we can trust early drawings, deprived of the foliation in the 
tracery which was once there. 

The history of this house is as follows. In 1324 Adam de Brom, 
the founder of Oriel College, purchased of Roger Mareschall, parson 
of the church of Tackeley, a messuage in Oxford lately newly built by 
the same Roger, situate in St. Mary's, on the south of the King's 
highway, whereof divers shops cellars and solars, contiguous to the 
King's highway, were let to farm to laymen ; and the Hall and inner 
chambers were let to students of the university, for them to dwell 
in after the custom of students; rent reserved for the life of the 
grantor £10 per annum. In 1325-6 Edward II, or rather Adam 
de Brom, gave it to Oriel College as in Saint Mary's parish, and 



HIGH STREET 



179 



formerly belonging to Roger Mareschal, parson of the Church of 
Tackeley. 

Physick Hall, often placed here, seems to be in Cat Street, 
but there is little definite known about it. "Woodcock Hall also, 
although more than one site has been conjecturally assigned to it, 
seems to have been down Schidyard Street. In 1361 (Tw. 23, 
p. 305), John Went of Sibford granted to John of Wodcokhall of 
Oxford and Alice his wife his tenement in the parish of St. Mary the 
Virgin situated in Shydyerd between the place of Richard le Forster 
(Forester) on one side and a tenement of Osney on the other. 
This Twyne regards as referring to Woodcock Hall, and Wood 
(City, i. 144, note 1) follows him. It existed in 1469 (Tw. 23, 
p. 368), and is mentioned in the minutes of the Hustings Court 
for that year. 

In this section of the High Street stands St. Mary's, now a 
Tudor building, rather imposing, but with very little of the Gothic 
spirit surviving in the design. There are small remnants in the 
City Museum showing that a Norman and an Early Decorated 
church once existed here. On the north side is a tower and spire 
of Early Decorated design, the tower stiffened by massive buttresses 
in pairs at the angles, which at the gallery stage become ornamental 
pinnacles with arcading and niches, containing figures of saints and 
bishops, the whole of which, and in particular the figures, are of a later 
date. When Loggan drew it, the late Decorated crocketing could 
not have existed, but something much simpler and more in the style 
of, say, 1 300-1 3 10. The corbels and finials have all been changed 
since his time. There is every probability that on the tower the 
lily, as emblematical of the Virgin, was the predominating motive in 
both finials and crockets. Now there is but one fleur-de-lis left, and 
that so small as almost to escape notice. The repairers from 1500 
onwards, each modifying or changing to suit their own standard of 
correctness, have almost stripped the tower of its early decorative 
features, but luckily the ball-flower ornaments, being less exposed to 
the weather, have survived. So have two gargoyle figures, one with 
banded mail, and unless our authorities on such matters (Lord 
Dillon included) are all at sea, they are a century older than the 
crocketing and finials which we now see. Of the head-dresses, 
usually a good criterion of date, only one of the early fourteenth- 
century type has come to light after protracted search; it is a low 
crown with its three trefoils much depressed. There are, however, 

N 2 



180 AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [ii 



two or perhaps three heads, with the modern square cap fully 
developed; the heads beautiful, but, alas! why capped with such 
post-Elizabethan head-gear ? 

The old Convocation House, though very interesting, proves to 
have no claim to the remote antiquity sometimes ascribed to it. 
Among the Oriel MSS. is a memorandum (O. H. S. V. p. 62) drawn 
up by the College, in the fourteenth century, which ascribes its 
erection to Thomas Cobham, Bishop of Worcester, in 1320. The 
style of the windows on the south and of the groining-bosses fully 
confirms this statement. It has suffered much by having one side 
masked with a Tudor wall, broken by false windows introduced in 
utter disregard of the interior openings and of the need of light. 

Cat Street, which runs northwards to the east of the church, 
Catorum Vicus, street of cats, or Vicus Murilegorum, jocularly ' Street 
of mice-catchers/ was once further dignified by an addition and called 
St. Catherine's Street from a supposed chapel near it. Schydyard 
Street, now Oriel Street, has also had an imaginary origin attributed 
to it, as though ' Schedesyard 7 were derived from ' scheda/ meaning a 
roll of paper or strip of papyrus. But an older version of the name 
Sid-therd-street 1 (Saxon, side-thred-straet), Silk Thread Street, opens 
a far more reasonable derivation, the jy in the later versions prob- 
ably being a mistake for the Saxon th, which is so much like it in 
form. There are still some who wonder that a y with an e over 
it should be read the and notye. 

P. 141. ' In Catt Streete, towards the farther end, there is 
the back Doore of Hart-Hall on the right hand, and the 
great Front of the new Schooles on the left. (P. 142) On the 
further end of the which Schooles, there is a passage leading 
to the North Doore of the Schooles, and that part of Exeter 
Coll. which hindered our passage before.' 

The back door of Hart Hall still exists close to the north wall 
of All Souls' Library, but the passage on the north side of the Schools 
has disappeared, as has already been noticed. Here Hutten is very 
rapid ; he works his way to Blue Boar Lane, and is content to omit the 
colleges of All Souls, Queen's, and University. There is no apparent 
reason for following a bad example, and at the risk of being tedious it 



1 m. 436. 



ii] HIGH STREET 181 

is proposed to take in view a third and even a fourth section of the 
High Street. 

xvii. High Street, Third Section ; Cat Street to 
Queen's College. 

First, then, from Cat Street to the lane to St. Peter's, and begin 
with the site of All Souls. The west side has been already spoken 
of, and the corner house as well. Next to this Charlton Inn or 
house of Bereford was a tenement of St. Frideswyde, whose 
position is settled by the licence to take in mortmain, 1442 (V. p. 140, 
xlix.), as between the tenement of the parishioners of St. Mary's on 
the east and the tenement called Berford Hall sometime Charlton's 
Inn on the west. Next came St. Mary's tenement, of which Oriel 
College had the superintendence. In 1443, Walter Lyhert (ibid, liii.) 
Provost and the Fellows of Oriel, as rectors of the church of 
Saint Mary the Virgin, quit claim to Roger Keys, Warden of All 
Souls, all their right in a certain piece of ground or tenement upon 
which is situated the eastern part of the site or manse of the said 
college, viz. that between the tenement lately Roger Skybowe's on 
the east and a tenement upon which another part of the same 
College is situated which was lately the Prior of St. Frideswyde's, 
on the west, and extending to St. Marie's Strete on the south, 
they receiving eighteen shillings a year for St. Mary's. In May, 
1445 (ibid, liv.), the two churchwardens of St. Mary's also re- 
lease their rights in the same. The next tenement was that called 
Skybowe's in the last document, Skibbowe's in Gutch [Coll. and 
Halls, p. 255). Of this there is an earlier lease, not dated, but prob- 
ably about the year 1255 (V. p. 137, x.) : Michael the prior and the 
convent of the church of Saint John the Baptist of Scyreburne give 
to Roger le Sclater the land which was formerly John of Stanlee's 
in the parish of St. Mary's which lies between the land of the Nuns 
of Stodley on one side and the land of Geoffrey Torbeville on the 
other, rendering thereout eight shillings per annum. A Roger Cotiler 
parted with it in 14 15 (ibid, xi.) to John Nafferton and Daniel 
Bradwell, clerks, Fellows of University College, they to John Gybbes, 
Alderman, in 1416, on whose death his brother Thomas Gybbes, also 
Alderman, conveyed it to John Tanner, and after three more transfers 
it came to Thomas Chichely, Archdeacon of Canterbury, and two 



182 AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [ii 



others, in 1437. Going onwards to the east, comes Stodeley's 
entrie. In 1473 (ibid. p. 141, lvi.) is a demise, but without the usual 
east and west boundaries: The Prioress (Alianor) and the Convent 
of Stodeley lease to John Stokes Warden of All Souls a messuage 
called Stodeley' s Entrie situated in the high street of Oxford in 
the parish of St. Mary near the aforesaid College abutting upon the 
aforesaid street on the south and upon the tenement and soil of 
the said college on the north paying yearly thereout to the same 
convent two marks. 

Northwards up the entry here, it seems, would be the road to 
two interior plots, as they prove to be, but the documents about 
them are very few indeed. One of these plots was some land of 
the University leased by the Chancellor and Proctors in 1451 
(V. p. 141, lv.) to the Warden and Fellows of All Souls; described 
as the whole ground of the University with garden in Catestreet in 
St. Mary's parish between a tenement of Evesham on the north 
and a tenement of St. Mary's on the south, for seven years, 
rent four shillings a year. The Evesham tenement must be south 
of Grandpont Hall, for that reached from Cat Street to Queen's 
College garden. The part of the site remaining, on the east, includes 
the two strips between the first quadrangle and Drowda Hall. The 
one which adjoins Stodeley Entry has three titles — Marcham's, 
Le Wynmille, and Redehous. In 1476 (ibid, lxi.), John Marcham, 
Chaplain, grants to Richard Mylet of Oxon a messuage in St. Mary's 
parish in the High Street situated between All Souls College on 
the west and the Entry of the Prior and convent of St. Frideswyde 
on the east ; which messuage was of old called Le Wynmille 
and now the Redehous. In a later demise, 1530 (ibid, lxv.), it 
is said to be situated between the messuage of All Souls on the 
west and the messuage belonging to St. Peter's Church on the 
east part. In the margin of this, Wood adds : ' This tenement is 
that building on the east side of the Warden's lodgings and 'tis the 
study belonging to the Warden.' It was also known by the name 
Rose Inn. 

Drowda Hall, the next tenement, probably heads the list for 
variety of spelling ; commencing with Drogheda, an Irish word not 
very easy for English throats, it took the forms Droozedayesehalle 
in 1294, Drowedes in 1375, Doghtur 1443, from which came 
Doughter, Droughter, Droghter, Drokeda 1241, Drosda, Drowda 
Drowdal, Dugtha, and Tredagh. As it paid a small rent to 



HIGH STREET 



St. Peter' s-in-the-East, and has been in the possession of University 
College since 1375, these various names can be easily verified. 
It has a parish boundary cross within about two feet of its west wall, 
and is the first house in St. Peter's parish, and nearly opposite 
University College gateway. It was William of Drokeda's house 
which, in 1241 (V. p. 129), he gave to God and St. Mary and to 
St. John the Baptist of Shyrburne, lying between the land which 
was Walter Hinge's and the land which was Alwin le Tornor's, 
for an annual commemoration service, together with all his books 
of Theology, a gradual, a troper, a portiforium, a chalice worth two 
marks, and other vestments which belong to the priest ministering 
in albis before the altar. In the quit-claim of 1255 it nas tne same 
boundaries. It is mentioned in the City Court records of 1294 
(Tw. 23, p. 328) in a case of defamation, uttered before the hall, 
damage set at forty shillings. The following statements rest on the 
false charter of Chapyrnay, which may, however, in this case be giving 
true information about them (Tw. 23, p. 366) : ' the eighth messuage 
is situated in the High Street which leads from the four-ways to the 
east gate in the parish of St. Peter in the East between the tenement 
of St. John's Hospital outside the gate, both on the east and on the 
west and for this messuage we paid in ready money (prae manibus) 
to the Prior of Schyrborn and his confraternity forty marks ; it is 
called Drowda Hall and has a garden of four perches in length and 
two in breadth and pays per annum twelve pence.' 

Inge Hall lay either to the west or east of Drogheda, probably 
the latter, but its parish is uncertain ; Wood (City, i. 88) says it is 
in St. Mary's, and the charter he quotes is Wi. 445. Gutter Hall 
was somewhere further on to the east, but it cannot yet be said 
whether it stood on the site of the present Queen's College or not. 
It was a house belonging to the Chantry of St. Thomas, as is seen 
in a document of 1507 (V. p. 130) : Oriel College and John Lark 
and William Chambre proctors of the chantry of St. Thomas in 
St. Mary's Church demise to Queen's College a messuage in 
St. Peter's in the East, called of old Le Gutter Hall, situate between 
a tenement of Osney on the west and a tenement once of Robert 
Willowsby on the east: rent twenty-one shillings a year. In 1541 
Richard Gunter (V. p. 131) sold it to Queen's College, when it 
is described as situated on the east part of a tenement sometime 
belonging to Stodeley Nunnery. 

Willoughby Hall or Wilby, Domus Kirkby, appears from the 



184 AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [fp 



1507 charter to have lain to the east of Gutter Hall. In 1268 
(Tw. 23, p. 75) it was given to Osney, being then situated between 
land of the Hospital of St. John on one side and land which 
was Ernisius' the son of Aylwyn the Turner 1 on the other. In 
1349 (Tw. 23, p. 524) Alan of Kylingworth by his will left to 
Dionysia his wife, inter aim, a tenement called Wylibycourt situated 
in the parish of St. Peter in the East between a tenement of 
Walter de Hydebrugge on one side and a tenement of Nicholas 
de Glatton on the other, also twenty shillings annual rent out of the 
tenement of the same Nicholas de Glatton. The names of these 
tenants afford very little help in this place. In 1401 (V. p. 125), 
The Prioress (Agnes) and Convent of Stodeley give to Thomas de 
Carlile the Provost and to the scholars of Queen's Hall a void place 
in the parish of St. Peter s between a tenement of the College called 
Goter Hall on the west and tenements of the same College let 
to various tenants on the east : this void place in the time of 
Mabilla the prioress of Stodeley having been a stall (selda) held by 
Robert Wyleby and Agnes his wife of Studley Priory. In 1442 
(V. p. 127) the Abbot of Osney granted to the college a tenement 
called Wyllaby Hall, for the augmentation of the college or Hall, 
between a College tenement on the east and a tenement of St. John's 
Hospital on the west. At present these boundaries seem to contradict 
one another, it may even be that Wilby Hall and Wilby Court were 
different places. 

Of the group of houses once occupying the present front of Queen's 
College, as shown in both our maps, little can be said with certainty. 
Bowyer's Hall has been suggested for one, but its boundaries 
(V. p. 129) are so peculiar, that somewhere south of St. Peter's church- 
yard seems a probable site; these are given, in 1342, as between 
tenements of the hospital of St. John on the south, east and west, and 
a tenement of Osney on the north. Neither Wood nor Mores give 
any definite information as to the old places on the site of the College. 
It is more from the general impression given by the documents than 
from their exact wording that we suppose Thos. Marescall, the 
farrier's, tenement to have been somewhere up to the north-west of 
the site, but not reaching to St. Nicholas Hall, which was the 
property of St. John's Hospital. The document dated 1341 
(V. p. 128) runs thus: Thomas le Marescall gives to Mr. William 
de Wildelond a place in the parish of St. Peter-in-the-East lying 

1 He had a house touching Drowda Hall. 



HIGH STREET 



185 



lengthwise from the wall of the Abbot of Osney as far as the street 
reaching from the Hall of St. Nicholas to St. Peter's Church. This 
last is always New College Lane. In the next document the north 
boundary remains the same, but the south boundary is a garden of 
a hall of the scholars of Queen's Hall. This garden was probably 
that afterwards alienated to William of Wykeham, and formed part of 
the site of New College and of the college gardens. 

The ancient buildings of Queen's claim attention in this place, 
being those shown in Agas and Loggan. They appear as a group 
of buildings of good Decorated character in the main, whose front 
was toward St. Edmund Hall. It is almost certain, indeed, that 
the present side entrance in that direction stands on the site of 
the original gateway, which according to Green's drawing must 
have had some of the best groining in Oxford over it. The site 
of the chapel, which was to the south of the old quadrangle, was 
revealed in 1887 in a remarkable way. In inserting a hydrant 
exactly in the middle of the front quadrangle, a superiorly worked 
foundation was found to reach from that point nearly to the passage 
between the present chapel and hall ; the space to the east of this 
had been paved. On examination it was immediately recognized as 
being the west wall of the ante-chapel, built in 15 18 by Dr. Robert 
Langton to the honour of God, of the Blessed Virgin and All 
Saints ; and an engraving by Burgher shows that the college 
chapel, consecrated in 1420, was not, as Bereblock suggests, a 
simple chapel of two bays, but of three, with a remarkable square 
ante-chapel at the west of it of greater area than the chapel 
itself. The one measured forty-nine feet by thirty-nine, the chapel 
forty-nine feet by twenty-seven. There is little doubt that the walls 
to a height of two or three feet are still there under the grass-plat on 
the east side. It seems probable, judging by the strength of the 
buttresses, that the whole building was groined in stone. The 
present second or northern quadrangle is drawn by Loggan as a 
kind of college farm-yard. If the combined length of the chapel 
and ante-chapel (eighty-four feet l ) was, as drawings clearly show us, 
one side of the original quadrangle of Queen's, some idea can be 
formed of the small and compact character of the old buildings. To 
the west of that quadrangle, in both maps, projects a building almost 
as long as the chapel, but the present front quadrangle extends 
altogether more than forty feet beyond this. 

1 i. e. allowing for the partition-wall, which is 4 ft. by the plan. 



1 86 ACAS'S PLAN AND IIUTTEN'S SURVEY [i\ 



This ends the north side of this section of High Street ; the 
south side has now to be dealt with. It abounds in old halls, of 
whose actual position we are tolerably certain. The lane where we 
commence, now Grove Street, a corruption of Grope, had other and 
various names. In 1390 or thereabouts it is called Kybald Twychen, 
if we trust the description in the deed (V. p. 364) ; not long ago 
it was Magpie Lane. The Magpie Inn is still a handsome house 
there, No. 5, but it is no longer the centre of the great carrier trade 
from Oxford to London, as in the seventeenth century. At the upper 
and eastern corner of this lane stood the two Lion Halls, drawings 
of which have come down to us. Their names occur frequently in 
the Oseney Rentals, 1259-1411, now and then as Haliwell's Tene- 
ments (V. pp. 470-476). They are sometimes said to be in Grope 
Lane, and sometimes near St. Mary's Church; the tenement on 
the west side of the lane being distinguished as opposite the church. 
The remarkable cellars of this, a church house, have now been 
nearly all done away with. In 1431 (V. p. 500) the Lion Halls are 
said to be two doors off Wormenhall Hall, and in 1513 (V. p. 488) 
they are let in conjunction with George Hall and Woodcock Hall, 
implying that the three lay near to each other ; this is confirmed by 
other documents. Wood's note runs thus : ' George Hall with part 
of Lyon Hall and Woodcock Hall let by Oseney to Thomas Bently 
physitian and to Alice his wife/ George Hall comes next, sometimes 
called Toftes House. This was also an Osney house, and can be 
recognized in their lists as mentioned close to the Lion Halls or to 
Woodcock. In 1377 (V. p. 464) the order is; Godwin s tenement, 
i. e. George's Hall, then (i.) Sibella Haliwell's tenement, (ii.) (iii.) 
unnamed, but the same as the two Lion Halls. In 1441 (V. p. 476) 
the order is (ii.) and (iii.) Haliwell, i.e. Lions' Hall and George Hall, 
the order being changed. In 1385 and others occurs the order, 
Nevill Hall, George Hall, and one or two Lion Halls ; and this 
order may be taken as the true one, when approaching from 
the east. 

Next comes Broadgates Hall in St. Mary's, somewhere opposite 
to All Souls gateway. The land to the west of Barry's new buildings 
at University belongs to Christ Church as successor to Osney, and 
this hall may be safely located there. Wood (City, i. 135) states it 
to have been a special abode of illuminators, and refers to a rental 
of 1463, from Osney Abbey. Elsewhere (V. p. 420), he notes in 
1327: from the house of the Illuminator 60s. by Mr. Richard de 



HIGH STREET 



187 



Staynton, and adds : ' note, there is noe mention of Broadgates Hall 
(in the parish of S. Marie).' 

Staunton Hall, the next tenement, has been always connected 
with the site of the Three Tuns, a noted inn of the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries. Three documents came with it to 
University College, of 1356, 1357, and 1446; they mention only its 
name and parish, but in the Register of Congregation, 1528 (D. p. 3, 
270), its east and west boundaries are given, and these are all that are 
required : ' item of an annuall rent of a tenement called of old time 
Staunton hawle situated in the hygh street betweene Deep Hall on 
the east part and the tenement of the Abbot of Osney on the west 
called Brodgates, paid yearly by the Master and Fellows of University 
College : sometime and now by the Principall and Boursers of 
Brasnose i2d! 

The next was Deep Hall, which, with the last, stood on the west 
side of University gateway, and therefore in St. Mary's parish. We 
have a reference to this hall in 1332 (V. p. 3), when Richard de 
Tekene and Joan his wife, Wm. Golafre and Katherine his wife, and 
Juliana Feteplace grant to Masters William de Nadale, and Robert 
of Pateryngton clerks (Fellows of University) a messuage in the great 
street of Oxford in the parish of St. Mary called le Selvernehall, 
otherwise le Spicershalle, situated between a tenement of the convent 
of Stodelegh on the west and a tenement called La Lodelowehall on 
the east. Wood adds : ' I think they stood between the College gate 
and J. Crosse's ' — perhaps the Three Tuns Inn. Selverne Hall, the 
last in St. Mary's parish, was therefore just west of the older or 
western gateway. It came into the College's possession in this 
way (Smith, Univ. Coll. p. 57): 'Betwixt King- Ed. the I. Survey, 
in 1278 or 1279, and the Time it (Selverne Hall) was purchased, 
(1332) there were three, or more Owners of it. First Andrew of 
Durham, (Alderman) when that Survey was made, and from whom it 
bare the Name of Durham-Hall) afterwards it was called Selverne- 
Hall, and at the Time it was bought (1332), it was called Spicers- 
Hall, except that Selvern and Spicer should prove the same Person.' 
'In the Interval of the Time above mentioned Adam Feteplace, who 
had been many Years Mayor, was become the Owner of it, and it 
was bought of his three Daughters, who were then Heiresses.' The 
particulars of this transfer may be omitted. This last hall, and Great 
University Hall which comes next, seem rather confused in their 
naming ; this University Hall was also called Spicers and Andrew of 



i88 AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [ii 



Durham's, being so quoted as the west boundary of Ludlow Hall in 
x 33° ( v - P- l6 )- 

Ludlow Hall, then, is the next in our series, and following 
that is Little University Hall and Cok on the hope. In 1377 
(ibid.), Robert Hannely alias Chapman vicar of Bloxham grants 
to Masters Edmund Lacy and Thomas Nafferton, clerks (Fellows 
of University Coll.), their reversion in two messuages situated 
together in the parish of St. Peter in the East between Lodelowhall 
on the west and a lane called Horsmillane on the east ; of which 
messuages one is called Le lyttle University hall and the other com- 
monly Cok on the hoope. The same two messuages are similarly 
described in 1401 (ibid.), with the addition that the lane is also called 
Penkeriches Lane. This completes the north boundary of University 
College, about which it is to be lamented that, being of such 
high antiquity, it can show us nothing but seventeenth-century 
buildings or later, interesting as they are. In Wood's time the 
college was found to be on such a low spot, so subject to floods, that 
it was resolved to rebuild it as much above the general level as it 
had formerly been depressed. The old chapel lay south-west of the 
one quadrangle, and is well shown by Bereblock, whose drawing 
helps us to understand Agas. Loggan gives more distinctly the two 
tenements next to Horsemill Lane, and these, judging from his larger 
views of the colleges, were once the quaintest objects in the whole of 
the High Street. As far as the commencement of our concluding 
section of the High Street, the name St. Mary's Street was often 
applied, but no further than this. 



xviii. High Street, Fourth Section ; Queen's College Lane 
to East Gate. 

It is now time to devote some few sentences to the part which reaches 
from Queen's College Lane, or St. Peter's, to Long Wall, a short piece 
and not very interesting ; uncertain as to houses on the north, very 
clear as to those on the south side. St. George's Hall stood second 
from the east angle of Queen's College Lane, if Wood's statement 
(V. p. 235) has been properly understood. After an entry in the 
rentals of St. John's Hospital of the year 1329 : From two stalls under 
George Hall 8s. : — Wood writes : ' This is reckoned the last saving 



HIGH STREET 



one of the selds, tenements &c. on the north side of the High Street 
and there are 18 in number & dom. Benham is the 9, & the rentall 
takes them in order from east gate.' From the order so generally 
adhered to (V. p. 232 et seq.) we may be almost sure that George Hall 
had St. Katharine's to the west of it. 

St. Katharine's is also a house of the same Hospital. In 1330 
(V. p. 237) it is placed within East Gate and on the north side of the 
street. In 1327 (V. p. 232) it stands next to the Entry of St. Nicholas 
which the Provost of Queen's occupies. In another list of houses let 
by the Hospital to clerks in 1327 (V. p. 233), it stands between Inge 
Hall 1 and Borstall, which agrees moderately well. St. Nicholas 
Entry is very possibly represented by Fidler's court, which lately 
reached to the quadrangle of St. Edmund Hall and contained certain 
houses, once Airay's, and since Link Lodgings, condemned about six 
years ago by Magdalen College, the owners. This entry led up to 
some gardens, &c, of the Hospital. In 1391 (V. p. 244), the garden 
of New College, i. e. its south-east portion, is described as having 
tenements of St. John's Hospital on its south side toward the 
High Street. 

Further east was Whyte Hall or Wight Hall. Its position is 
shown fairly well in the following writing of 1449 (V. p. 250): 
Indenture between Mr. William Say of the one part and Richard 
Vyse Master of the Hospital of St. John on the other whereby 
the said Master demised nine tenements with gardens annexed whereof 
six are situated between the east gate, Oxford, and a tenement of 
Osney in St. Peter's parish wherein Margaret Exham widow dwells 
and also three other gardens lying contiguous and bounded by land of 
(the hospital) on the east and south, and partly by St. Edmund's Hall 
and the Churchyard of St. Peters on the west and south, and partly 
by Whytehall on the south. Chapel Hall or Benham's House was near 
here ; it was another tenement of St. John's Hospital, and is mentioned 
as early as 1262 m. as being in the great Street towards East Gate. 
At the turning into the royal way under the walls stood a house of 
St. John's Hospital, mentioned c. 1251 (V. p. 195) as 'the corner 
house within E gate neare to the house of Galf: Belewe.' The 
present passage between Nos. 56 and 57 is all that remains of this 
old royal way, the walls showing distinctly between Nos. 57 and 58 
and in the cellar quite up to the street front. 

1 The site of Inge Hall is so difficult to establish with accuracy, that it has been 
omitted in this account (see p. 183). 



AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [ii 



Going northward from this along the underwall, the next place was 
a Black Hall, which is merely mentioned as an eastern boundary of 
property near here. Touching it was an Elm Hall. In an undated 
document, either c. 1267-78 or 1404-30 (Tw. 23, p. 71), we read 
that the Abbot (William) and Convent of Oseney allow to Giles 
Stockwell an easement in a wall between Elme Hall and Blake 
Hall. Of other places further north we have even less definite 
information. 

With regard to the houses on the south side of the High Street, 
the whole district from Logic Lane to King Street was once designed 
to be the abode of the Scholars of Magdalen, then known as 
' Magdalen Hall of the foundation of Wm. Waynflete.' The lane 
called Logic Lane, the site of the supposed Logic School founded 
by King Alfred, has three older names — Horsemull ; Jawdewyns or 
Jaudowens, of unknown origin; and Pencheryche or Pencridge, a 
family name. It has two sharp turns in it about two-thirds of the 
distance toward Merton Street. It was there that two lanes once 
crossed it — Kybald Lane to the west (surviving in Grove Place), 
most of which was first leased and then sold and walled off, and 
Harehall Lane or Nightingale Lane, of which every trace had died 
out when the New Examination Schools were built. The account 
in Wood's City does not explain how he understood this last lane to 
run, but the discovery of a little sketch of his, which had strayed into 
MS. Rawlinson, D. 912 (p. 56), and which shows its course east to 
west, disproves the theory of its being the same as King Street. This 
incident also confirms an idea already formed, that several items in 
Wood's collection (called V. or D. 2), though referred to in his 
notes, have never been compared by him with his work upon the City. 
The plan assists us in regard to five plots of ground, including two 
noted Inns, the Saracen's Head, and the Angel. Commencing from 
the east, Wood designates these as Dr. Ruff's House, Dr. Eaton's 
House or Bostar Hall, the Saracen's Head, and two tenements, 
once only one, bought by the University of Wymond the Linge-draper. 
Then, commencing at a point flush with the east side of St. Peter's 
Lane, and almost as broad as the other four, comes the Angel, 
whose front occupied at one time about one-quarter of the entire 
length of this section of High Street. 

There is nothing else requiring remark except that Wood has not 
noted an odd title of King Street in past days, viz. ' The Lane leading 
to Johnnyslane/ i. e. to St. John's Street, now Merton Street. The four 



HIGH STREET 



191 



boundaries of the plot sold by St. John's Hospital and others in 1448 
(V. p. 179) to Sir John Godmanston, Co. Essex, as an interim tenant 
till Magdalen Hall was incorporated, are High Street on the north, 
Jonys Lane on the south, the lane leading from East Gate to Jonys 
Lane on the east, and Jawdens Lane on the west. At the north- 
west corner stood Shield Hall, belonging to Littlemore. It is given as 
the western boundary of Boarstall Hall as early as 1336 (V. p. 180, 
xv.). It was leased to Littlemore between 1392 and 141 1 (Tw. 23, 
p. 207), when Richard de Tewe, Master of St. John's Hospital, leased 
to Matilda Prioress of Litelmore a place in Oxon, lying in a certain 
toft called Sheildhall, joining to a hall called Borstall Hall. 

Borstall or Bostar Hall came next, recognized by Wood as the 
house of Dr. Eaton. Its measurements are given in 1448 (V. p. 208) 
as thirty-seven feet frontage and a hundred and thirty-five feet deep, 
and Hare Hall contiguous to it on the south side was seventy-five 
feet by sixty-six. It was the place on which (ibid.) Waynflete founded 
his Magdalen Hall in 1448, Sir John Godmanston granting it in legal 
form to the Bishop on Aug. 1. Its western boundary then was 
(V. p. 178, i.) a tenement or Inn of old called Le Saresynshede, 
belonging to the Church of St. Peter, and this is the next which claims 
attention. It was in early times the possession of one of the Kepeharme 
family, as shown in the next document. 

Then came two University or University Hall tenements side 
by side. In 1273 m. (V. p. 15), Wymund (le lyngedraper) and Agnes 
his wife grant to the Chancellor and masters and to their successors 
their houses in this parish and street which are situated between the 
house of John Kepeharme on the west and the house of Martin the 
stationer on the east. In 1304 (ibid.) Thomas de Salehyrst bedel of 
the University leases one of the same houses, or one south of it, to 
some Fellows of University, and then it is termed Wymond the 
Lyngedraper's. 

The Tabard Inn, the Angel of our early days, is described in 
1448 (V. p. 178, v.) as between Harehall Lane or Nightingalehall 
Lane on the south, and the King's High Way on the north, tenements 
belonging to the Master and fellows of University on the west, and 
a tenement belonging to the Mayor and burgesses of the town, but of 
old to Oriell College on the east. 

Next was a messuage of St. John's Hospital; but the Tabard 
or Angel was also occupied by St. John's Hospital : thus, c. 1400 
(V. p. 177, x.), The Provost and Scholars of Oriall Coll. grant to the 



AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY 0U 



hospital of St. John one shop with a garden in St. Peter's, between 
a shop of the said College on the east, and a tenement of the said 
hospital on the west called Le Tabbard on the Hope. The shop 
was part of a larger property acquired by Oriel, as follows: In 

1348 (O. 21) Thomas de Bradwel granted to John de Horwode parson 
of the church of Horspath, a hall called Bradwell Hall and a place 
adjacent in the parish of St. Peter in the east the said Hall being 
situate between the tenement of Walter le Deghere' on the east and 
the place aforesaid. John de Horwode conveyed the property in 

1349 to John de Staunton and others, fellows of Oriel: in 1352 
John de Staunton conveyed to John de Ingoldnieles and Elias de 
Trikyngham, also fellows: in 1356 Ingoldnieles conveyed to Alex- 
ander de Feribrigge and John de Middelton, fellows : and finally in 
1 36 1 Middelton conveyed to Oriel College. The property was then 
described as Soler Hall, formerly Bradwell Hall. Other documents 
give us the order Tabard or Angel, a messuage counted as belonging 
to it, and Soler Hall, belonging to Oriel. It is not mentioned in the 
assignment in 1442 of the Oxford property of Oriel to the City (Ogle, 
Royal Letters, p. 99). 

Wylmond's Tenement, the property of Eynsham Abbey, comes 
next; it is described in 1448 (V. p. 179, vii.) as the tenement with 
garden (which Robert Wylmond the Carpenter occupies but John 
Edwards the University bedell is tenant of, by permission of the 
hospital) in the parish of St. Peter, between a tenement of the Abbey 
of Eynsham on the east and a tenement of the mayor and Burgesses 
of Oxon on the west, the King's high way on the north and Hare lane 
on the south. Then came two small tenements of St. John's 
Hospital; but, since they have Bedwyn's tenement placed to their 
west, it is to be supposed that whatever buildings stood on the last 
two plots did not interfere very much. They are thus described in 
1448 (V. p. 179, viii.) : Two small tenements with garden between 
the tenement of Bedwyn Lymonour late of Oxford on the east 
(St. Frideswyde's property) and a tenement of Eynsham Abbey 
on the west, the King's high way on the north and a garden 
belonging to the priory of St. Frideswyde on the south. At the very 
angle where now are the Non- Collegiate buildings, was a tenement 
of St. Frideswyde, a J-shaped piece of ground as necessitated by the 
document last quoted. Christ Church, it seems, held this land till the 
New Examination Schools were erected. The tenements south of 
those in the range just noted are left for future consideration. 



ii] BLUE BOAR LANE, ORLEL, CORPUS, ETC. 193 



xix. Blue Boar Lane, Oriel and Corpus, and 
Kybald Street. 

Hutten's company will again prove acceptable when we come to 
Bore Lane, ready to take in hand another course west to east, over 
a district not so much studied, south of the High Street, i. e. along 
Blue-boar Lane or Little Jewry, and Burne Lane or Bear Lane. Here 
Oriel College intervenes, and perhaps has always done so, but the 
course continues with Kybald Street, now Grove Place, through the 
double bend in Logic Lane and onwards through Nightingale Lane 
to the lane from East Gate, under the walls. 

P. 147. ' Therefore retourning to the Fish Markett, there 
is a Lane neare unto Ch. Ch. which is called St. Edward's 
Lane. This Lane hath Houses on the left hand, and the Wall 
of Christ Church, called (P. 148) Doctor Tresham's Wall 
(because unto him the oversight of the building that Wall was 
committed) on the right hand, till you come to Peckwater's 
Inn Corner, opposite whereunto is Beare Lane before men- 
tioned. This St. Edward's Lane runneth on still, as before, 
with Houses on the left hand and the foresaid Wall of Ch. Ch. 
on the right.' 

St. Edward's Lane passed under many different names, some of 
which have been mentioned already. The first places of note in it 
were Jewry Hall and White Hall, of neither of which do we know 
anything definite. Then Great Civil Law School, of which we have 
only this evidence from a rental of St. John's Hospital of 1368 
(V. p. 239): from a tenement in Little Jewry facing the great 
school there, which the Scholars of Balliol Hall hold, 13^. qu. : the 
side of the street is not mentioned. Of the Canon Law Schools 
there are many notices; the first in 1366, when a small quit rent 
was paid, probably for a school and garden adjoining (Tw. 23, 
p. 400). It seems to have been in the lane mentioned under 
Chequer Inn. In 1461, the year of the deposition of Henry VI, 
the York and Lancaster contest stirred up some Yorkist to orna- 
ment its walls ; hence this proclamation ' against those that make 
gallowses about the King's armes in Canon Law Schools' (D. 3, 
p. 1 13). In the Proctors' accounts for 1464 occurs, among other grants 
toward rebuilding of these schools, £20 given by Mr. John Bowser 
towards the building of 'Canon Schooles.' Finally we learn from 

0 



i 94 AGAS'S PLAN AND IIUTTEN'S SURVEY [U 

the Vice-Chancellor's accounts of 1550, viz. of Dr. William Tresham, 
in whose lane we arc (V. p. 338), that he charges himself with 40.. 
received from John Wayght for the stones of the Canon School in 
ruins or rather pulled down; and again, with 5 .r. for the old portions 
of the seats of the Canon Schools. 

Those who know the lane will remember an indentation on its 
south side, about halfway along; this occurs at a parish boundary, 
and in excavations lately made, some good foundations were seen 
there, probably those of St. Edward Hall, into which old parish we 
have now entered. The Hall paid a rent to Osney, and the name 
occurs frequently in their rentals (V. pp. 4*7-79) J the only guide to 
its position is that it comes next before Eagle Hall, and seems in 
their books to be the first in this parish. Probably on the north side 
hereabouts, was Crim or Crime Hall, also mentioned in the Osney 
rentals in 1317 and 1392 (V. p. 474 The latter entry refers to 
some repairs, and reads thus : to the two Danberys working for 
sixteen days and the second fifteen days more at Crimhall, each of 
them receiving $d. per day ; and to two labourers digging stones in 
the old foundation at Crimhall 2s. 

Eagle Hall comes next on the south side, and is found, in one 
or two places, connected with Ape Hall, so that their grounds 
probably touched one another, and Ape Hall was at one of the four 
corners at the south end of Alfred Street. The experiments hitherto 
tried for fitting together the several areas around this four-ways have 
been made with the idea of St. Edward's being south of Blue Boar 
Lane, and at the west of the rear of Peckwater quadrangle. The 
cemetery of that church was first discovered some years back, when 
the main drainage scheme revealed the position of nearly twenty 
burials in the lane west of the corner where Alfred Street now 
meets it. On another occasion, only two years ago, seven or eight 
more Christian interments were disclosed a little to the south of 
the line of the old sewer. They commenced a few feet to the 
east of the Wheatsheaf passage ; and in that passage, in its south 
section before the first turn occurs (to the left), a wall of great solidity 
and excellently built was discovered last year running east and west. 
Further examination of it cannot yet be made, but there are good 
grounds for believing that it is the wall of the long-lost church 
of St. Edward. Some skeletons were also found in the second section 
of the lane, which runs east and west, and west of the Church as 
supposed, Eagle Hall had other names: Heron, arising from its 



ii] BLUE BOAR LANE, ORIEL, CORPUS, ETC. 195 



sign being a bad representation of the bird, from which came Yren 
and Iron ; civilized people in early times, like the vulgar of our days, 
having more than a tendency to avoid the aspirate. In some lists 
it is placed near to St. Edward's Hall, hence its neighbourhood is all 
that has at present been ascertained. The angle formed by Boar Lane 
and a south section of St. Edward's Street, is that occupied, c. 1240, 
by a messuage of Christina Pady ( Wi. 374), and thus described: 
I Christina daughter of Ralph Pady with the consent of my husband 
Jordan Rasi, have granted to God and the Church of St. Frideswyde, 
together with my body which I have given them for burial, all that 
messuage with four selds under the solar, in All Saints parish, which 
is at the west corner of that street which reaches from the great street 
toward the Church of St. Edward. It will be remembered that the 
corresponding corner to the north was Parn Hall. 

Glassen Hall, or Kepeharme's, was somewhere near the church, 
as is stated in a charter of about 1140 (V. p. 542), to which a John 
Cepeharme and a Hugh Kepeharme were witnesses. As Vine Hall 
was one of its boundaries, it seems most likely to have been to the 
south-east of the four-ways. The other boundary was a Soller Hall, 
a tenement of John Dokelington, the position of which is uncertain. 

Past the four-ways and further on eastward along Bear Lane, 
or as Twyne (23, p. 524) says, 'on the north part of the street 
leading from Shideyard toward the Church of St. Edward on the 
west side of St. Thomas Hall as I have since learnt,' was a 
Mayden Hall, 1349. This is the same St. Thomas' Hall which 
was noticed in the High Street as being on the parish boundary; 
a mean little cottage marks its position in Agas. Brid Hall, east of 
the same passage, was similarly noted, and this also reached down 
to the Bourne Lane. Opposite to this was one of the White Halls. 

Turning up Oriel Street, there stood in succession Broadgate 
Hall, Chimera, and St. Cuthbert's. Now we are facing St. Mary 
Hall, in Oriel Lane. It has lost most of the signs of its antiquity, 
but there still remains a pile of buildings at the south-east of the 
quadrangle, cellar, Dining Hall, and Chapel, neatly and consistently 
designed and built in 1639-40. The opposite angle is more ornate 
and of later execution. 

Not being able to continue our course toward the east, we must 
needs go round southward, and having now a multiplicity of docu- 
ments to guide us, and, better still, Dr. Shadwell's able arrangement 
of them to teach us, there need be no hesitation in placing Bedell 



196 AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [ii 



Hall where the present Oriel Library now is, and east of it a third 
garden of St. Thomas' chantry ; then Stylyngton's messuage, a 
narrow strip running throughout, west to east, but rather too far 
north to have been the former continuation of our lane toward 
Kybald Street; then, southward still, the Great School or Law 
Schools, and a Stodele Tenement. Next Spaldyng's, Book- 
bynder's, and Wyght's or Wyth's occupying the western half of 
the present back quadrangle : the eastern half consists of a tenement 
of St. Frideswyde's and one of Elias Pykard. Next Aungevyn's, 
with Hore's to the east of it, these two covering the northern side 
of the present front quadrangle. Le Oryole and St. Martin's or 
Merton Hall, at the south-east corner, the site of the present chapel, 
complete the square. Wood (MS. O. pp. 4-39) supplies us with 
most of the documents about the site of Oriel, but to have them 
scientifically arranged is quite another matter. 

Our eastern route is now ready for us, and as we look up Grove 
Place, the house of Absolon the clerk is on our left, and Dosier 
Hall on our right. Jesus Hall, a short way on, on the south or 
right-hand side, is put down in one place as joined to Biham or 
Beam Hall, and in another is said to be the same Hall, and on the 
site of the quaint little house lately an inn. Here the road at present 
ceases, but we proceed. A Chequer Hall on the left is followed 
by William (once Kybald) Hall, and that by St. Andrew Hall, 
the farthest in this lane belonging to St. Mary's parish. Somewhere 
opposite to William Hall was Ladderd Hall, which is mentioned 
as being in Kibaldstrete, and as owing an annual quit-rent of 2s. 
to St. Frideswyde's. A Rose Hall and a White, acquired by 
University College in 1330 (V. p. 16), are the first two in St. Peter's 
parish ; and next to them Brend Hall, quoted as a boundary only. 
Then came Hart Hall, Hertheved, Herthowed, or Dosier (heavod, 
Saxon for head), which was a clergy house ; it is also said by Wood 
that Hertshead was, temp. Edw. Ill, the name of the house near 
St. Alban's Hall. In 1518 (Tw. 23, p. 592) this piece of the lane 
from where it met the site of University was leased to Corpus ; in 
the Council Books of the City it stands thus : ' 7 Sept. 9. Eliz. Corpus 
Xti Coll. to have the lane behind Universitie Coll. (Smith puts 
in margin 'formerly called Kybald St.'), for 21 yeares to begin at 
Michaelmas next, payenge yerely 4s. at the least, all men's backsides 
reserved unto them and makinge at ech ende a wall with 2 great 
gates.' It must have been in this state that Hutten saw the lane. 



ii] BLUE BOAR LANE, ORIEL, CORPUS, ETC. 197 



Crossing the present Logic Lane, probably at the 'twychen,' 
we enter the east section of the lane having the names Harehall 
Lane and Nightingalehall Lane, from two halls of some impor- 
tance, the former to the north, the latter to the south. It was demised 
by the City to St. Johns Hospital in 1446 (V. p. 176), when John 
North, mayor of Oxford and the whole commonality granted to 
Richard Wyse, Master of the Hospital of St. John, Harehall Lane 
or Nightingale Hall lane in the parish of St. Peter in the east. 
The Master paid 2s. a year rent for it on several occasions. The 
measurements of it are given in 1448 (V. p. 180); it contained 
then in length three hundred and forty feet of the assize, the east 
end containing in breadth eight feet and three thumbs, and the 
west end nineteen feet and one thumb and a half, and the middle 
containing in breadth twelve feet ; and on each side of the said 
lane lay the land belonging (o the said hospital. The west end of 
the said lane ran into Jawdewingslane alias Horsman lane and the 
east end into the lane going under the towne wall from east gate 
to Jonyslane. The royal licence to the town to sell it was given 
in 1447 (V. p. 176). With all this information, it seemed strange 
that Wood had neglected it, but lately it has been discovered that he 
had planned it out completely (see above, p. 190). Kybald, Kybold, 
and Kybole street are names applied in various places to all the four 
branches here, and this leads to some confusion. The Horsemill 
was at the west corner, north side, then on the north Hare Hall 
and garden, seventy-five feet by sixty-six feet ; the garden of The 
Tabard came next, Wilmond's tenement and one of Eynsham 
Abbey followed, and then a garden of Bedwyn, the property of 
St. John's Hospital. These are the positions of places north of Hare 
Hall Lane. Nightingale Hall and Peneryche Hall occupied the 
extreme east of the section south of this lane, and a large garden and 
a small one of Peter Gyles the west of the same. 

In a return journey we pick up Hutten again, with apologies for 
straying so far, and listen to his tale, which some may believe, about 
Magpie Lane or Grove Lane. The Magpie tavern stands there still, 
a roomy house with an artistic portico; there are not four prettier 
in all Oxford. 

P. 148. ' Then wee enter into the midst of Mary Hall 
Lane, and turning on the right hand passe a long by Oriell 
Colledge on the left hand, and Corpus Christi Coll. on the 



i 9 S AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [ii 



right hand. Att the utmost end of Oricll Coll. there is that 
Lane, whereof wee spake before, commcing out of the High 
Streete, and opposite unto Catt-Streete Corner. This Lane 
is commonly called Pie Lane, but I will call it Winking Lane, 
because the first Printing Presse,that ever came into England, 
was sett on worke in this Lane by Widdy kind, alias Winkin, 
de Ward a Dutchman.' 

Although Hutten's treatise designedly leaves the colleges to be the 
subject of a later treatise, it will scarcely be allowable for us to skip 
the large area of Tom Quadrangle and the gardens to the east of 
it. Entering this area by Tom Gate, but in days before Wolsey 
replanned everything around here, we should find ourselves in Great 
Jury Lane, with the Great Jewry reaching to Boar Lane to our 
north ; and then, looking not directly across, but rather in the 
direction of the Deanery, we should notice the wall of the cemetery 
of St. Frideswyde, and probably a God's House, Domus Dei (later 
Pittance Hall), at its angle near a cross-road quite at the 
Cathedral side of the quadrangle. Here, then, we have three roads 
to consider. The northernmost would cross Blue Boar Street into 
the present Alfred Street, the middle one would run through Canter- 
bury College, and the southernmost would lead west of the church 
of St. Frideswyde to the Priory buildings. There was near Tom 
Gateway in 1443 (V. p- 276) a house of John Hanvell: Osney 
Abbey then let to farm a piece of ground in Jurey Lane almost 
opposite to the Civil Law School, containing in breadth near the road 
seven feet, and in length towards a tenement of Balliol College called 
BurnelFs yn fifteen feet, and abutting on its west side upon the tenement 
of John Hanvell gent, in the corner, which William Smith then held. 
Burnell's Inn, named from a Dean of Wells, afterwards known as 
Balliol Hall, because given to that college, and lastly as the Pike Inn, 
must have been known to Wood and his contemporaries, or they 
would not locate it so far north as ' opposite Pennyfarthing Street ' 
(now Pembroke Street) : a more southern position would suit the 
requirements of other descriptions. There was, for instance, in 1415 
(V. p. 277), a Greek Hall lying east of Burnell's Inn, and this is said 
also to be near the cemetery of the Church of St. Frideswyde ; but 
taking a general survey of the locality, it may result that the phrase 
' near the cemetery ' is applied to Greek Hall only, to distinguish 
it from the Greek Hall in St. Giles. The cemetery was not so 



ii] BLUE BOAR LANE, ORIEL, CORPUS, ETC. 199 



extensive as to have reached from Corpus west wall, where interments 
have been proved to exist, to the west part of Tom quadrangle. Next 
came, on the south, the Civil Law Schools, as granted by Balliol in 
1526 (V. p. 530): The Master (William White) and the Fellows of 
Balliol College granted to the Dean and Canons of Cardinal College 
one toft with a curtelage, upon which was built a certain Inn of study 
of the civil law, called London College, extending on the north side 
to a lane called Civill scoole Lane, and abutting on the south upon 
a lane called Frideswide lane and on the west upon the land of the 
said College. Then came Leberd or Libert Hall (Leopard?) or 
Bissop's House, which is mentioned (Tw. 22, p. 248) as near 
Greek Hall; it occurs, in the rubric of Wi. 102, as the house of 
Christina, afterwards Griphall, the same as Wood's Gup Hall {City, 
i. 169). Blakehall or Crompe's House {Wi. 438) was in St. Mary's 
parish and had its boundaries north and south ; so it is presumably 
not in this section, but in the northern one. It was at the west of 
Hakborn's house, which in a charter, c. 1215-25 {Wi. 114), is 
described as at the corner as one goes from the church of St. Frides- 
wyde on the left hand into the lane called Gret Jury Layne and the 
tenement called Blakhall on the west. The northernmost road 
seems to have had scarcely any place on its west side, but the east 
side was occupied (1) by Sampson Hall, about whose position at 
the north-west of the present Peckwater quadrangle we have grave 
doubts ; (2) Peckwater's Inn, the one above the name in Agas ; 
(3) Shep Hall, at the end of the same word in that map; (4) Vine 
Hall, and (5) Glassen Hall, the last three of which are clear enough 
from a deed of 1364 {City, i. 171, n. 4). It would seem from the 
following that the passage through Canterbury College was fairly to 
the north, for in 1396 (Tw. 23, p. 162) William Chert, a monk, and 
Prior of Canterbury College, applied to the Mayor and Bailiffs for 
the release of William Burgeveneye from a bond to the city for the 
eastern end of a certain lane in Shidezyde belonging to the city and 
enclosed in the manner following : the head of the lane is toward the 
west and is between the hall called Vynehall and another called 
Sheephall belonging to Godstow; for which head of the lane the 
Abbess and convent of Godstow pay to the commonalty 4s. and it 
contains in length twenty-four feet and in breadth thirteen feet : the other 
part of the lane is enclosed by the college of St. Mary of Winton in 
Oxford for the use of Vinehall, and the end toward the east and the south 
is enclosed by Canterbury College aforesaid. The rents of these two 



2oo AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY 



ends, I2d. each, occur about 1390 (Tw. 23, p. 238) in the Chamberlain's 
accounts. Going along these two parts of a lane, our eastern arm, 
we are upon Canterbury College ground, and should see Maryol, 
Shield, and Ber halls, but if we go out into Shydyierd Street, and 
walk up facing Oriel College, we shall find Edward Hall, another 
Staple Hall, a St. Michael's Hall, Fox Hall, and Swyneford's 
Entry (cf. Wi. 158) all in succession, reaching up to Bear Lane. 
All these eight halls were clearly on the site of Canterbury College, 
but their order and position are not quite defined. The same halls 
are also concealed under owners' names (in Wi. 114). 

Shydierd Street once ran on south from Canterbury Gate to the 
City walls. It was leased, probably for the first time, by the City 
to Corpus in 1556 (V. p. 615), by the name of St. Frideswide's 
lane, described as the lane or street leading from Canterbury College 
to the town wall on the south side of Corpus Christi College. 
Almost the whole of the buildings which once stood on the site 
of Corpus were sold by Merton College to Bishop Fox as property 
in very bad repair. On the west side of the site, and east of the 
lane, were four buildings worth notice. At the corner opposite 
Canterbury Gate was Corner Hall, sold by Warden Rawlyns, 151 8 ; 
south of that was Nun Hall or Leaden Porch, sold by the abbess 
of Godstowe. Its four boundaries are given (Tw. 23, p. 663) : 
Corner Hall on the north, Nevellys Yn on the south, the garden 
of that Inn on the east and the king's highway on the west. It was 
eighteen feet in width and forty feet in length. The next was 
NevylPs Inn, probably Hunsingore's, quoted above as south and 
east of Nun Hall, and in a charter of Urban Hall as west of Urban 
Hall. In its sale by Merton in 15 17, no boundaries are given. Next 
was Beke's Inn towards the south-west corner of the site, omitting 
the via regia, then called Bachelors' Garden, i. e. the Bachelors of 
Merton. Beke's Inn was sold in 151 7 by the Priory of St. Frideswyde, 
and is described (Tw. 23, p. 666) as extending on the west along the 
street leading from the Church of St. Mary's to the monastery, and 
on the east along a garden of Nevylle's Inne, and abutting upon 
Bachelor's Garden on the south, and Nevyll's Inne on the north. To 
the extreme north-east of this site was Urban Hall, whose kitchen 
still remains to us. In the description of this Hall, with other 
tenements (ibid. p. 664), the wall of Merton College is to the east, 
Neville's Inn and Corner Hall on the west, the street from 
Canterbury College to Merton on the north, and the garden called 



ii] BLUE BOAR LANE, ORIEL, CORPUS, ETC. 201 



Nevyll's inne garden on the south : the tenements abut on Bachelors' 
garden on the south and on Nevyll's on the north \ Fulman's idea 
of the Corpus site is reproduced in Dr. Fowler's volume, History of 
Corpus (O. H. S. xxv. p. 69). Both it and Twyne's notes seem to 
avoid mentioning a Christopher Hall near to NeviU's Inn. 

Before crossing the supposed extension of Grove Street, a feu- 
arrears of information shall be disposed of. For Christ Church 
history, vide 52-60, PL With regard to the cemetery, properly 
so-called, of St. Frideswyde, an extract will show us that it was 
north of the Cathedral. In 1374 (Tw. 23, p. 345) was enrolled the 
testament of Thomas de Swyneshull, who desires his body to be 
buried in the cemetery of the church of St. Frideswyde facing the 
north door of the church ; to this a note has been added, ' hence 
something can be collected about the site of that cemetery.' In 1342 
(ibid. p. 469), Adam Blaket was indicted before John Fitz Perys and 
William le Iremonger bailiffs of Oxford for that he on the Thursday 
next before Palm Sunday feloniously entered by night the enclosure 
of the cemetery of the Church of St. Frideswyde and there stole and 
carried off one arm of the great (capitalis) cross of the cemetery 
of the value of half a mark, and afterwards broke it into four parts. 
The arm (vana) was afterwards found and seized. He confessed to 
the taking, and pleaded that he was at the time a lunatic and not 
compos mentis. This seems to throw doubt on the choice either of 
a spot near Merton, or one near Mercury's pond, as the site of the 
noted Jews Cross, an undoubted part of whose base is still pre- 
served. For the St. Frideswyde legend, vide p. 51, PI. 

The architectural features of the Cathedral would require a small 
volume to do justice to them, but one point may even here be 
adverted to. When the three (or two) arches were discovered near 
the present restored shrine of St. Frideswyde, much stress was laid 
upon the arches being wider than the impost and leaving a ledge at 
their junction ; that feature is undoubtedly early, but it occurs in the 
time of Henry III in the City bastions and in the Decorated towers 
of St. Martin's and St. Peter-in-the-East. It was a simple plan of 
doing without elaborate centering, used from Roman times, and even 
now practised in India ; it is by itself no criterion of date. 

1 This statement of boundaries is confused, and has puzzled older antiquaries. 
One of them, in a note opposite the passage in Twyne, suggests that by the 
expression ' Nevyll's yn garden ' must be understood an irregular piece of ground 
spreading round several other tenements. 



202 AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [ii 



Oriel College, though one of the oldest foundations, was entirely 
rebuilt in the seventeenth century, 1618-42, regnante Carolo ; it has 
few of the bad features of buildings of its period, being designed 
quietly but tastefully. It will be noticed that in Agas there . is no 
chapel at the angle towards Merton, but there may be one intended at 
the centre of the north part of the main quadrangle, presuming that 
the cross at the apex is a safe guide. Why this is so it is not easy 
to say, as the chapel of 1373 is supposed with good reason to have 
been towards the south, where it is shown by Bereblock. 

Corpus, like Oriel, should be studied by the aid of Bereblock and 
Agas. Its subdued or lowly proportions have been lost to us : a third 
storey here, as at New College, has ruined the design. Agas, by 
a little manoeuvring, shows us, in a marked manner, the old cloister of 
Corpus, greatly modified afterwards, and not improved, at the time 
of the erection of the Turner buildings. In the library are some 
choice bits of wall decoration; but the finest work, perhaps the 
finest to be found *in any college rooms in Oxford, is that over 
the main gateway, intended, as usual, for the residence of the 
President. In the Introduction, notice was taken of the bastion in 
the south-west angle of Corpus site. It does not occur in our maps or 
view-plans, and scarcely in any notice of the college ; a little searching 
will soon find it, and when found it will prove that the south wall 
of the City was fortified in the same style as the north, and apparently 
was not a bit weaker in construction. 

xx. Merton Street. 

P. 149. 1 This Lane (Grope Lane) butteth upon Martin 
Colledge Church, which Church is called by the name of 
St. John Baptist Church, and servetri not onely for that 
Colledge, but is the Parish Church alsoe of the fore named 
Lane, and C. C. Coll. and those Houses that are over against 
this Church and Albane Hall, and all the rest of the Lane till 
you come to the East gate of the Cittie. Over against 
Albane Hall there is a passage on the left hand leading unto 
the High Streete, and almost opposite to that of St. Peter's 
in the East, besides that other which I last mentioned.' 

Coming into St. John's Street, if we were not already in it, the first 
place to be noticed is on the north side at the corner — St. John's 



MERTON STREET 



203 



Hall. In an Oseney rental of 13 17 (V. p. 424) it is called the house 
of John of St. John, probably a member of that family which proved 
such benefactors to Godstow; next to it is the tenement of Ralph 
the writer. This was transferred to Fox in 1532, and was described 
in 15 1 8 (V. p. 613) as ground or void place commonly called 
St. John's Hall between Beamhall on the east and the highway 
leading from St. John's Church to that of St. Mary the Virgin and 
adjoining Backlane on the north. Beam Hall, which assumes here 
and there the name of 'Jeans/ probably John's, comes next, but 
there is a piece of old work in the middle of Beam Hall which 
may be connected with Ralph's house or with Jesus Hall. Merton 
Stables follow, now disguised, but early drawings of them show that 
they have been ' modified ' out of Early Decorated structures. The 
horse-pond behind them is there no longer, but it is worth while to 
recall its existence, as Gutter Hall just west of Merton College 
Chapel, and the tanning pits discovered on the Corpus site, may 
have a connexion not very remote with Wanter's mill on Merton 
property. Next we have Portionists , or Postmasters' Hall, the 
residence of Anthony Wood, but since his time it has lost its porch 
and its little forecourt of stone, and early in the eighteenth century 
the interior was refitted with very good work for the period, but alas ! 
for the irreverence which destroyed every trace of the interpreter of 
our Oxford history. It is some distance to Logic Lane, but there are 
not many things to notice, and that will be a good stopping place. 
To the east of Portionists' Hall was Knight Hall, reaching through 
to Kibald Street, Anthony Wood's garden. Coleshull or Colecill 
Hall adjoined the last, and its site also became a garden. A house, 
facing St. Alban's, stands on the site of Aristotle's Hall. 

We return to study the south side of this part of the street. The 
church, once of St. John the Baptist parish, has an Early Decorated 
chancel and Perpendicular north and south transepts. They are an 
excellent school for the study of architecture. No nave was ever 
built, though provision was made for it, and for north and south 
aisles. A sacristy at the south-east is apparently of about the year 
1320, and close to this, south-east of the church, some interments 
have been discovered; — a stone coffin found here was for a long 
time in Merton stable on the other side of the street. Two of the 
long dormitories of the original structure have been converted 
into a well-known and historic library. There is, west of the hall 
of Merton, an unique muniment room, perhaps the library of the 



AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY [ii 



infant institution ; its two side walls are brought together upon 
three deep and strong arches, they meet and form a stone cover- 
ing of great durability and fire-proof, but scarcely to be called 
a groined roof. 

Where St. Alban Hall joins Merton, are the remains of the 
earliest collegiate structure in England. Two windows and a doorway, 
patched on the exterior, are all that is now left of it, but it was once 
an L-shaped building, probably the Warden's Great Hall. The 
interior mouldings and the window-frames, happily preserved, tell 
of a style simpler and earlier than the chapel, and this can be better 
judged by inspecting Loggan's view of it facing the street. Its 
architectural interest vanished under the inartistic touch of the 
architect Blore, just as did the character of Chichele's chapel at 
St. John's College. The mischief is done, the lesson it teaches ought 
to remain. The hand of the restorer and remodeller is the fist of 
a destroyer, the modernizer is equally dangerous — when will the 
conservative repairer be called in? 

The advowson of the church, and a tenement west of it, were 
granted to the college by Reading Abbey in 1266, reserving a rent 
of 3 s. In August of the same year the king gave some void land, 
and probably his Way-under-the-walls, but under the obligation 
of making two gateways, one east, the other west ; and it has not 
been determined whether these were through the City wall into the 
Tymber Yard, or at each end through the necessary fence-walls at 
the ends. It will be noticed that Agas draws a series of steps over 
a cross-fence south of Merton. A Dr. Turner of Merton, writing 
in 1629, says, as reported by Twyne (23, p. 765), that they, i.e. 
Merton, have a subterranean passage of spring water in arched 
work from Holyw T ell and the Town ditch there, and that it is that 
water that cometh out under the wall hard by the back postern. 
Yet three ditches across the Tymber Yard are remembered by some 
elderly people, much as Agas draws them. To the east of Merton 
lies St. Alban's Hall — whether Nun Hall and Alban Hall were com- 
bined, cannot be said — the road to the east of it, or them, has been 
already noticed. Next comes Hert Hall, very nearly opposite Logic 
Lane, and Lamb Hall follows. 

Now for the second and less important part of the street, still 
keeping on the south side. There were two Bileby Halls here, 
but no other hall of whose site we can judge at all accurately;* but 
turning to the right, there was under the walls a piece of ground 



i] MAGDALEN COLLEGE AND EAST OXFORD 205 



thirty feet wide at the north end, nineteen feet at the south, and 
seventy-nine yards long, for which (Hester's papers) many leases 
were taken out by Merton from the City, until the college finally 
bought it. This may be put down as a bit of the royal-way, a 
former road or lane, enclosed and sold, being about the ninth we 
have chronicled. Stress has been laid throughout this peregrination 
upon the royal-way under the walls, and this supports the view — 
one must not say the theory. 

xxi. Magdalen College and East Oxford. 

P. 149. ' And now beeing come to the East gate of the 
Cittie, I make this observation, that prudent Antiquitie 
provided, that the two Churches of St. Michaell should be 
placed att the South and Northgate, and St. Peter not farr 
from the ' (P. 1 50) ' West and Easterne gates, according to an 
old verse : 

Invigilat portae Australi Boreaeque Michayell: 
Exortum solem Petrus regit atque cadentem. 

Ube iRortb anb Soutb gates St. /nMcbacll botb cjuarb : 
Ube East ant> Udest St. ipetet's care botb warb. 

And this maie suffice for the Description of the Easterne part 
of this Citty within the "Walls. Noething now remaineth, but 
onely the Suburbs of the East gate, which containeth on the 
left hand a faire Front, all belonging and adjoyning unto 
Magdalen Coll. on the right hand certaine poore Cottages and 
scattering Houses, unto the Gate of Trinitie Lane.' 

The fair front must have been certain small and rather pretty 
houses on the site of the present St. Swythun's quadrangle, called 
New Hew by Wood {City, i. 294 n.), in which, apparently on the 
north side, were Barbour's tenement, Waldri Hall, and a White 
Hall (V. p. 204); on the south side a Shield Hall (V. p. 194), 
and then Trinitie Chapel, a noted spot where the civic authorities 
received in pomp their newly elected Mayor when he returned from 
visiting his Sovereign to receive the royal approval — a serious journey, 
one would say, for a plain citizen, when the king happened to be as 
far off as York. Thus, in 1318 (Tw. 23, p. 236); Delivered to 
John de Hampton, Mayor, for his expenses at York for his pre- 
sentation to the king, four marks. Behind these last places was 



2 o6 AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY 



Pary's meadow, which is supposed to have come quite up to the 
east wall of the City. Across the road here were one or two streams, 
besides the two arms of the Cherwell. There were then islands or 
eyots, or aits, enough ; from one of these the district from East Gate 
to St. Clement's acquired the name Bruges-ete, island of the bridge. 

P. 150. ' Beyond this, the South side of Magdalen Coll. 
on the one side, and a Tenement, adjoyning unto the 
Phisick Garden, bring us unto the Bridge over Charwell, 
leading us into the Parish of St. Clement, which hath Tene- 
ments likewise on both sides, and two waies,' (P. 151) 'the 
one leading unto Boltshipton Farme, which is called London 
waie, the other towards St. Bartholomew's and the Countrie 
adjoyning.' (Life of St. Clement omitted — vide 103, PL) 

Magdalen Hall came first on the north side, and then a relic of 
the old St. John's Hospital, founded as early as the twelfth century. 
Hugo de Malaunay, in his charter, 11 90 (D. n, p. 5), makes this 
declaration : Know all of you (universitas) that I have confirmed to 
God and to the Hospital of St. John Baptist situated outside the 
east gate of Oxford all the lands and tenements within the burgh 
of Oxenford and without, which Peter Boterel held on the day he 
was alive and dead, whereof the Lord John Earl of Mortein was 
seised on the day when the Lord Richard, King of England, and 
Philip King of France began their journey towards Jerusalem, and 
which the same Earl John gave to me, above the rent of ten shillings 
which the said John had before given to the Brethren. Before its 
doorway stood a noted wayside cross, about which, in the City 
records, 1331 (Tw. 23, p. 455), we read thus: The Masters, 
brethren and men of St. John's Hospital are not to be distressed 
or disquieted by the City authorities, as they have been of late 
for the making and repair of the way which reaches from Little 
Bridge, Oxford, even to the Cross near the gate of the Hospital. 
When crossing Tu-brugge, appropriate term enough, where arches 
have to cross the two Cherwells, we may note that, although in Agas's 
map it appears like a long wooden bridge, yet Mr. Varney's model, 
and further inquiry on our own part, have satisfied us that it was 
a stone bridge with several pointed arches, widened with wooden 
additions, at least on the north side. We might, perhaps, in earlier 
days have seen traces of the draw-bridge {pons tractabilis), and of the 
wooden arch at the extreme east. 



i] MAGDALEN COLLEGE AND EAST OXFORD 207 



Leaving St. Clement's Church, which then stood at the east end 
of Magdalen Bridge, on the left, a road to Milham Bridge, running 
south-west, might once have been seen, and just where the Magdalen 
School premises now terminate, a lane running down from it to the 
river, bearing the name of Tell Mill Lane, a corruption of Temple 
Mill Lane, from a mill belonging to the brethren of Temple Cowley. 
Take the trouble to note the spot on Loggan's map, and you will 
see it was a decoy-pond in his time. In the same map, too, will be 
seen the Star-fort in ' Campus field,' a grand earthwork of Charles' 
time, but wonderfully diminished within these fifty years. 

P. 152. 'The waie leading unto St. Bartholomewe's is 
a Causy leading directly thither, which is a poore Hospitall, 
belonging unto Oriell Coll. and is counted the utmost Limitt 
of the Universitie Eastward. Unto the Chappell of this 
Hospitall, the Fellowes of New Colledge with their Quire did 
formerly, and doe formally, resort once a yeare, every May 
day Morning, and haveing made their Oblations, and sung 
Anthems for a space, they conclude this wholl Ceremonie 
and their Visitation with a passing along through the Grove 
to the Well, and doeing the like observance there.' 

As to the roads thence, there were then but two ; the short cut, 
now Iffley Road, was of later construction; in Hutten's time Iffley 
was reached by a branch road from that towards Cowley. It is 
the Cowley Road which Hutten calls ' the waie leading unto St. 
Bartholomewe's/ This too was a causy, but only an embanked one 
(the writer has seen most of it upturned to some depth), because 
on this higher ground there were no streams. Bolleshipton Farm 
was a short distance towards Headington, where Boulter Street, 
St. Clement's, now is, but the grounds are the old enclosure, now 
called South Park. The St. Clement's road to London passed over 
Shotover Hill, and here the writer will make one more quotation 
from Twyne (23, p. 244), Chamberlains' accounts of 1420: 'Expense 
of wax torches at Shotover through the night, waiting for the coming 
of our lord (i. e. Henry V) ' ; and will conclude with the Carmelite 
Baston's lines : — 

' Si quid deliqui, si quae recitanda reliqui, 
Haec addant hi qui non sunt sermonis iniqui.' 



APPENDIX 



Additional Notes 
A. 

The Cloister of All Souls' College (p. 166). A remarkable bird's- 
flight view of this College, of sixteenth-century execution, after 1553 
(now on the eve of publication in the F. E. Robinson series of 
Histories), enables us to form a very good idea of this structure, 
which was much after the model of that at New College; and 
fortunately it is seen from a point of view opposite to that in Loggan's 
map. It provides us also with valuable representations of the houses 
in Catte Streete and The Highe Streete which were near that 
College, especially of Drogheda and Staunton Halls. The gutters, 
channels or ' kennels ' of the streets were then in the middle of the 
roadway, and there is still no trace of anything like a footpath under 
the buildings. 

B. 

Friar Bacon's Study (p. 21) is shown in an early view as an 
embattled gateway without the large upper room so generally con- 
spicuous ; it has a gateway on the south, provided with two gates 
each pierced with narrow slits, but no portcullis shows. There 
is a stream on the north as well as on the south, each spanned by 
a plank-road intended to represent drawbridges, but no contrivance 
for pulling them up is to be seen. These bridges being hinged on 
the edges toward the tower might have had counterpoises attached, 
and been capable of being swung up and down by mechanism in 
the basement of the building. Isolated gateways of this kind are 
still to be seen remaining in a few mediaeval structures. 

C. 

Brasenose College Chapel (p. 89). A lease by the Principall 
and Scholars to John Kinge, of the Inner Temple, London, dated 
March 14, 1649, specifies the Howses and Scite of the late dissolved 



AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY 



Colledge of St. Mary, having Crown Lane on the south part and 
the land of Robert Gilks and Henry Coxe on the east part. It 
reserves to the College the power of giving six months' notice ' to 
enter with workmen and labourers, with Carts and Horses upon 
any part of it, to pull downe the olde Chappell thereupon and to 
remove all the materialls of the said olde Chappell, of Stoane, 
Tymber, Lead, &c. to carry awaye for the building of a Chappell 
within Brasennose Colledge according to the intencion of the last 
will and Testament of Samuel Radclif, D.D, late Principal.' The 
pulling down not to effect the rent. 



D. 

Earlshamme (p. 19). To add to the complexity about the islets 
near Folly Bridge, another one has been encountered bearing the 
above name, and described in 16 13 as being 'five acres in extent, 
in the parish of St. Aldate, between a meadow there called Christ- 
church meade and the river called Shirelake.' Wood {City, i. 453) 
asks if this was the same as Erlychesyte. 



E. 

East Gate. It is much to be regretted that the excavations 
made last year, in digging cellars for the new hotel there, did 
not clear up the question whether the early towers flanking the 
different gates of Oxford were circular or square in plan. The 
former seems the more probable, as they, like circular bastions, would 
not require so much skilled masonry in their construction, and when 
completed would not afford angles for the enemy's tools to operate 
upon. Among the Gough Drawings is one supposed to be of East 
Gate before King James time, i.e. before it was reconstructed. It 
shows a round tower, in ruins, on both sides of the gateway; and 
a row of small trees, said to be those on the Gravel- walk at Magdalen, 
can be seen through, the pointed arch which spans the roadway. 
The North Gate in Agas has also two such round towers, and of 
the roundness of the one to the west we are certain. South Gate 
and West Gate appear in Agas to be too isolated to be accurate, 
and his East Gate presents some difficulties. Smith Gate and the 
one near the Cathedral, if not a mere postern, seem to have one 



APPENDIX 



211 



bastion only at the side. Those repeated by Skelton from a series 
of drawings of about 1 720-1750 do not show enough of the walls 
on each side to enable an opinion to be formed upon this point. 
The whole matter is doubtful. 



F. 

The Buildings of Oseney (p. 92). From Browne Willis MS. 
folio xlv. Bodl. p. j 34, from a Letter to him by Bp. Tanner. 

Ch. Ch., Oxon, 
July 12, 1738. 

Dear Mr. Willis, 

. . . You are pretty particular I find in enumerating the several 
parts of the old Buildings of this and other old Abbeys — so that perhaps 
it will please your curiosity to have such account of the names and 
bigness of the Lodgings and Offices belonging to Osney as may be 
found upon the leases and other papers since it was made part of the 
endowment of Christ Church. How they were situated I don't pretend 
to describe, perhaps Mr. Wood's may be the most exact : but in a loose 
old paper some of the buildings are reckoned up and perhaps rightly 
in this order : — 



Feet Feet 
long, broad. 
The Long Stable . . — — 
Mr. Bysely's Lodgings . 55 25 
Another house adjoyning to 

the same . . .40 — 
Where the Almesmen lay . 30 — 
Two propre chambers at 

the end of the Dortre 

with rooms above and 

beneath them . . — — 
The Dorter* . . .169 32 
The Frater* with a pulpit 

in it (*both with vaults 

underneath) . . .140 36 
The Brewhouse . .40 32 
The slaughter House with 

other offices thereto be- 
longing . . .84 — 
The Abbats Hall — the 

Abbats High Hall or 

Abbat John's Hall stand- 
ing aloneSouthward from 

the Fratrie next the 

Orchard . . . 46 34 
The Leaded Lodging [in 



Feet Feet 
long, broad. 

another place called the 
Leaden Chamber] or Mr. 
Dyer's Lodging . . 45 36 
The parler under Mr. 

Dyer s Lodging ... — — 
The Kiln House with the 

Furnese House . . 76 32 
Mr. Belsyre's Stable . .40 16 
The loft over the Schole . 50 24 
The Schoolmaster's 

Chamber . . . 24 16 
The Schole House . . — — 
Mr. Haynes lodging , . — — 
The Great Hall . • 59 33 
The Yate House. I sup- 
pose this was the outer- 
gate House or the gate 
House at the entrance of 
the Abbey . . . — — 
The Little Chamber near 

the same . . . — — 
The porters Lodge . . — — 
The Great Barn . .88 28 



P 



2 



212 AGAS'S PLAN AND IIUTTEN'S SURVEY 



Thus far that paper, which is imperfect, because I find in others 
mention of other Buildings, viz. — 



The Middle Gate House. 

Mr. Lynch's Lodging. 

The Dove House. 

The Miln House. 

Mr. Deys lodgings. 

Mr. Belsire's lodgings. 

The Deans lodgings distinct from the 

Abbats lodgings. 
The Deans Stable with the lodging 

annexed. 
The Bake House. 



The Common Kitchin. 
The Firmary. 
The Chapter House. 
The Jakes House. 
The Prison House. 

The Conduit House adjoining to the 

Fratry and Cloysters. 
The Great Tower in which was Clock 

and Chymes. 
The whole Church with the vaults. 



In MS. Rawlinson D. 1481, fol. 32, is another list of the Buildings 
in Bp. Tanner's hand, here reprinted. The Archaeologia, Vol. 43, 
p. 237, also supplies other particulars not topographical. 



Mannor House or syte of the Mannor of the Cathedral 
Church of Ofseney]. 



High Hall— The Abbots lodg- 
ing standing alone next y e 
Orchard with y e yards and 
gatehouse. 
Mr. Lynchs lodging. 
The Frater. The Dove house. 

The Miln house. 
Mr. Deys lodgings. 
The Dorter. The Bakehouse. 

Mr. Belsires lodgings. 
The Deans lodging. 
The Church. The Deans Stable with the lodg- 
ing annexed therunto. 



Columbines Orchyd. 

The Abbats Garden. 

(11) The Leaden Chamber. 

The Common Kitchin. 

The firmary. 

The Chapter House. 

The Jakes house. 

The Prison House. 

The whole Church with the 

vaults of y e same. 
The Tower. 

The Conduite House adjoyning 
to the Fratries and Cloyster 
walls of the West side of y 9 
Cloyster. 



1. The long stable — utterly taken away. 

2. Mr. Bysleys Lodgings in length 55 f. in breadth 25 f. 

3. Another house adjoyning to y e same lodging at y e E. End in length 40 f. 

4. Where the Almesmen lay in length 30 f. 

5. At the end of the Dortre 2. propre Chambers, with rooms beneath and above 
them. 

6. Dorter in length 169 f. in breadth 32 f. ) With vaults 

7. Frater in length 140 f. bredth 36 f. — the Pulpit in decay. \ underneath. 
8 in length 40 f. — breadth 24. 

9. Slater House with other Houses of Office in length 84 f. 

10. The Abbots Hall standing alone Southward from the fratrie Abbat Johns 
Hall in length 46 in breadth 34. 

11. The Leaded lodging or Mr. Dyer[s] lodging in length 45 f. in bredth 26 f. 

12. The parler underneath Mr. . . . lodging. 

The great Hall part of y° Mansyon house where A. lived. 

13. The kyln house with the furnese House in length 76 — Breadth 32 f. 

14. Mr. Belsyres Stable in length 40 f. — in bredth 16 f. 

15. The loft over the Schole 50 f. in length 24 in breadth. 



APPENDIX 



213 



16. The Scole Masters Chamber 24 in length 16 in breadth. 

The Outer Gate House otherwise called the great Gatehouse at the entreing of 
the Grange. The Middle Gatehouse. 

1 7. The Schole House. 

18. Mr. Haynes lodging. 

19. The great Hall — in length 59 f. in breadth 33 f. 

20. The Yatehouse without steyes — in length 38 in breadth 28. 

21. The little Chamber near the same. 

22. The porters lodge. 

23. The great barn in length 88 in bredth 28. 

G. 

Postern at New College. Though several Posterns have been 
mentioned, the one in New College gardens, within five feet west 
of the angle-bastion, has been omitted. Having been neatly blocked 
up with masonry, probably from Wickham's time, it is not easily 
discerned; indeed it may have escaped notice till 1895, for such 
I find is the date of my sketch. The jambs are 4 feet 6 inches high 
and 4 feet 9 inches from each other ; the arch above is semicircular, 
about 5 feet 3 inches across. The untouched jamb, like several in 
the bastion near it, has the ledge at its top about 3 inches wide, 
on which feature see p. 201. On questioning whether it could 
not be opened there seemed to be some objections: these it is to 
be hoped are not insuperable. In the eastern wall of the sam* 
gardens a low arch is drawn in one of Loggan's views, in a line 
with the centre of St. Peter's Churchyard, but whether at any time 
it was over the trench so common by the sides of roads has yet to 
be discovered. It reaches through the wall and shows itself at 
the end of the garden of No. 1 2 Long Wall. 

H. 

St. John's Road (p. 116). It might be added that the entire 
length of this Road has been formed in the hollow of a gravel-pit, 
and this explains why the houses at a short distance from it, north 
and south, stand on higher ground. 

I. 

St. Nicholas Chapel. The statement (p. 18) that the chapel 
might be on the east side of the Abingdon Road has proved in- 
correct. A ' bird's-m'ght ' view lately discovered (made about the 
end of Elizabeth's reign, to produce before Court in a question of 
title) places Chapel Close on the east where it now is, and the 
chapel on the west. The same view supplies us with the earliest 
drawing yet known of the great south causeway, showing eighteen 



2T4 



AGAS'S PLAN AND HUTTEN'S SURVEY 



arches south of the Study, of which nine have water under them, 
or a water-course running through them. 

j- 

The name Salesurry (p. 160) has been more fully investigated, 
and it has been remarked that while all documents constantly 
oppose the Salisbury theory, its supporters are found to be the later 
authorities Leland and Twyne. The latter, in speaking of an ex- 
change of the hall, though he must have had 1 Salesury ' before 
him, preferred in his note upon the document, to call it Salysbury. 
The earliest form ' Sale de Syrrae ' (Hall of Syrra or Syrrie) pro- 
vides the key to the six other variants, and the form Salisbury 
probably rests on the desire of making that city, like Gloucester 
and Durham, have a house in Oxford. 

K. 

Trill Mill Stream (p. 33). Regarding the two streams running 
south from this, the maps of the last century prove to be defective, 
because both were sufficiently open thirty or thirty-four years since 
for boys to punt down them from the ' Swans ' nest and neighbour- 
hood, to see the University boat-races, and thus escape the tolls 
at the lock near Friar Bacon's Study. 

L. 

A new part of the City "Wall discovered in 1898 has now been 
uncovered (Sept. 1899). It takes a diagonal line across the Quad- 
rangle south of the Clarendon Building, and is very much in the 
direction drawn by Agas, either touching or closely approaching 
the Chapel of Our Lady, which still exists between Hertford College 
and the Indian Institute. The masonry and other peculiarities make 
it very doubtful whether it is not later than the walls at New College. 
A bastion has also been uncovered, just east of the Sheldonian, some 
chambers flanking it, and a second City-wall running eastward from 
the bastion rather toward the Bodleian Quadrangle and then curving 
round so as to pass under the north entrance to it. As this has 
evidently been built against some embankment and the masonry is 
of very early character, it may be assigned to the time of D'Oilly 
( v - P- 133)- 



INDEX 



Abbotsbury, 98. 

Abingdon (Abendon), 14, 37, 98, 163. 
Abingdon, abbey of, 15, 20, 154. 

— abbots of, 15, 19, 154. 

— charter to, 55. 

— garden of, 153. 

— tenants of, 154. 
Abingdon bridge, 26. 

Abingdon Chronicle, 15, 19, 26, 55. 
Abingdon rental, 177. 
Abingdon road, 17, 213. 
Abingdon (Abyndon) tenement, 48. 
Abingdon, see also Alice of Abingdon 

and Henry of Abingdon. 
Abingdon, Robert (1392), 160. 
Absolon the Clerk, house of, 196. 
Acton, see John de Acton. 
Adam, son of Walter, provost, 83. 
Adam de Brome, 60, 100, 129, 168, 178. 
Adam de Longe, 55. 
Adam of the Ryver, 69, 148. 

— his wife Alice , 148. 

— his son Hugh, 148. 
Adam de Shareshull, knt., 36. 

— his son William, 36. 
Adam under the Wall, 91. 
Adrian, John, mayor of London, 56. 
Adynton, see Stephen of Aynton. 
Adynton's lane, 66, 151. 

Agas, R., his connexion with Corp. Chr. 
coll., 4. 

— his drawing powers, 6. 

— Plan of Cambridge, 2, 3. 

— Plan of London, 2, 3. 

— Plan of Oxford, 1 et passim. 

— measurements of his map of Oxford, 
7,8. 

Agnes, prioress of Stodley, 184. 
Ailnoth (Alenot) hall, 176. 
Airay, house of, 189. 
Akyns, John, baker, 91. 
Alan of Kylingworth, 184. 

— his wife Dionysia, 184. 



Alard, master, sub-dean of Wells, 156. 
Alban hall, see St. Alban hall. 
Albert street, 34. 
Albion place, 74. 
Aldate or Eldad, account of, 72. 
Aldebury, see William of Aldebury. 
Alden's Map of Oxford, 1 1 7 «. 
Aldgate street, London, 72. 
Aldwear (Aldwere, Were), 83, 97. 
Aldyate and Aldate (St. Aldate), 72. 
Alenot, see Ailnoth hall. 
Alewic, son of Walter, provost, S3. 
Alexander de Feribrigge, 192. 
Alfred the Great, king, 159, 190. 
Alfred street (or Bear lane), 50, 108, 

!73, 194, T 98- 

Alfwyn the Waggoner, 121. 

Algoddis lane, 91. 

Alianor, prioress of Stodley, 182. 

Alianor (Alienore) schools, 163, 165. 

Alice of Abingdon, prioress of Little- 
more, 164. 

Allhallowes, see All Saints. 

All Saints (All-hallo wes) parish, 66, 

i7 lLl 73> T 7<5, i77, T 95- 
All Saints church, 42, 61, 64, 79, 91, 

9^ I 74, I 77- 

— St. Anne's chantry in, 176. 

— St. Mary's chantry in, 113. 

— chapel of St. Anne (?) in, 175. 

— churchwardens' accounts, 175. 
■ — chaplain in, 167. 

— monuments removed to, from Carfax 
church, 61. 

— churchyard of, 75, 176. 

— survey from Carfax to, 170-174. 

— survey from, to Cat street, 174-181. 

— a hill lowered at, 46. 

All Saints street (Allhallowes street), 
129, 172. 

All Souls coll., 38, 42, 87, 160, 165, 
167, 169, 181, 182. 

— archives of, 44. 



2l6 



INDEX 



All Souls coll., chapel and ante-chapel 
of, 167. 

— cloister of, 209. 

— garden of, 169. 

— gateway of, 186. 

— old library of, 167, 169, 180. 

— first quadrangle of, 167. 

— north quadrangle of, 166. 

— tenement of, 91. 

— surveyfrom Market street to,i 51-170. 

— Warden and fellows of, 182. 

— warden of, R. Andrews, 166. 
Roger Keys, 181. 

J. Stokes, 182. 

Almain, king of, his Royal hall, 115. 
Almarus, lord, see Cornwall, earl of. 
Almshouse (Segrim's), 71. 

— South gate, 45. 
Almshouse place, 135. 

Alrichesyte (Aylriches eyt, Erlyches 
eyte), 20. 

Alwyn the Turner ( Alwin le Tornor), 1 83. 

— his son Ernisius, 1 84. 
Amhurst, his Terrae filius, 112. 
Amsterdam court, 175. 
Anchor inn, 39, 117. 
Anchorite's land, the, 148. 
Andever, Edmund, prior of St. Frides- 

wyde's, 154. 
Andrew of Durham, alderman, 187, 188. 
Andrew de Halesdon, 107. 
Andrews, Richard, warden of All Souls, 

166. 

Angel, the, 190. 

Angelus le Bolter, 130. 

Anketil, tenement of, 163. 

Ape hall, in Little Jewry, 50, 194. 

Apothecary, see William the Apothecary. 

Apothecary's hall, 176. 

Archaeologia Oxoniensis, 90. 

Aristotle's hall, 203. 

Aristotle's well, 97, 117. 

' Armer house,' 169. 

Arms of England, 45. 

Arthur hall, 165. 

Ashmolean museum, Broad street, 26, 
28, 83, 87, 95, 125, 129. 

— a pond once under it, 125. 
Astbruggestrate, see Eastbridge street. 
Aston, Robert, rector of St. Michael's, 

N., 69. 

Aswardby, see Roger of Aswardby. 
Att Yate, family of, 72. 

— see also Yate. 

Attorney General, the (1527), 164. 
Aubrey, John, 47, 82, 93, 108 n. 

— his drawings, 94. 

— his MSS., 47. 

Atibrefs Lives, ed. Clark, 47, 83, 93. 
Augustine disputations, 127. 



Augustine Friars, 89, 124, 127, 131,132. 

— cemetery of, 131. 

— chapel of, 131. 

— their fair, 132, 133. 
Aungevyn's tenement, 196. 
Austen, John, alderman (1534), 64. 
Austin Friars, and Austin Friary, see 

Augustine Friars. 
Aylriches eyt, 20. 
Aylwyn the Turner, see Alwyn. 
Aynton (Adynton), see Stephen of Ayn- 

ton. 

B., J., see Buckler, J. 
Bache, see Robert de la Bache. 
Bachelors' garden, Merton, 200, 201. 
Bachelor's (Bachelars) tower (friar 

Bacon's study), 22. 
Bachyler's ham, 20, 22. 
Backlane, 203. 

Bacon, friar Roger, 21, 22, 75. 

— his study, 18, 20-23, 2 °9' 2I 4- 
Bailey, explanation of the word, 85. 
Bailey (Great), 74, 87, 90. 

Bailey (Little), 74, 77, 90. 

— Little Bailey street, 77. 
Bailey (North), 65. 

Baker, the wiredrawer of Cornmarket, 1. 
Baldwin of Kent (1400), 23. 
Balehorne's tenement, 163. 
Balinden, see Simon of Bolindon. 
Balkes, William (1437), 109. 
Ballard MSS., 12. 
Balle, Rosa (1309), 166. 
Balle, Thomas (1309), 166. 
Balliol (Baliell) coll., 70, 103, 104, 109, 
no, 119, 120, 128, 130, 139. 

— Master and fellows of, 199. 

— master of (1556), 123. 
(Thomas Tyrwhyt), 121. 

— Master's lodgings, the, 123, 124. 

— archives of, 39, 91. 

— the tower gateway, Bishops' martyr- 
dom near, 123. 

— tenement of, 198. 
Balliol ball court, 109. 
Balliol hall, 115, 142. 

— scholars of, 193. 
Balliol hall (Old), 109, 121. 
Balliol hall (New), 121. 

Balliol hall (once Burnell's inn), 198. 

Balls, the bedel, 109. 

Banbirey, John, prior of Osney (1388), 

Banbury road, 116. 
Baner (or Banner) hall, see Boner hall. 
Bannockburn, battle of, 100. 
Baptist chapel, Friars' street, 33. 
Barantyne, Drugo, knt. (1449), 54. 
Barbour's tenement, 205. 



INDEX 



217 



Barbur, John (1439), i57> l6 5- 
Baret, Thomas (1392), 44. 
Barnard coll., see St. Bernard's coll. 
Barry, sir Charles, his buildings at 

Univ. coll., 186. 
Bartholomew de Cornewaill, 61. 

— his wife Joan, 61. 
Barton, John (1549), 38. 
Barton, William, 18. 
Barwyke, Henry (1465), 124. 
Basset rents, no. 

Basseva, a Jewess, her son Elias, 56. 

Baston, the Carmelite, poet, 100, 207. 

Bath court, 126. 

Bath place, New Road, 84. 

Bathe, Henry (1477), 87. 

Batheshyn, 167. 

Battayl hall, 106. 

Battes inn (Batty's inn, Batty's hall, 

Jacob's hall, &c), 55, 56, 57. 
Batteshall, see Battes inn. 
Baturwyk, Robert, 91. 
Baxter's printing office, 41. 
Baylly, Thomas, mayor {c. 1443), 27. 
Bayly, Henry (1552), 132. 
Baynard's castle, 96. 
Beam (or Biham) hall, 196, 203. 
Beamonts, see Beaumont palace. 
Bear inn, 173, 174, 178. 
Bear lane, 47,50, 173, 177, 193,195,200. 
Beaumont (Beaumonts, Beaumund), 98, 

99, 101, 105, 115, 116, 124, 128, 132. 
Beaumont fields, 5. 

Beaumont, palace of (or King's hall), 

100, 106, 115. 

— birthplace of K. Richard I, 100. 
Beaumont, Royal way of, 128. 

— see also Walter of Beaumont. 
Beaumont street, 100, 133. 

— the White Friars' burying-place, 101. 
Beaumund, see Beaumont. 

Bee, abbot of, fee of, 75. 
Becket, St. Thomas, the Martyr, 96. 
Bedeford, [Bereford], see John de Bere- 
ford. 

Bedell, see Robert the Bedell. 

Bedell hall, 196. 

Bedells, 177. 

Bedford lane, 66, 151. 

Bedford street, 67. 

Bedwyn, garden of, 197. 

Bedwyn, lymonour, tenement of, 192. 

Beef hall, 74. 

Beef lane, 74, 75. 

Beke, John, rector of Lincoln coll. (1439), 

154- . 
Beke's inn, 200. 
Belew, house of, 164. 
Belewe. Geoffrey (1251), 189. 
Bell inn, the, 107. 



Bellesitum (Oxford), 16. 

Belsire's lodgings and stable, Osney, 

211, 212. 
Bemond, furlong called, 105. 
Benceval (Bevesval), see Runcival street. 
Benedictines, the, 98. 
Benham's house, 189. 
Bennett, Edmund, mayor (1582), 169. 
Bentley's nest, 142. 
Bently, Thomas (c. 15 13), 186. 

— his wife Alice, 186. 

Ber hall, 200, and see Bear hall. 
Bereblocke, J., his drawings, 5, 47, 141, 

165, 185, 188, 202. 
Bereford, — , 56. 

— house of, 181. 

Bereford, see John de Bereford and 

William de Bereford. 
Bereford, John (1431), 174. 

— his wife Joan, 174. 

— tenement of (1442), 166. 
Bereford (Berford) hall, 166, 167, 181. 
Beres, see Nicholas de Beres. 
Bergeveney (Burgeveneye), William 

(1384-96), 154, 199. 
Berkshire, archdeacon of, 17, 73. 
Bernard, Roger, 43. 
Berymead, near Sandford, 19. 
Bethlehem hospital, 115. 
Bevesval, see Runcival street. 
Bevington road, 116, 117. 
Bewhouse, a messuage, 37. 
Biham, see Beam hall. 
Bileby hall, 204. 

Billyng hall (Billyngushall), 77, 79. 
Binsey (Bynsey), 25, 101, 118. 

— ford at, 16. 
Binsey lane, 10 1. 

Birmingham {now the Metropolitan) 

bank, 61. 
Bishop, Hugh (1399), 108. 
Bishop, Nicholas (1399), 63, 108. 

— his collection of records, 26, 69, 152. 

— his Treatise about North Gate street, 
68, 69. 

Bishops' bastion, the, 71, 123, 125. 
Bishops, the, imprisoned in Bocardo, and 

burnt near the Town ditch, 70, 123. 
Bishop's hole, the, in Bocardo, 70. 
Bishops (Bissop's) house, 199. 
Bishopsmead, 31. 
Bishopsmore, 30, 31. 
Bissop's house, 199. 
Black Augustinian monks regular, 89. 
Black hall (Blakehall), 113-115, 144, 

164-166, 174, 190, 199. 
Black hall (Great), T43. 
Blackhall farm, 113, 116. 
Black hall lane, 113. 
Black Friars, 38, 53, 104. 



2l8 



INDEX 



Black Friars, the, 4. 

— grant to (1376), 35* 
Black Friars' mill, 41, 74. 
Blake, John (1449), 54. 
Blakehall, see Black hall. 
Blaket, Adam (1342), 201. 
Blew-Bore lane, see Blue Boar lane. 
Blore, E., architect, 204. 
Blount, sir Thomas (1400), 2?. 
Bloxam's Register of Magd. coll., 43. 
Bloxham, vicar of, 188. 

Blue Anchor inn, 67. 

Blue Boar inn, 50, 51. 

Blue Boar lane (Blew-Bore lane), 47, 50, 

180,' 193-202. 
Blue Boar street, 49, 198. 
Blundell, John, 113. 

— his son Nicholas, 113. 
Boar (Bore) lane, 193, 195, 198. 
Boarstall hall, 1 89-191. 

Boase, rev. C. W., Register of Exeter 
coll., 12, 77, 107, 112, 140, 143, 144, 
156, 165. 

Bocardo, 7, 8, 9, 11, 22, 46, 68, 70, 71, 
79, 89, 102, 106, 120, 127, 138, 151. 

— survey from Carfax to, 58-70. 
Bocardo lane, 67. 

Bocherow (Boccherew), now Queen 

street, 41, 65, 90, 91. 
Boclond, see Bokeland. 
Bodleian library, 1, 99, 141, 143, 164, 

170. 

— Agas's plan in, 1. 

— drawings in, 26. 

— MSS. in, 20, 53, 78. 

— Selden library in, 170. 

— see also Rawlinson and Wood MSS. 
Bodley, sir Thomas, 1 70. 

— his new Schools, 136, 143, 164, 169. 
Bodyn, Henry, 66. 

Bodyn, Juliana (1262), 155. 

Bodyn, Robert, alderman {c. 1245), 66. 

Bodyn, Robert (1292), 130. 

— his son Robert, 130. 
Bodyn hall, 156. 
Bodyn hall (Great), 130. 
Bodyn hall (Little), 130, 155. 
Bodyn's lane, 66. 

Bogo de Clare, 132. 

Bokeland, John, abbot of Osney, 145. 

— see also Buckland. 
Bokeland's tenement, 148. 
Boken hall, 172. 
Boldenelane, old, 66. 

Bolindon (Balinden), see Simon of Bo- 
lindon. 

Bolleshipton (Boltshipton) farm, 207. 
Bollyes, in St. Michael's street, 66. 
Bolte, John (1549), 38. 
Bolter, see Angelus le Bolter. 



Bolter, see also Boulter street. 
Bolton, Richard (1434), 37. 
Boner hall (Bancr or Banner hall), 129, 
130. 

Bookbinder, Robert (1377), 37. 

— see Simon the Bookbinder. 
Bookbinder's tenement, 196. 
Bore (Boar) lane, 193, 195, 198. 
Boreshead (Borehead), the, 177, 178. 
Borouwaldescote (Borewaldescote) inn, 

176. 

Borstall (Bostar hall), 189-191. 
Bosco, Ant. a, see Wood, Anthony. 
Bost, John (1347), 155. 

— his daughter Margaret, 155. 
Bost, Thomas (1303), 107. 

Bost, Walter (c. 1291-95), 122, 128. 
Bost, William (14th cent.), his wife 

Mabel, 103. 
Bost, William (1336), 103, 107. 

— his son John, 107. 
Bost, land of, 130. 
Bostar hall, see Borstall. 
Botanic garden, the, 126. 
Botcherew, see Butchers' rew. 
Boterel, Peter, 206. 
Boterwyke, Robert, bedel, 44. 
Boterwyke lane, see Overee lane. 
Botley, 1 01. 

Botley way, 2 7. 

Boulter street, 207. 

Bourne lane, 195. 

Bowser, John (1464), 193. 

Bowyer's hall, 184. 

Boy don hall (Great), 130. 

Brackley, prior and hospital of, 159. 

Brackley (Brakele) hall, 115, 130. 

Bradwell, Daniel (1415), 181. 

— see also Thomas de Bradwell. 
Bradwell hall, 192. 

Brakele, see Brackley. 

Brampton, see Nicholas de Brampton 

and. William de Brampton. 
Brampton's court, 107. 
Brampton's place, 107. 
Brandcourt, see Brendcourt. 
Brase, William (1498), 113. 
Brasenose coll., 3, 17, 44, 115, 154, 156, 

159, 161, 162, 164, 174, 176. 

— chapel of, 89, 161, 169. 

— the old chapel, 209, 162. 

— gateway of, 162. 

— the new gateway, 176. 

— quadrangle of, 161. 

— former Principal's lodgings, 162. 

— stable of, 162. 

— Principal and scholars of the college 
of St. Mary, 209. 

— principal and bursars of, 187. 

— their map, 19, 21. 



INDEX 



219 



Brasenose coll., ' leiger book ' of, 17. 

— farm of, near the Causeway, 17. 
Brasenose hall (Brasennose hall), 158, 

59- 

— principal of, 158. 

— hall, the, 159. 

— knocker, the, 159. 
Brasenose lane, 164. 

Brasenose (Brasnos, Brasynnose), le, a 

tenement, 160. 
Brathwaite, dr., warden of Winchester, 2. 
Brayles, alias Merston, John (1387- 

8), 5i : 

— his wife Isabella, 52. 
Brecham's court, 109. 
Breeze's ground, 19. 

Brend-court (Brent court, Brandcourt), 

1TO, III. 

Brend hall, 154, 155, 196. 

Bretham, William, 168. 

Brewer, — , 1 23. 

Brewer, Henry (1328), 152. 

Brewer (Brewer's) street, 33-35, 44, 46, 

70, 71. 
Brewers, 42. 

Brid hall (Bridehalle, Bryd hall), 131, 

x 77> J 95- 
Bridewell lane, 66, 67. 
Bridge, the, model of, 26. 

— the great, see Folly bridge. 
Bridge causeway, 15. 

Bridge in Berkshire, near Oxford, 26. 
Bridges, condemned and rebuilt, 28. 

— gift for repair of (1443), 27. 
Bridgewright (Briggeswrightes) place, 

18. 

Briggeswrightes place, see Bridgewright. 
Brimannus le Riche, 117. 
Brimmaneswell, messuage at, 117. 
Bristol, see Thomas de Bristolle. 
Bristowe, John (15th cent.), 43. 
British saints, 72. 

Broadgate (Broadyate, Broadgates) hall, 

36, 72, 74, 171, 176, 186, 195. 
Broadgates, 73. 

— principal of, 73. 

— (Brodeyates), a tenement, 35, 36, 187. 
Broad street, 124-127, 129, 141, 169. 

— Martyrs' cross in, 123. 

— ponds once there, 125. 

— survey from, to the Fosse, 120-135. 
Broad walk (White walk, Wide walk), 

3i, 43, 48. 
Brodeyates, see Broadgate. 
Brokenhays, 97, 98. 
Bromannes (Bromemanneswell), 117. 
Brome (Brom), see Adam de Brome. 
Brome, sir Christopher, 106. 
Brome (Brom), Robert (1366), 167. 
Brompton, William (1415), 69. 



Broms, John (1430), 167. 
Brown, W alter (1366), 88. 
Bruges-ete, 206. 
Brumann the rich, 117. 
Bruneshalle, 140. 
Bruton, see Martin de Bruton. 
Bruyn, see Richard le Bruyn. 
Bryd hall, see Brid hall. 
Brydde, John (1393), 178. 
Bucherow, see Bocherew. 
Buckingham, 168. 

Buckland (Boclond), parson of, 166. 

— see also Bokeland. 

Buckler, J., artist, 80^., 81, 175. 
Bulkley hall, 73, 178. 
Bull hall, 48, 148. 
Bull inn, 49. 

Bullestakebrigge, 97, 101. 

— see also Bulstake. 
Bullock, — , (14th cent.), 86. 
Bullock's alley, 84^., 85. 
Bullock's lane, 86. 
Bulstake, ford near, 16. 

Bulstake bridge (Bullestakebrigge), 97, 
101. 

Bullstakewater, 102. 
Bulwarks' lane, 86, 126. 
Burchester schools, 165. 
Burcot, 16. 

Burewald, Dionysia, widow (c. 1240), 67. 
Burewald, Dionysia (1424), 139. 
Burewald, Lambert (1262), 153. 
Burewald, Robert (c. 1200), 1 2 1. 
Burewald, William, 62. 
Burewald's house, 67. 
Burgeis, Philip (13th cent.), 153. 
Burgess, Mr., architect, 99. 
Burgess mead, 117. 

Burgeveneye, William (1384-96), 154, 
199. 

Burgh, Joan de, see Joan de Burgh. 
Burgher's sketches, 81, 82, 94, 185. 
Burghmanneswell, 117. 
Burgon memorials,in Holywell cemetery, 
137- 

Burial grounds, 161. 
Burne lane, 193. 

Burnell's inn (Burnelyn), afterwards 

Balliol hall, 139, 198. 
Burnell's inn (London college), 199. 
Burrows, prof. M., his Worthies of 

All Souls, nr. 
Burton, — , 98. 
Burwald, see Burewald. 
Bury, dr. (1698), 141. 
Busby, alias Fykett, Henry (1521), 107. 
Buswell, see Durand de Buswell. 
Butcher-row (Bocherow, Botcherew), 

4 1 , 6 5> 9°, 9 1 - 
Butchery, the, 91, 175. 



220 



INDEX 



Butterwyke (Boterwyke), see Overec 
lane. 

Byfleet, charter dated at, 149. 
Byllingdon, Walter (1269), 132. 
Byllyngushall, see Billing hall. 
Bynsey, see Binsey. 
Bysely's lodgings, Osney, 211, 212. 

Caer Bosta, Caer Mempric, Caer Vorti- 

gerne (Oxford), 16. 
Caesar's lodgings, 109. 
Cambridge, 6, 63. 

— Agas's map of, 2, 3. 

— legend upon the plan of, 7. 

— King's coll. chapel, 47. 
Campeden, see Henry de Campeden. 
Canal, the, 94, 95. 

Canal bridge, 83. 

Canditch (Kanditch), 4, 109, 115, 120, 
124,125,131. 

— brewhouse near, 131. 

— the King's highway at, 121. 
Canon Law schools, 193. 
Canon schools, 193, 194. 
Canons' tenement, 97. 
Canterbury, archbps. of, 

Thomas Becket, 96. 

Henry Chichele, no. 

Thomas Cranmer, 32, 70, 123, 124. 

William Laud, 112. 

Matthew Parker, 123. 
Canterbury, archdeacon of, 181. 
Canterbury college, 198-200. 

— prior of, 199. 
Canutus, 42. 

Cardinal college, dean and canons of, 
199. 

— building (Ch. Ch.), 45. 

— see also Christ Church. 
Cardinal's hat, The, an inn, 109, no. 
Carewe (Carrewe), John (1485), 50. 
Carfax, (Carefax, Carfox, Quarvex), 7, 

8, 9> n> 46, 56, 57, 58, 79? 9 1 - 

— church of St. Martin or, 5, 72. 

— tower and church, 60, 61, 150. 

— font of the church, 61. 

— conduit at, see Conduit. 

— survey from Ch. Ch. to, 46-58. 

— survey from, to All Saints' church, 
170-174. 

— survey from, to Bocardo, 58-70. 

— taverns near, 54. 
Carfax cellars, 172. 

Carlile, see Thomas de Carlile. 
Carmelites, the, 88, 99, 101, 103, 107. 

— prior and brothers of, 100. 
Carole hall, 77, 79. 

Carr, Emelina, 177. 

Carr, John, bedell (1436), 177. 

Carrewe, see Carewe. 



Carsewell, in St. Michael's, S., 66. 
Cartulary of Godstow, 28, 31, 43, 152, 
168. 

Cartulary of St. Frideswide 's , ed. by 

Wigram, 12, 30, 66. 
Carver hall, 115. 
Cary, Richard (1336), 36, 57. 

— his wife Joan, 57. 

— his son John, 57. 

Cary, Richard (1350 and 1352), 113, 
135- 

— his wife Alice, 113. 

— his son John, 135. 
Cary's hall (Caryhall), 64. 

Cary's inn (Carysyn), or Domus Conver- 

sorum, 51, 52, 56. 
Castel, Henry (1357), 64. 
Castle of St. George, the, 1, 4, 26, 31, 

4h 75, 77, 79, ™ 2 - 

— founded in 107 1 ; 45. 

— fortified (1650-51), 84. 

— keeper of (Nich. de Meules), 99. 

— survey from St. Aldate's to, 70-84. 
Castle bridge, the, 91. 

Castle ditch, 86. 
Castle entrance, 79. 
Castle mills, 25, 97. 
Castle mound, 6, 83. 
Castle prison, 69. 
Castle stream, 8, 98. 
Castle tower, drawing of, 80 n. 
Castle street, 76, 77, 79, 84. 
Caswell, John (1491), 162. 
Cat hall, 165. 

Cat street, 125, 133, 134, 136, 141, 143, 
164-166, 168, 171, 174, 179, 180, 182, 
198, 209. 

— Our Lady hall in, 135. 

— survey from All Saints' church to, 
174-181. 

— survey from, to Queen's coll., 181-188. 
Catestrete, see Cat street. 
Catharine, St., see Katharine. 
Catharyne, Mrs., house of (1586), 133. 
Cathedral, the, see tinder Christ Church. 
Causeway (Causy, Cawsy), the, 13, 16, 

17, 19, 21, 22, 101, 102, 207. 
Caxton, Mr. (1516), presents given by, 
to St. Mary Magd. church, 104. 

— his wife (?), 104. 
Caxton, Philippa (15 16), 104. 
Cellars, ancient, 55, 172. 
Cepeharme, see Kepeharme. 
Cha, see Richard le Cha. 
Chaas eyt, le, 29. 

Chalfont road, 1 1 7. 

Chamber, William (1508), 160. 

Chamberlain, rev. Thomas, on St. 

Thomas' church, 96. 
Chambre, William (1507), 183. 



INDEX 



221 



Champyrnay, false charter of, 158, 160, 
183. 

Chancellor, the, see under University, 
the. 

Chapel close, 18, 19. 
Chapel hall, 189. 
Chapel place, 1 7. 

Chapel of Our Lady, Smith gate, see Our 

Lady's chapel. 
Chapman, Robert (1377), 188. 
Chapyrnay, see Champyrnay. 
Charles I, king, at Christ Church 

(c. 1644), 34. 

— his march from Oxford (1644), 11 6- 
Charlett, dr., 2. 

Charlton's (Cherlton's) inn, 167, 181. 
Charwell, see Cherwell. 
Charyngworth, see William of Charyng- 
worth. 

Chaundler, Thomas (1477), 86. 
Chequer hall, 196. 

Chequers, the (Chequer inn), 172, 193. 
Cherlton's inn, see Charlton's inn. 
Chert, William, prior of Canterbury 

coll., 199. 
Chertsey, 98. 

Cherwell (Charuell), the river, 13, 25, 

28, 29, 126, 206. 
Chester, bishop of, house of, 57. 
Chester, earl of, see Edward the Black 

Prince. 

Cheyney (Cheney) lane, 65, 66, 151- 
153- 

Chichele, Henry, archbp. of Canterbury, 
100, 110, in, 167. 

— his chapel at St. John's coll., 204. 
Chichely, Thomas, archdeacon of 

Canterbury, 181. 
Chilrethe, see Juliana de Chilrethe. 
Chilswell, 59. 
Chilswell pool, 25. 
Chilswell quarry, 36. 
Chimera, 195. 

Chimney hall, 149, 153, 152. 
Chislehampton (Chyselamton), William, 

will of, 103. 
Christ Church, 5, 42, 43, 46-50, 57, 

66, 82, no, 127, 152, 186, 192, 201, 

211. 

— bursary, the, 6. 

— endowments of, 128. 

— gate of, 71, 162. 

— Canterbury gate, 200. 

— Tom gateway, 46, 198. 

— quadrangle, the, 8, 94. 
market or fair in, 28. 

— Peckwater quadrangle, 194. 

— Tom quadrangle, 48, 198, 199. 

— new south front of, 43. 

— survey from Ch. Ch. to Carfax, 46-58. 



Christ Church, lane near, 193. 

— wall of, 193. 

— Cathedral, the, 8, 68, 93, 200, 210. 
Latin chapel, the, 9. 

shrine of St. Frideswyde in, 201. 

— Wolsey's chapel, 100 n. 

— Chapter-house, the, 46, 93. 

— Cathedral spire, 8. 

— Dean and Chapter of, 28, rii. 
grants to, ill. 

— canon of (L. Hutten), 9. 
his monument, 9, 10. 

— Choir school, the, 33, 44, 49. 
Christ Church meadow (the Town mead 

and St. Frideswide's^mead), 25, 28, 

29> 3 2 ~34> 4 1 * 2I °- 
Christ Church saw pit, 32. 
Christina, house of, 199. 
Christopher inn {later called New inn), 

49. 

Chromcon Abingdon. ; see under Abing- 
don. 

Church house, 48. 

Church street, St. Ebbe's, 8, 47, 74, 76, 
79- 

Churms, C. H., 14. 
Chymney hall, see Chimney hall. 
Chyselhamton, see Chiselhampton. 
Cistercian monks, 96, no, in. 
City inn, 57. 

City officers and muniments, see under 

Oxford. 
City wall, see under Oxford. 
Civil Law schools, 198, 199. 
Civil School lane, 199. 
Civil war, the, 119. 
Clare, 115. 

Clare hall, Cambridge, *J. 

Clarendon buildings (old), 125, 129, 

141, 143. 
Clarendon hotel, 66. 
Clarendon yard, 65. 
Clark, rev. Andrew, 24, 61, 82. 

— his ed. of Wood's City of Oxford, 
q. v. 

— his ed. of Wood's Life, 170. 

— his Hist, of Lincoln coll., 155, 177. 
Clark, Thomas, cook (1613), 112. 
Clark, Willis, Architect, hist, of Cam- 
bridge, 3, 7. 

Claviger, Adam, of London, 108. 
Claymond, dr. John, president of C.C.C., 

13, 59, 64, 65, 102. 
Clement, St., popular among sailors, 86. 
Clerk, see Absolon the Clerk and Roger 

the Clerk, of Cumnor. 
Clyve, see Walter de Clyve. 
Cnaphall, see Knap hall. 
Cobham, Thomas, bp. of Worcester, 

180. 



222 



INDEX 



Cock-pit, the, Holywell, 138. 

Codeshale, William (1470), 36. 

Cceur-de-Lion, see Richard I. 

Coif or Cof hall, 77. 

Coins, 96, 116, 117, 154 n., 161. 

Cok on the hope (hoope), 188. 

Cold Arbour, 13. 

Cole, his map (1713), H3- 

Colebourne's (or Colesbourne) lane, 

63, 69, 139, 152, 171. 
Coleshull, John (1324), 42. 

— his wife Alice, 42. 

Coleshull, see also John de Coleshull 

and William de Coleshull. 
Coleshull, or Colecill hall, 203. 
Colet, Walter (1415)1 69. 
Columban, abbot, gift to Nigel D'Oilly, 

27. 

Commons, House of, 24. 

Conduit at Carfax, Otho Nicholson's, 

58, 90, 101, 170. 

Congregation and Convocation, see 

under University. 
Cooke, Alexander (1546), 100. 
Cooke, John, rector of Lincoln coll. 

(!435). 154. 
Cookes, sir Thomas, 99. 
Copeland, William, 71. 
Corn exchange, the old, 51. 
Corn exchange, the new, 98. 
Corn market, the, see Cornmarket. 
Corner halls, 149. 
Corner hall, 152. 

— sold in 1518 ; 200. 

Corner schools, or the Great schools, 
168. 

Cornish-chough, 97. 

Cornmarket (Corn market street), 1, 59, 
60, 61, 64-67, 79, 89, 171. 

Cornwall (Cornwell and Cornish- 
chough), 97. 

Cornwall close, 97. 

Cornwall, duke of, see Edward the Black 

Prince. 
Cornwall, earls of, 96. 
Cornwall, Almarus earl of, his gifts to 

Eynsham abbey, 27. 
Cornwall, Edmund earl of, son of 

Richard, 95. 
Cornwall (Cornewaill), see Bartholomew 

de Cornewaill. 
Cornwall street, 140. 
Corpus Christi coll., 3, 4, 14, 68, 127, 

193-202. 

— president of, dr. J. Claymond, 13, 14, 

59, 64, 65, 102. 

R. Morwent, 27, 112. 

— Turner buildings, the, 202. 

— archives of, 140. 
Cotiler, Roger (1415), 181. 



Cottisford, John, rector of Lincoln coll., 
164. 

Coumede, see Cowmead. 

Council book, City, see under Oxford. 

County court, 82. 

Coventry, 98. 

Coventry, Thomas (1402-15), 18, 69. 
Coventry (Coventree) hall, 64. 
Cowley, Templars at, 108. 
Cowley, Temple, 207. 
Cowley, vicar of, 152. 
Cowley mead, 31. 
Cowley road, 207. 

Cowmead (Coumede), near the Thames, 

18-21, 29, 30. 
Coxe, Henry (1649), 210. 
Cranley, Thomas, warden of New 

coll., 63. 

Cranmer, Thomas, archbp. of Canter- 
bury, 32, 70, 123, 124. 

Craumford's hall, 155. 

Crepuleyt, see Cripley. 

Cricklade (Crikelade), 115. 

Cricklade, see also Robert of Cricklade 
and Walerand of Crikelade. 

Crim or Crime hall, 194. 

Cripley (Crepuleyt), the Thames at, 25. 

Crippen hall, 115. 

Croke, sir Richard, 40. 

— his father, Serjeant Croke, 40. 

Croke, col. Unton, 40. 

Crompe's house, 199. 

Cromwell, Oliver, 40, 112. 

Crook, Walter, fishmonger, 17. 

Cropredy bridge, 116. 

Cross, the, near St. John's hospital, 206. 

Cross inn, 63, 64. 

Crosse, J., house of, 187. 

Crosspond, 118. 

Crowell, Holywell, 97, 124, 126, 135- 

138, 149. J 5°- 
Crowlesmere, Richard, 17. 
Crown inn, 61, 62, 66. 
Crown lane, 210. 
Crown yard, 65. 
Croxford, John (1357), 63, 64. 
Croxford, Robert, grandson of John 

(1407), 63. 
Croxford, see also John de Croxford. 
Croxford's hall or inn, 64, 170, 171. 
Cruste, Adam (1400), 91. 
Cruste school, 165. 

Crutched Friars, House of the, 36, 37, 
149. 

Crypts, 73, 81, 103, 151. 
Cuddesdon church, 114. 
Cuddesdon palace, 40. 
Cudlington, see Kidlington. 
Culverd, tenement of, 157. 
Cumber, Richard (1430), 75. 



INDEX 



223 



Cumnor (Cumenore), 132. 
Cupparius, Geoffrey, 107. 
Cutler's hill, 46. 

Dadyngton, see Richard of Dadyngton. 
Dagville's house (Dagvills ynn, Dag- 

feildes ynne), 171. 
Dagville, William (1384), 64. 
Dagvyle, William (1456), 64. 

— his daughter Joan (1480), 1 13. 
Danberys, the (1392), 194. 
Danes, the, 28. 

Danish and Saxon horse-shoes, 83. 
Dantesbourne church, 28, 129. 
Daunteseye (Daundesey), Walter, lord 

of the Wyke, 17, 18, 139. 
Davenant family, their dwelling place, 

62. 

Davenant, William, his godfather, 

Shakespeare, 51. 
Daventre, see William de Daventre. 
Davidonzeit, 20. 
Day, Thomas (1546), 100. 
Daye, Nicholas (1588), 113. 
Decretals, the, 168. 

Deddington (Dadyngton), see Richard of 

Dadyngton. 
Dedication cross, 96. 
Deep hall (Depehall), 130, 163, 187. 
Deep hall (Little) 154, 156, 157. 
Deep school, 163. 
Deghere, see Walter le Deghere\ 
Denchworth, 15, 35. 
Denchworth arch, 21. 
Denchworthbow (Denchworthesbowe), 

7, 20, 28, 29, 35. 
Dendamore hall, 147, 148. 
Denys Burewald lane (Denis Burwald- 

lane), 67, 139. 
Depehall, see Deep hall. 
Derherst, Thomas (1456), 64. 
Dervorguilla de Balliol, 121, 122. 
Dewylane, 139. 
Dey's lodgings, Osney, 212. 
Dictionary of National Biography, 

cited, 2. 
Dillon, lord, 179. 

Ditch, the, 70, 119, 120, 127, 137, 204. 

— martyrdom of the Bishops near, 123. 

— see also Shire-ditch ; the Fosse ; and 
Canditch. 

Diteneshale, see Henry of Diteneshale. 
Divinity school, 48, 68, 141, 142, 165. 

— east porch of, 142. 

— its ceiling, 170. 
Doazeit, 20. 

Dodd's Connoisseur's Repository, 6. 
Doddington, William (1559), 112. 
Dodeford, Richard (1347), 107. 
Dodeford, see also Thomas de Dodeford. 



Dodwell, — , 4. 

Dodwell, Henry, fined (1580), 27. 
Doghtur (Droghter), see Drowda hall. 
D'Oilly, arms of, 84. 
D'Oilly, — , 137. 

D'Oilly (Doily), Robert, the Elder, 102. 
D'Oilly (Oili, Oily), Robert (1071), 26, 
79- 

Dokelington, see Ducklington. 
Domesday book, 72, 137. 
Dominicans, the, 75. 
Domus conversorum (Carysyn), 51, 
135- 

Dorchester, abbot and convent of, tene- 
ment of, 142. 

Dosier, a clergy house, 196. 

Dossier hall, 196. 

Downe, Walter (1392), 44. 

Draper, col., governor of Oxon, 1650-r ; 
84. 

Draper's lane, 61. 

Drapery, the, 62. 

Drapery hall (Pery hall), 61, 91. 

Draphalle, 91. 

Drogheda hall (Droo3edayesehalle), see 

Drowda hall. 
Drokeda (Drogheda), see William of 

Drokeda. 

Drowda hall (Drowdal,Drosda, Dugtha, 

&c), 182, 209. 
Du Cange, 168. 

Ducklington's aisle, St. Aldate's church, 
73- 

Ducklington (Dokelington), John, tene- 
ment of, 195. 
Dudley, Mr. (1830), 123. 
Dugdale's Jlfonasticon, 42, 93. 
Dugdale MS., 98. 
Duport, Thomas (1552), 132. 
Durand de Buswell (1352), 38. 

— his wife Alice, 38. 
Durham, 128, 214. 

— church of, 128. 

Durham, see Richard of Durham and 

William of Durham. 
Durham, prior and convent of, 128. 
Durham (Dyrham) coll. (Gloucester 

hall), 129, 119, 124, 128, 130, 132. 

— garden of, m, 128. 
Durham hall, 91, 187. 

— master and scholars of, 158, 159. 
Durham monks, land of, 122. 
Dyer's lodgings, Osney, 211, 222. 
Dyrham, see Durham college. 

Eagle hall, 194. 

Earlshamme, 210. 

East bridge (Estbrugge), 13, 27. 

Eastbridge street (Astbruggestrate), 47. 

East gate, 68, 126 n., 136, 147-150, 



224 



INDEX 



170, 189, 191, 193, 202, 205, 206, 
210. 

East gate, survey from Queen's coll. lane 

to, 188-192. 
East Wick (Estwyck), 15. 
Eastwick house, 1 7. 
Eaton, dr., 190, 191. 
Edgecomb (Eggecomb), John (1485), 

5°- 

Edgecumb, John (1434), 37- 
Edges, Mr. (1571), 133. 
Edith road, 14. 
Edmund, St., 162. 

Edmund, earl of Cornwall, son of 

Richard, king of the Romans, 95. 
Edmund hall, see Saint Edmund hall. 
Edward I, king, 187. 

— licence from, 128. 

Edward II (Caernarvon), king, 85, 
101, 178. 

— grant by, to the Friars, 100. 
Edward III, king, 157 n. 

— licence from, 30. 

— his son, Edward the Black Prince, 
149. 

Edward VI, king, 128. 

— grant from, 129. 

— licence to the Mayor, &c, 31. 
Edward the Black Prince, duke of 

Cornwall and earl of Chester, 149. 
Edward hall, 200. 
Edwards, John, bedel (1448), 192. 
Eggecomb, see Edgecomb. 
Einsham, see Eynsham. 
Elden hall, 171. 
Elias son of Basseva, 56. 
Elias de Trikyngham, 192. 
Elizabeth, queen, 5. 
Elizabeth of Montacute, 30. 
Elm hall, 140, 190. 
Elmeley, a house, 91. 
English row, 35. 

Erasmus, at St. Mary's coll. (c. 1497), 89. 
Erlyches-eyte, 20, 21, 28-30, 210 
Ermenold, burgess of Oxford, 15, 55. 
Ermenold's tenement, 55. 
Ernald, son of Matilda, land of, 106. 
Espicer, see William le Espicer. 
Essex, earl of, threatens Oxford, 52. 
Estbrugge, see East bridge. 
Estrop, 39. 

Estwyck, see East Wick. 
Etindon (Headington ?), see John of 
Etindon. 

Eu(O), Philip {c. 1295), 122,128, 177. 
Eu (O or Ew), see John de Eu; Nicolas 

de Eu ; Philip de Eu (Ew). 
Eugenius III, pope, 55. 
Eva de Hampton, 155. 
Evesham, 98. | 



Evesham, tenement of, 182. 
Ewster's ham (Ewster-ham), 20, 22. 
Examination schools (New), 46, 68, 

190, 192. 
Exeter, see John of Exeter. 
Exeter coll., 3, 9, 77, 107, 112, 115, 

125, 140-142, 144, 151, 152, 154, 

156, 169, 170, 180. 

— chapel of, 125, 129, 141. 

— garden of, 140. 

— the Rector's lodgings and garden, 
141. 

— the refectory, Stapeldon hall, 142. 

— the computus roll, 165. 
Exeter lane, 142. 
Exeter schools, 165, 169. 
Exham, Margaret (1449), 189. 
Eynsham, 98, 122. 

— see also John of Eynsham. 
Eynsham abbey, 36, 37, 75, 192, 197. 

— Oxford tenements granted to, 27. 

— land of, 163. 
Eynsham tenement, 37. 
Eynsham (Einsham) mill, 20. 
Eynsham ?-ecords, 26. 
Eyots or hams, 19, 20. 

Faden's map (1789), 95. 

Fair, in the Austin Friary, 132, 133. 

Fair, licence to the City to hold one 

( J 549)> 32. 
Falcon (Fawkon), the, 55. 
Falele, see John de Falele. 
Faringdon (Faryndon), William (1410), 

165. 

Faritius, abbot of Abingdon, 15. 
Faryndon, see Faringdon. 
Faukes, William (1477), 86. 
Fell, Samuel, dean of Ch. Ch., 48. 
Fens, the, 2. 

Feribrigge, see Alexander de Feribrigge. 
Feteplace, Adam, mayor, 187. 

— his three daughters, heiresses, 187. 
Feteplace, John (1290), 128. 
Feteplace, Juliana (1332-33), 160, 187. 
Feteplace, Walter {c. 1226 and 1235), 

157. !63- 

Feteplace, Walter (1284), 122. 

— his son John (1302), 122. 
Fidler's court, 189. 

Fire, the great, of Oxford (1644), 56, 89. 

Fish market, the, 46, 49, 193. 

Fish street, 34, 47, 52. 

Fitzalan, John, mayor (1449-50), 73. 

Fitz Alwin, Geoffrey, 107. 

— his wife Belsent, 107. 

Fitz Perys, John (1342-47), 107, 201. 
Fitz Ranulph, Hugh, 43. 
Flaxney, — , mayor, 68. 
Flaxney, John, 69. 



INDEX 



225 



Flaxney, see also Flexney. 
Flemmynge, Mariona (1470), 36. 
Flemyng, — (14th cent.), 159. 

— his son R., 159. 
Fletcher, alderman, 70. 

— his copy of ' Gulch] 136. 
Fletcher, rev. C. J. H., on Carfax 

Chtirch, 59. 
Fletcher, John (1586), 133. 
Fleur-de-lis, or Battes inn, 56. 
Flexney (Flaxney), Ralph (1545), 139. 
Flexney, Richard (1545), 139. 

— see also Flaxney. 

Folioth, Roger, parson of Witney, 57. 
Folkys, Roger (1439), 157. 
Folly, the, 46. 

Folly bridge, it, 13, 21, 28, 39, 210. 

— surveys from and to, 13-46. 
Ford, near Kennington, 15, 16. 
Ford road, near Worcester house, 41. 
Fordun's Scotichronicon, 100. 
Fore-courts, or lawns, 106. 

Forrest, Elizabeth, widow of Robert 

Forrest, 87. 
Forrest, Robert (1558), 87. 
Forrest, William (1558), 87. 
Forster (Forester), see Richard le Forster. 
Fosse, the old, 126, 83, 124-127, 150. 

— survey from Broad street to, 120-135. 

— see also Ditch and Canditch. 
Fouks inn (Foukys-yne), 140. 
Fourneys, Thomas (1377), 37- 
Fowke hall, 135. 

Fowke's (or Fowkes') tenement, no, 
111. 

Fowler, Tho., D.D., his Hist, of Corp. 

Ckr. coll., 201. 
Fowler, William, of Buckingham, 168. 
Fox, Richard, bp. of Winchester, 119, 

203. 
Fox hall, 200. 
Foxe, John, 123. 
Franceis, see William le Franceis. 
Franciscans, 75. 
Franklyn, William, 17. 
Freere, Edward, 173. 
French, Mr., 140. 

Frere, or Fryer, William (1578 and 

1586), 132, 133. 
Frewin, dr. Richard, 89. 
Frewin hall, 66, 88, 89, 162. 
Friars, the, 100. 

Friars' entry, 102, 106, 108, 121. 
Friars Minor, 71, 76, 77. 
Friars of Penitence, 74, 76. 
Friars Preachers, the, 20, 33, 37, 71. 

— cemetery of, 34. 

— gate of, 38. 

— priors of, 25, 29, 35. 
Friars street, 33, 74, 76, 77. 



Frideswithalle, see St. Frideswyde's 
hall. 

Frideswyde lane, 199. 
Frideswyde mead, 28. 
Friern street, halls in, 77. 
Friswide, see Frideswyde and St. Frides- 
wyde. 
Frocmore, 20. 

Fryer or Frere, William (1578 and 1586), 

132, 133- 
Fulk de Rucothe, sir, 153. 
Fullingmill eyt, 20. 
Fulman, on the Corpus site, 201. 
Fulney, see John de Fulney. 
Fykett, Henry, or Busby, q. v. 
Fysher, Robert (1478), 42. 

— his wife Agnes, 42. 
Fysshestrete, see Fish street. 

Gallows, the, in Long Wall, 136. 

Gamage hall, 108. 

Gamage house, or Camache, 121. 

Gaol, the new, crypt under, 81. 

Garderobe, see Richard de Garderobe. 

Garlondes, in St. Mary's parish, 66. 

Garston, see Richard de Garston. 

Gate, the Old, 72. 

Gate, ancient, of stone, 45. 

— see also City gate. 

Gates, early towers near, 210. 
Gentleman s magazine, 93, 101. 
Geoffrey de Grandpont, 24. 
Geoffrey de Hengesey, 130. 

— his daughter Petronilla, 130. 
Geoffrey of Hoftilli, 107. 
Geoffrey of Monmouth, 16, 72. 
Geoffrey le Saucer (Sawser), 122. 

— his son John, 122. 

Geoffrey de Stockwell, his daughter 

Mary, 56. 
George, Saint, Life oj 92. 
George hall, 186, 188. 
George inn, or Piper's inn (Georgesyn, 

Pypersyn), 108. 
George lane, 106. 
George street, 98, 125, 126. 
Gesta Stephani, 32. 
Gilbert, son of Amicia (1290), 128. 
Gildhall, the, 31, 52, 54, 55. 
Gildhall school, a, 54. 
Gildynsmith, see Simon the Goldsmith. 
Gilks, Robert (1649), 2I °- 
Gill (or Gille), house of, 171. 
Gille, Edmund (1488), 171. 
Gille, Joan (1480, 86), 113, 171. 
Ginginer's inn (Gyngeres in), 62. 
Glasen hall, see Glassen hall. 
Glasier, Juliana, Entry of (1392), 160. 
Glassen, 163. 

Glassen hall (Glasen hall, Glass hall, 



Q 



226 



INDEX 



Glasyn hall or Kepeharme's), 195, 163, 
164, 199. 
Glastonbury, 98. 

Glasyn hall, alias Pyllets, see Glassen 
hall. 

Glatton, see Nicholas de Glatton. 
Gloccster haule, see Gloucester hall. 
Gloucester, 98, 128, 214. 

— St. Aldate's at, 72. 
Gloucester, William, earl of, 166. 
Gloucester abbey, 98. 
Gloucester college, 7, 99, 100, 115. 

— chapel of, 99. 
Gloucester green, 98, 102, 105. 
Gloucester hall (Glocester haule, now 

Worcester college), 98, 40, 50, 92, 96, 

101, 112, 132. 
Godegnave, Roger (13th cent.), 166. 
Godegnave (Godeknave) hall, 166. 
Godgoose, Edwin (113S), 114. 
Godmanston, sir John (1448), 191. 
God's house, a (Pittance hall), 198. 
Godstow, it, 113, 114, 117, 203. 

— abbess and convent of, 199. 

— abbesses of, 117, 128, 168, 200. 

— chapel, church, and tower of, 119. 

— churchyard of, 118. 

— Sanctuary field, 119. 

— fair owned by the Nunnery, 118. 

— Fair close, 118. 

! — garden of the abbess, 140, 176. 

— tenement of the abbess, 162, 169, 

I77 ' • f 

— possessions of, 112. . 

— survey from St. Giles' to, 11 5-1 20. 

— Latin register of, 168. 

Godstow cartulary, 28, 31, 43, 152, 168. 
Godstow bridge, 25, 118. 
Godstow hall, 167. 

Godwin's tenement, i. e. George's hall, 
186. 

Golafre, William (1332), 187. 

— his wife Katherine, 187. 
Goldsmith, house of the, 91. 
Goldsmith (Gildynsmith), Simon, 163. 

— his daughter Dionis, 163. 
Goldsmith, see Simon the Goldsmith 

and Wilkins the Goldsmith. 
Goldsmiths eyt, 20. 

Gold well, James, bp. of Norwich, 167. 
Gonewardby, see John de Gonewardby. 
Gose court, 108. 
Goter hall, 184. 

— Gutter hall, 183, 203. 

Gough's collection of drawings, 82, 93, 
210. 

Gownsman's gallows, 136. \ 

— undergraduates hanged on, 136. 
Grampoole (Grandpoole), St. Aldate's, 

35, 28, 32, 35, 39, 43, 47, 7°- 



Grampoole, see also Grandpont. 
Grandpont (Great bridge), 15, 16, 18, 19, 
24, 26, 29, 31, 35-37, 39, 43, 44, 166. 
Grandpont bridge, 20. 
Grandpont hall, 166, 182. 

— Grauntpount street, 38. 
Grandpont, see Geoffrey de Grandpont. 
Grange, the, 30, 31. 

Grantpunt, see Grandpont. 
Graumford, garden of, 155. 
Graumford, Robert, 154. 
Grauntpont (Great bridge), see Grand- 
pont. 

Great Bailey, 74, 87, 90. 

Great P>ridge, see Grandpont. 

Great Civil Law school, 193. 

Great gate, 177. 

Great Jewry lane, 47, 199. 

Great school (or Law schools), 196. 

Great schools, 168. 

Greek hall, near Burnell'sinn, 112, 198, 
199. 

Green's drawing, 185. 
Gregory of Rokesle, sheriff of London, 56. 
Grekelade, see Lumbard of Grekelade. 
Grendon, see Walter de Grendon. 
Grendon's tenement (Sorrell hall), 62. 
Greneditch, traitors beheaded at (1400), 
23. 

Grensted, Gilbert, 52. 

Grey Friars, the, 4, 22, 71, 74, 75. 

Grey Friars mill, 41. 

Griffin (Gryffyn) hall, 135. 

Grimbald myth, 151. 

Grip hall (Gup hall), 199. 

Grom, John (137 7), 37- 

Grope lane, 197, 202. 

Grose's Antiquities, 81. 

Grove, the, no, 207. 

Grove hall, 49. 

Grove lane, 197, 202. 

Grove place, 190, 196. 

Grove (Grope) street, 186, 193. 

Guesten hall, 119. 

Guildhall, the, see Gildhall. 

Gunter, Richard, mayor (1541, 1545), 

139, l8 3- 
Gup hall, see Grip hall. 
Gutch's Colleges and Halls, 169, 181. 
Gutch's Wood 's Hist. of Oxford, 136,165. 
Gutter hall, 183. 

— Goter hall, 184. 

Gybbes (Gybbys), John, mayor (1415- 

24), 6 5> 139, r 4 6 > I 4 8 - 

— as alderman (1416), 181. 

— his brother Thomas, alderman, 55, 
181. 

Gybbes, Tho., 69. 

Gyles, Peter, garden of, 197. 

Gylle, Joan (1480), see Gille. 



1 



INDEX 



227 



Gynger, William, 63. 
Gynger(Gynevere, Gingeneres,Gyngeres 
in), see Ginginer's inn. 

Haberdasher's hall, 162, 171, 175, 176. 
Hakborn's house, 199. 
Halegod, Andrew (1249), 166. 
Halegod, John (13th cent.), 62, 156, 
157. 

Halegod's hall, 91. 
Halegod lane, 91. 

Halesdon, see Andrew de Halesdon. 
Haliwell, Sibella (1377), 186. 
Hallivvell's tenements, 186. 
Halls, old, 56, 91, 140, 147, 163, 164, 
186. 

Hamme, see Thomas de Hamme. 
Hammer (Hamer, Hamer's) hall, 144, 
145, 148. 

Hammer hall (Great or More), 145, 147. 
Hammer hall (Little), 147. 
Hammond, John, 6, 7. 
Hammond's lodgings, 58, 121, 
Hampton, see Eva de Hampton and 

John de Hampton. 
Hampton family, 155. 
Hampton hall, 155-158, 176. 
Hanekynton, see John de Hanekynton. 
Hannely, alias Chapman, Robert (1377), 

188. 

Hannington Memorial hall, 87. 

Hanvell, John (1443), 198. 

Harding hall, 62, 64, 171. 

Hardyng, — (1252), grant from, 64. 

Hare, archdeacon, Story of my life, 136. 

Hare hall, 197. 

Harehall lane, 197, 190, 191. 

Hare lane, 192. 

Hart hall, see Hert hall. 

Hartley, alderman, chosen mayor 

(1580), 27. 
Hatton, sir Christopher, his arms, 6. 

— as Chancellor of the University, 6. 
Haville, George (151 1), 131. 
Havyll, Stephen (1465), 124. 

— his wife Joan, 1 24. 

Hayne's lodging, Osney, 21 1, 213. 
Haysche hall, 149. 
Headington, 27, 207. 

— see also Etindon. 
Headington stone, 60. 
Hearne, Thomas, 10, 23, 36, 95. 

— his Diaries, 1, &c. 

— his Textus Roffensis, 10, 94, 95. 

— his ed. of William of Newbury, 81. 
Heber, Reginald, bp. of Calcutta, his 

tree, 164. 

Hegham, see Robert of Hegham, lord. 
Helleknave, Elias (c. 1230), 130. 
Helle school (1276), 163, 165. 

Q 



Hell-lane, 145. 

Hengesey (Hengessey), see Thomas de 
Hengesey. 

— see also Hincksey. 

Henry I, king, charter of, 104. 

— his charter to Eynsham abbey, 27. 
Henry II, king, liberty granted to 

citizens of Oxford, 86. 
Henry III, king, grant to the Austin 

Friars, 132. 
Henry V, king, 207. 
Henry VIII, king, 96, 101, no. 

— charters of, in, 112. 

— executors of, 32. ' 

Henry, son of Simeon, of Oxford, 166. 

— his son Stephen, 31. 
Henry, canon of Osney, 55. 

Henry of Abingdon, warden of Merton 

coll., 135. 
Henry the Brewer, 152. 

— his wife Aubrey, 152. 
Henry de Campeden, 173. 
Henry of Diteneshale, 128. 

Henry de Stodleye (1410), 55, 172 ; see 

also Stodleigh. 
Henry de Tywe (Tew), 83. 
Henry le Waleys, sheriff of London, 56. 
Henry atte Yate (1323), 43. 
Henxheyhall, see Hincksey hall. 
Herborew (Herburwe) hall, 166, 169. 
Hereford, bishop of, John de Trilleck, 

88. 

Heremit or Eremite, the, 19. 
Hermitage, the, see St. Nicholas, chapel 
of. 

Heron (or Eagle) hall, 194, 195. 
Hert (Hart) hall, 143, 144, 147, 165, 
180, 196, 204. 

— garden of, 169. 
Hertford coll., 143, 165. 
Hertheved, see Hertshead. 
Hertipole, John (1424), 139. 
Hertshead (Hertheved, Herthowed), 

196. 

Hertwell, see John de Hertwell. 

Hesketh, a priest (1643), 93. 

Hester's papers, 136, 149, 205. 

Heth, Robert (1324), 42. 

Heynssey hall, see Hincksey hall. 

Heyworth, 39. 

Hickis, John (1423), 25. 

High bridge, see Hythe bridge. 

High street, or Royal way, 46, 47, 58, 62, 

64> 73, i39» J 4 8 > l62 > ^o-^ 
195, 198, 202, 209. 
Hincksey parish, 28. 58, 101. 

— survey from, to Folly bridge, 13-24. 
Hincksey, see also Hengesey. 
Hincksey hall (Henxheyhall), 49, 50. 

— principal of, 50. 

2 



228 



INDEX 



Hincksey hall, le Spense (the buttery), 
50. 

Hincksey hill, 13. 
Ilincksey, New, 17. 
Hincksey (North), quarry of, 15. 
Hinge, Walter (1241), 183. 
Historiola, or Historie of Oxford, 16. 
Ho, see William de Ho. 
Hoftilli, see Geoffrey of Hoftilli. 
Hoggar, his map (1850), 33, 95, 177. 
Hold, — , 72. 

Holdierd, Thomas (13th cent), 153. 

Holdierd lane, 151. 

Hollars map of Oxford, 4, 133. 

Hollybush row, 93. 

Holy Cross, church of, see Holywell. 

Holy Cross brethren, 37. 

Holy Trinity, brethren of, 147. 

Holywell, 4, 7, 11, 97, 204. 

Holywell (Holiwell, St. Cross or Holy 

Cross), parish of, 127, 132, 134-138, 

149. 

— well under the altar in the chapel 

of, 137- 

— Manor house, the, 138. 

— Gownsman gallows in, 71, 136. 

— church of, 8, 136, 137. 
tower of, 137. 

— lands in, 132. 

— schools of, 112. 
Holywell mill, 135, 136, 138. 
Holywell street, 126, 135. 
Honorius II, pope, charter of, 31. 
Hookham and Gadney's shop, 62. 
Hore, Alice, land of, 43. 
Hore's tenement, 196. 
Horkstow Jeffrey, 142. 

Horsemill (Horsemull), the, 190, 197. 
Horsemill lane (Horsmillane, Horsmyl 

lane), 135, 188. 
Horsemonger (Horsemanger) street, 1 20, 

122, 128-130. 
Horse-shoes, Danish and Saxon, 83. 
Horsman lane, 197. 
Horspath, church of, 192. 
Horwode, see John de Horwode. 
Hoskins, Miss, 123. 
Hospital for infectious diseases, 14. 
Host, the, the Devil's reverence for, 78. 
Houlden, Thomas (c. 1448), 89. 

— his wife Elizabeth, 89. 
House close, 15. 
Howes, John (1477), 87. 
Howes, Richard (1477), 86. 
Hugh, abbot of Oseney, 64. 

Hugh, son of Ranulph,^ Fitz Ranulph. 

Hugh de Malaunay, 206. 

Hugh de Plugenet, 121. 

Humfrey, duke of Gloucester, 99, 170. 

Hunsingore's inn, 200. 



Hustings court, 54, 61, 165, 179. 
Hutchinson, Mr., architect, 70. 
Hutten, dr. Leonard, canon of Ch.Ch.,i 1. 

— his Antiquities of Oxford, 9. 

— monument to, 9, 10. 

— his Survey, 13 seqq. 
Huxe, the, 100. 

Hyda, Liber monasterii de, 1 1 5. 
Hyde, John, lease from (1447), 29. 
Hyde's factory, 65. 

Hydebrugge, ^Walter de Hydebrugge. 
Hythe bridge (High bridge), 11, 26, 

95. 97> 98. 
Hythe Bridge street, coal-merchants' 
offices in, 95. 

Iffley (Ifely), 15, 16. 

Iffley mead (Yfeli mede), 31. 

Iffley road, 207. 

Illuminator, the, house of (1327), 186. 
Inge hall, 183, 189, 18972. 
Ingoldnieles, see John de Ingoldnieles. 
Ingram, dr., 40, 81, 101, 102, 123. 
Ingulph, abbot of Abingdon, 15. 
Innocent II, pope, charter of, 104. 
Ireland meadow, 20, 28. 
Iremonger, see William le Iremonger. 
Irishman's street, 106. 
Irland (Irlonde), 20. 
Iron (or Eagle) hall, 195. 
Iron-works, the, 116. 
Iseham, John, vintner (1499), 176. 
Isis, the river, 25, 32. 
Ivie, Roger, 102. 
Ivy hall, Ivehall, 158. 

Jackson's load of hay, 46. 

Jacob of Oxford, his son Moses, 56. 

Jacob's hall, 56. 

James I, king, 74. 

Jaudewens market, 124. 

Jawdewyns (Jaudowens), 190. 

Jawdewingslane (Jawdens lane), or 

Horsman lane, 191, 197. 
Jeans, perhaps John's, Beam hall, 203. 
Jeffrey, see Geoffrey. 
Jeffrey's map (1766), 106. 
Jerusalem, 206. 

Jesus coll., 6, 68, 138-141, 151, 152. 

— ball court of, 140. 

— stables of, 68, 140. 

— documents of, 152. 
Jesus College lane, 66, 151. 
Jesus hall, 196, 203. 
Jewry, the, 1 32. 

Jewry, the Great, 198. 
Jewry, the Little, 193. 
Jewry hall, 193. 
Jewry lane, 198. 

Jewry lane (Great), 47, 198, 199. 



INDEX 



229 



Jews cross, the, 201. 

Jews, house for converted, see Domus 

Conversorum. 
Jews, mount, or Justice mount, 97, 98. 

— gallows at, 98. 

Jews, synagogue of, 127, 134. 
Joan de Burgh. 136. 
John, abbot of Osney, hall of, 211, 212. 
John, dom., chantry priest, 103. 
John, dom., manciple of Osney, 152. 
John, son of Nicholas the Mercer, 175. 
John, son of Walter le Orfever, 171. 
John, son of Henry Stodleigh (1293), 55. 
John de Acton, 56. 

— his wife Mary, 56. 
John le Barbur, 157, 165. 

John de Bereford, mayor, 57, 113, 155, 
167, 176. 

John de Bereford, of Swindlestock, 23. 
John le Clerc, 154. 

— his wife Alice, 154. 
John de Coleshull, 132. 
John de Croxford, 121. 

John of Etindon (Headington ?), 57. 

John de Eu (O), 78, 121, 122. 

John of Exeter, ' criour,' 53. 

John of Eynsham, 177. 

John de Falele, 57. 

John of Falle (1349), 57. 

John de Feteplace, 122. 

John de Fulney, 155. 

John de Gonewardby, 116. 

John de Hampton, mayor, 155, 205. 

John de Hanekynton, 78. 

John de Hertwell, 29. 

John de Horwode, 192. 

John de Ingoldnieles, 192. 

John de Langrish (1470), 36, 113. 

John de Maideston, 177. 

John de Maydenstone, 140. 

— his widow Alice, 140. 
John de Middelton, 192. 

John de Northampton, town-clerk, 17, 
167. 

John the Peynter, messuage of, 129. 

John le Quilter, bailiff, 56. 

John of St. Frideswyde's, 52. 

John of St. John, house of, 203. 

John le Saucer (Sawser), 122, 155. 

John le Sealer, 176. 

John de Sewy, 122. 

John de Shordych, sir, 177. 

John le Slater (Sclater), 128. 

John the Slatter, 122. 

John le Spycer (1323), 140. 

— his wife Alice, 140. 
John of Stanlee, 181. 

John of Staunden, le Mustarder, 24. 
John de Staunton, 192. 
John de Suterton, 107. 



John de Trilleck, bp. of Hereford, 88. 
John de Tynemouth, his Speculum Lai- 

corum, 78. 
John de Warham, 164. 
John de Weston, 130. 

— his wife Isolda, 130. 

John (lord) of West Stretford, his son 

John, 168. 
John of Windsor, 148. 
John of Wodcokhall, 179. 

— his wife Alice, 179. 

John de la Wyke (1377), 17, 167. 
Johnnyslane ( Jonyslane,now Merton St.) , 

190, 191, 197. 
Johnson, Thomas (1530), 35. 
Jones, Inigo, 112. 

Jonys lane, see Johnnyslane &> St. John's 
street. 

Juliana de Chilrethe, 173. 

Jury, the, see Jewry. 

Jury lane, see Jewry lane. 

Jussell (or Russell) house, 158, 159. 

Juvene, see Laurence le Juvene. 

Katharine, St., 104. 

— see also Catharine. 
Katharine- Wheel, the, 109, no. 
Keble coll., 106, 132. 

Keep, the, near the Castle, 82, 83. 
Keneysham, Robert, bedel (1430), 75. 
Kennington, ford near, 15, 16. 

— chapel of, 16. 
Kennington island, 16, 19. 
Kent, earl of (1400), 23. 
Kent, Richard, alderman, 172. 

— his wife Joan, 172. 

Kent's hall (the Chequers?), 172. 
Kenthelekys,^MatthewofKenthelekys. 
Kepeharme, family of, 191. 
Kepeharm, Benedict, 42. 
Kepeharme, Hugh, 195. 
Kepeharme i^Cepeharme), John (c. 1 140), 

191,195. 
Kepeharme halls, 50. 
Kepeharme' s (or Glassen) hall, 195. 
Kepeharme lane, 47, 50. 
Kettle hall, 130. 

Keys, Roger, warden of All Souls, 181. 
Ribald street, see Kybald street. 
Kidlington (Cudlington), 64. 
King's Munimenta, 81. 
King, Daniel, his etching and prints, 68, 
82. 

King, Frederick, 34. 

King, or Kinge, John (1649), 209. 

King, Robert, bp., his house, 39, 40. 

— his window at the Cathedral, 93. 
King Edward Street, 177, 178. 
King's hall, the, of Brasenose, 158. 
King's hall (Beaumont palace), 106. 



230 



INDEX 



King's Head, the, 61, 66. 

King's high way, the, 124, 191. 

King's sallc (Beaumont palace), 106. 

King street, 46, 68, 126, 190. 

King's street (King's highway?), 33. 

Kings-street, Canditch, 121. 

Kingston, see Nicholas de Kingston. 

Kingston road, 117. 

Kirkby, domus, 183. 

Kiteby, John (1368), 29. 

Knap hall (Knappe hall), 15, 55, 57, 

63,172,178. 
Knight hall, 203. 
Kybald (or William) hall, 196. 
Kybald lane, 190. 

Kybald (Kybold, Kybole) street, 47, 

193, 203. 
Kybald twychen, 186. 
Kylingworth, see Alan of Kylingworth. 

Lacy, Edmund (1377), 188. 
Ladderd hall, 196. 
Laines, the, 19. 
Lake street, 17. 
Lamb hall, 204. 

Lambard's land, see Lombard's land. 

Lambard's lane, 46. 

Langford, see Nicholas de Langford. 

Langrish, see John de Langrish. 

Langton, dr. Robert (15 18), 185. 

Lark, John (1507), 183. 

Latimer, Hugh, bp. of Worcester, 70. 

— his martyrdom, 124. 

Laud, William, archbp. of Canterbury, 
112. 

Laundell, John, sheriff of Oxon (1351), 
53- 

Laurence hall, 140. 

Laurence lane (Laurenceslane), 139. 

Laurence le Juvene, 128. 

Laurence of Radford, 155. 

Law schools, 196. 

La Wyke, Berks., 17. 

— see also Wick. 
Leadenhall, 6. 

Leaden porch, or Nun hall, 140, 200. 
Leadenporch (perhaps Willoughby) hall, 
140. 

Leberd (Libert, or Leopard ?) hall, 199. 
Lech, Thomas, town-clerk, 44. 

— his son Geoffrey, 44. 
Lechlade, 115. 

Ledeneporch, see Leadenporch hall. 
Leewys (Lesewys), Thomas (1290), 128. 
Legh, Thomas, town-clerk (1343), 36. 

— his wife Joan {c. 1346), 37. 

Legh (Leye), see Thomas de Legh, 

goldsmith. 
Lekys, Richard (1463), 131. 
Leland, J., 214. 



Leland's Collectanea, 101. 

Leland's Itinerary, 95. 

Leopard hall, 199. 

Leopold arms, 67. 

Leper, John, 18. 

Lesewys, see Leewys. 

Leye, Thomas, goldsmith, son of 

Thomas de Leye, 36. 
Libert hall, see Leberd hall. 
Lichfield and Coventry, Roger, bp. of, 

171. 

Lichfield, canon of, 159. 
Liddell, Hen. G., dean of Ch. Ch., 48. 
Lincoln coll., 59, 64, 153-158, 160, 161, 
164, 171, 175-177. 

— rector and fellows of, 1 54. 

— rector of, J. Cottisford, 164. 
J. Tristhorp, 158. 

— kitchen of, 1 56. 
Lincoln grove, 156. 

Linge-draper, see Wymond the Linge- 

draper. 
Link lodgings, 189. 
Lion halls, the two, 186. 
Lister, Richard (1527), 164. 
Litelmore, see Littlemore. 
Little Bailey, 74, 77, 90. 
Little Bailey street, 77. 
Little bridge, 206. 
Little gate, 22, 45, 71, 74, 75 n. 
Little gate street, 33. 
Littlegate (Lytlegate) water, 41. 
Little Jewry, 193. 
Little Jewry lane, 50. 
Little lane (School lane), 167. 
Little London, 16. 
Littlemore asylum, 16. 
Littlemore court, 38. 
Littlemore hall (le Litlemore hall), 38, 

.39- 

Littlemore house (Lutlemore house), 39. 
Littlemore priory, 64, 146, 191. 

— prioress of, 38, 39, 64, 164, 191. 

tenement of, 169. 

Littlemore school, 143. 
Littlemore schools, 165. 

Lloyd, dr. (1584), 27, 28. 
Lodelow, see Roger de Lodelow. 
Lodelowehall, 187. 
Log, John, 177. 

Loggan, David, 9, 47, 65, 79, 81, 82, 
8 5> 87, 95, 98, 99, 105, 106, 122, 
131, 133, 136-138, i43> H 8 , 166, 
!74> 175, 179, 185, 188, 204. 

— map of Oxford, 4, 9, 40, 48, 207. 

— his Scenographia Oxon., 9. 

— his views, 213. 

Logic lane, 4, 190, 193, 197, 203, 204. 
Logic school, 165. 

Loigenhull, see William de Loigenhull. 



INDEX 



231 



Lolly, John (1389), 42. 

Lombard's land (Lambard's land), 34. 

— see also Lumbard. 
London, 5, 6, 23. 

— Agas'smap of, 2, 3. 
— ; large woodcut of, 6. 

— river navigation between Oxford and 
(1301), 24. 

— Sessions court of the Chamberlain 
of, 90. 

— mayor of (John Adrian), 56. 

— alderman of, no. 

— bp. of, see Ridley, dr. 

— Aldgate street, 72. 

— the Old and Little Bailies, 90. 

— Chancery lane, chapel there called 
Domus Conversorum, 51. 

— Inner Temple, 209. 

— St. Magnus, parson of, 88. 

— St. Paul's, 156. 

London .see also M osse the Jew,of London. 
London college (Burnelyn), see Burnell's 
inn. 

London way (Boltshipton farm), 206. 

Longepee,Ela, countess of Warwick, 95. 

Long meadow, 31. 

Longwall, 98, 149, 188, 213. 

Long Wall street, 126, 136. 

Long walls, the, 138. 

Lorineria, the, 66. 

Lucy de Worth, house of, 161, 162. 

principal of, 161. 

Ludewell, Geoffrey (1470), 36. 
Ludlow hall (Lodelowhall), 18S, 115. 
Luke de Wurthe, vicar of Cowley, 152. 
Lumbard of Grekelade, a Jew, 132. 
Lumbard land, see Lombard's land. 
Lumley, Ralph, knt., 23. 
Lundon, see London. 
Luteburgh, see William de Luteburgh. 
Lutlemore house, see Littlemore house. 
Lyde, John (1447), see Hyde. 
Lyhert, Walter (1443), 181. 
Lymonour, Bedwyn ^1448), 192. 
Lynch's lodgings, Osney, 212. 
Lynke, — , schoolmaster (1586), 54. 
Lynton (Great), co. Camb., 107. 
Lyon hall, see Lion hall. 
Lyour (ligator), see William the Binder. 
Lysewyes' tenement, 166. 
Lytlegate, see Littlegate. 

Mabilla, prioress of Stodeley, 184. 
Macleane, D., Hist, of Pembroke College, 

5°, 7i> 74- 
Macray, W. D., Annals of the Bod- 
leian, 4. 

Madan, F., Early Oxford Press, 168. 
Maddesdon, John (1392), 160. 
Magdalen bridge, 13, 207. 



Magdalen coll., 3, 5, 8, 79, 165, 176, 
189, 206. 

— president of, 136. 
(R. Mayew), 64. 

— scholars of, 190. 

— chapel of, 112. 

— gravel-walk at, 210. 

— the College walk, 138. 

— the College wall, 138. 

— the Grove, 137, 138. 

— the Water-meadow, 4. 

— the Founder's tower at, 43. 

— Magdalen tower, 8. 

— St. Swythun's quadrangle, 205. 

— Magdalen hieroglyphics, 47. 

— school of, 207. 

— tenement of, 169. 

— muniments of, 135. 

— and East Oxford, 205-207. 
Magdalen hall, relic of St. John'shospital, 

206. 

Magdalen hall, 190, 191. 
Magdalen hall, a, 109. 
Magdalen, the, statuette of, 103. 
Magpie inn, 186. 

Magpie lane, or Grove lane, 1S6, 197. 

Magpie tavern, 197. 

Maiden (Mayden hall, 1 45,147, 1 77,195. 

Maiden's head, house of the, 153. 

Maidenhead, the, 153. 

Maideston (Maydenstone), see John de 

Maideston. 
Maior hall, 64. 
Mair hall, 62. 
Major's (Maioris) hall, 62. 
Malaunay, see Hugh de Malaunay. 
Malchair, — , drawing by, 81, 82. 
Malger (Marjer, Maier), 5^ Mauger inn. 
Malger the Vintner, 64. 
Manor house, Holywell, 137, 138. 
Maps, old, 2, 95. 
Marcel or Martel, house of, 149. 
Marcham, John (1476), 182. 
Marcham, Robert (1463), 131. 
Marcham's tenement, 182. 
Marescall, (or le Marescall), Thomas 

(1341), 184. 
Mareschall, Roger, parson of Tackley 

church, (1324), 178, 179. 
Marey's hall (New Balliol hall), 121. 
Margaret hall (Mariole), 39, 115. 
Marian schools, see Mary, queen. 
Mariol of Littlemore (Mariola), see 

Maryol hall. 
Market, the, 171, 175. 
Market street, 65, 66, 139, 152. 
— survey from, to All Souls, 151-170. 
Market women, 59. 

Marshall's inn (afterwards the Star), 66. 
I Martel, see Marcel. 



232 



INDEX 



Martin, St., bp. of Tours, 90. 
Martin dc Bruton, 132. 
Martin the Stationer, 191. 
Marton, John, master of Durham hall, 
158. 

Martyn coll., see Morton coll. 
Martyn, William (1546), 128. 
Martyrdom of the Bishops, 123. 
Martyrs' Memorial, the, 100, no. 
Mary, Blessed, cemetery of, 168. 
Mary, queen, had Mass performed in 
Osney abbey, 94. 

— schools built by, 142, 165. 
Maryol, 200. 

Maryol-hall (Mariola or Little Mary), 
38, 149. 

Mason or Plasterer, see Richard the 

Mason. 
Masons, 114. 

Matilda, prioress of Littlemore, 191. 
Matilda de Milton, 174. 

— see also Maud. 
Matthew of Kenthelekys, 155. 
Maud, empress, 97. 

— charter of, 42. 

Maud (Moolde) at the Yate, 43. 
Mauger hall (Mauger's inn), 62. 
Mauger's hall entry, 62. 
Mauger, Thomas, 62. 
Maugher hall, 62. 
Maydeloc, Richard called, 100. 
Mayden hall, see Maiden hall. 
Maydenstone, see John de Mayden- 
stone. 

Mayew, Richard, president of Magd. 
coll., 64. 

Mayor and Bailiffs, see under Oxford. 
Medicine, Regius Professor of, his resi- 
dence, 89. 
Meere Stones, 29. 
Mercer, see Nicholas the Mercer. 
Mercury, figure of, 3. 
Mercury's pond, 201. 
Mere, la, see Robert de la Mere. 
Merefield, co. Somerset, 133. 
Mermaid inn, 57. 

Merston, John, alias Brayles, q. v. 

Mertock, John (1491), 162. 

Merton coll. (Martyn coll.), 3, 4, 5, 29, 

5 6 > 57> r 35> 136, 174, 2 ° 2 > 2 °4> 205- 

— chapel of, 8. 

the lectern in, 162. 

— St. John Baptist church, 202. 

— garden of, 8, 68. 

— Bachelors' garden, the, 200. 

— library [of Bp. Rede], the, 203. 

— muniment room, the, 203. 

— stables of, 203. 

— wall of, 200. 

— lawsuit of, 133. 



Merton coll., lords of Holywell manor, 
136. 

— Warden of (Henry of Abingdon), 
135. 

(R. Rawlyns), 200. 

— the great hall of the Warden, 204. 
Merton hall, 196. 

— warden of (1371), 124. 

— warden and scholars of, writ on the 
discords between them and the city 
(1380), 126. 

Merton fields, 4, 31, 32, 126^. 
Merton priory, 62. 
Merton street, 7, 47, 190, 202-205. 
Metropolitan and Birmingham bank, 61. 
Meules, see Nicholas de Meules. 
Michael, prior of St. John's of Scyre- 

burne, 181. 
Micheld hall, 165. 

Middelton, see ]ohn de Middelton and 

Peter de Middleton. 
Middleton hall, 122. 
Middle hall, 149. 
Mildred lane, 142. 

Mildred's hall (Mildredhall), 153, 154. 
Milham, 31. 

Milham bridge, 126 n., 207. 
Mill or Milk street, 74. 
Miller, Nicholas (13th cent.), 83. 
Miller's mead, 19. 

Mills (Grey Friars, Black Friars, Trill 

mill and Priory), 41. 
Milton, see Matilda de Milton. 
Minard's court or hall, 115. 
Mint, the old, 87. 
Missal (massebok), 50. 
Misterton, see Nicholas de Misterton. 
Mitre inn, or hotel, the, 64, 171, 172. 
Moldeworth, Richard (141 5), 69. 
Monastic orders, 99, 128. 
Monmouth, see Geoffrey of Monmouth. 
Montacute, sir William of, his wife 

Elizabeth, 30. 
Montacute, see Elizabeth of Montacute. 
Montague's (Mountague's) mead, 29, 

30. 

Moolde, see Maud. 
Moore, mr. Councillor, 31, 67. 
More Hammer hall, see Hammer hall. 
Mores, — , 184. 
Morrell, Frederick, 14. 
Mortein, John earl of, 206. 
Morwent, Robert, President of C. C. C, 
112. 

— bequest of, 27. 

Mosse, the Jew, of London, his son 

Jacob of Oxford, 56. 
Mosses, son of Jacob, of Oxford, 56. 
Mound, near the Castle, 82, 83. 
Mounts, the, 86. 



INDEX 



233 



Mowat, J. L. G., his series of Map, 
17- 

Moyses hall, 49. 

Mundy, Peter (1637), 112. 

Mylet, Richard (1476), 182. 

Nadale, see William de Nadale. 
Nafferton, John (1415), 181. 
Nafferton, Thomas (1377), 188. 
Napier (Napper) family, in Holywell, 
138. 

Napper's (Napier's) bridge, 138. 

Nattes' drawings (1808), 26, 72, 136. 

Necromancy, 78. 

Nevill hall, 186. 

Nevyll's in, (Nevellys yn), 200. 

— garden of, 201. 

New Balliol hall (Newebaillolhalle), see 

Balliol hall (New). 
New bridge, 41, 79. 

New college, 9, 62, 68, 87, 88, 91, 105, 
107, 125, 137, 138, 145-147, 151, 
202, 209. 

— ball- court of, 148. 

— chapel of, 144, 207. 

— garden of, 8, 68, 148, 184, 189, 
213. 

— muniments of, 29, 87, 103, 107, 108, 
176. 

— postern at, 213. 

— rentals of, 63. 

— tenement of, 64. 

— woodyard of, 169. 

— Warden and fellows of, 149. 

— warden of, his garden, 147 n. 
his study, 182. 

— Warden of (1407), 63. 

(Tho. Cranley), 63. 

(W. Porter), 64. 

New College lane, 134, 143,' 147, 185. 

— cost of, 144. 
New gate, 22, 23. 

New inn (Newyn), 131, 49, 67, 87. 
New inn, near St. Michael's church, N., 
r 39- 

New inn, or Cardinal's Hat, 109. 

New Inn hall, 79. 

New Inn hall lane, 84. 

New Inn hall street, 67, 68, 79, 86, 87, 

90, 120. 
New Inn yard, 49, 50. 
New market, near the Castle, 76, 86. 
Newrents (Newerent), par. of St. Martin, 

57- 

New rew, 205. 

New road, 79, 82, 84^., 85. 

Newton road, 14. 

Nicholas, master of St. John's hospital, 
130, 131. 

Nicholas, patron Saint of sailors, 96. 



Nicholas, St., Life of, 92. 

Nicholas the priest, and Robert his 

nephew, 15. 
Nicholas de Beres, 44. 
Nicholas de Brampton, 107. 
Nicholas de Eu, 62. 
Nicholas de Glatton, 184. 
Nicholas de Kingston, mayor of Oxford, 

56. 

Nicholas de Langford, 36. 
Nicholas the Mercer, 61, 155, 175. 

— his son John, 175. 

Nicholas de Meules, keeper of the 

Castle, 99, 100. 
Nicholas de Misterton, 130. 
Nicholas de Shordich, clerk, 157, 158, 

177. 

Nicholas de Wythull, 130. 

— his wife Petronilla, 130. 
Nicholson, Otho, of London, his conduit 

at Carfax, 58, 59, 101. 
Nigel d'Oilly, see D'Oilly. 
Nightingale hall, 135, 197. 
Nightingalehall lane, 191. 
Nightingale lane, 190, 193, 197. 
Nixon, alderman John, 54. 

— his School, 53, 54. 

Noble, John, principal of Broadgates, 73. 
Noifs house, 77. 
Non-Collegiate buildings, 192. 
North, John, mayor (1446), 197. 
Northampton, 160. 

Northampton, sec John of Northampton. 
North Bailey, see Bailey. 
Northcote, Richard, 171. 
Northerne, see William de Luteburgh 

and William the Northerne. 
North gate, 67, 70, 99, 100, 106, 108, 

m-113, 119, 121, 138-140, 205, 

210. 

— church at, 42. 

— cross at, 109. 

— Maiden's Chamber at, 120. 

— tower and pound of, 1 20. 
North Gate hundred, 105, 109. 
North Gate street (or North street), 9, 

47, 62, 65-67, 69, 87, 89. 

— Bishop's Treatise about, 69. 
North street, 62. 

Nova porta (New gate), 22, 23. 
Norwich, 98. 

Norwich, bp. of (James Goldwell), 167. 
Nuneham park, conduit in, 58. 
Nun hall, or Leaden porch, 152, 200, 
204. 

Nunnery grounds, the, 116. 

O (Eu), see John de Eu. 

— see also Eu. 

Ocle, John, his will (1390), 116. 



234 INDEX 



Octagonal chapel, the, see Our Lady's 

chapel. 
Odiham castle, 83. 
Offa, head of, 115. 

Ogle, rev. O., his Royal letters cited, 

\6n., 102, 118, 124, 126, 168, 192. 
Oilly, see D'Oilly, Robert. 
Olave, 72. 

Oldebaillolhalle, see Balliol hall (Old). 

Oldherdestreet (lioldierd street), 153. 

Old White house, 17. 

Old White house lane, 15, 19. 

Old Yeld hall, 56, 57. 

Olifant hall (Olyphant hall, Unicorn 

hall), '157, 158, 176. 
Oliver the Seinter, 173. 
Olyphant hall, see Olifant hall. 
Orchyerde, William (1478), freemason, 

42. 

Orfever, see Walter le Orfever. 
Oriel coll. (Oriall coll.), S, 130, 160, 
168, 178, 181, 183, 191-202, 207. 

— hall of, 1 30. 

— library of, 196. 

— tenement of, 57, 159, 172. 

— documents and manuscripts in, 129, 
163, 177, 178, 180. 

— Provost and fellows of, 181, 191. 
Oriel lane, 7, 195. 

Oriel street, 180. 

Oriel tenement, see Oriel coll. 

Oryole, le, 196. 

Osberston, see William de Osberston. 

Osney (Ousney) abbey, o^, 20, 58, 64, 
66, 82, 87, 89, 95, 97, 103, 117, 14S, 
152-154, 164, 176, 184, 186, 187, 198. 

— demolished (1545), 48. 

— buildings of, 211, 212. 

— Canons' buildings, the, 92. 

— chapter-house, the, 94. 

— church in, the, 93. 
old nave of, 93. 

— Lady chapel, the, 94. 

— dormitory, the, 93. 

— quadrangle, the great, 94. 

— refectory, the great, 94. 

— towers and great bell, the, 94. 

— towers at the transept of, 93. 

— relics of, 93. 

— remains of, 92. 

— ruins of, near the Mill chimney, 94. 

— Abbot's hall and garden, 2 1 1, 212. 

— Abbot's lane, 63. 

— Belsyre's stable, 211, 212. 

— Bysely's lodgings, 211. 

— Dean's lodging, 211. 

— Dey's lodgings, 211. 

— Dortre, or Dorter, the, 211. 

— Dyer's lodgings, 211. 

— Frater, the, 211. 



Osney abbey : 

— Haynes' lodgings, 211. 

— Lynch's lodgings, 211. 

— Abbots and convent of, 100, 131, 
162, 166, 172, 190. 

suit with Richard the Spicer,- 108. 

— Abbots of, 55, 168, 184, 185, 187. 

— abbot of (J. Bokeland), 145. 
(Hugh, 1 190), 64. 

— manciple of, 152. 

— tenement of, 152, 179, 183, 184, 189. 

— tenement of the Abbot, 66, 163, 168. 
Osney, cartulary of, 91. 

— chronicle (12th cent.), 105. 

— documents on, 62. 

— ledger book of, 102. 

— muniments of, 153. 

— writings of, 152. 

— records of, 55. 

— survey from, to Rewley, 92-96. 
Osney register, 97, 106. 

Osney rentals, 48, 131, 143, 161, 163, 

164, 186, 194, 203. 
Osney abbeys, South and North, 92. 
Osney, North, or Rewley abbey, q. v. 
Osney bridge, 13, 101, 102. 
Osney cemetery, 92. 
Osney cemetery chapel, 93. 
Osney lane, 93. 
Osney mill, 58. 
Osney schools, 142, 165. 
Otery, Roger (1366), 88. 
Our Lady's chapel, near Smith gate, 

8> 133-135' 2I 4- 
Our Lady's house, 165. 
Ouse, the river, 24. 
Ousney, see Osney. 
Oven hall, 145. 
Overall, — , 2. 

— his ed. of Agas's map of London, 2. 
Overee lane (Overheeslane, Boterwyke 

or Butterwyke's), 43, 44, 46. 
Overton, see Richard de Overton. 
Overy, Thomas, precentor of Wells, 167. 
Overys lane, see Overee lane. 
Owen, George, M.D. (1541-58), 102, 

112, 128, 129. 
Oweyn, Henry, vintner, 57. 
Oweyn, Richard (1588), 113. 
Oweyn, Robert (13th cent.), 153. 

— his son Robert, 153. 
Oxenford hall and inn, 107. 
Oxford (Oxenford), 15, 16. 

^Entries of places and buildings in 
Oxford will be found distributed 
throughout the Index.'] 

Mayor and bailiffs of, 22, 23, 51, 54, 
149, 199. 

Mayor and burgesses of, 191, 192. 
— licences to, 32, 197. 



INDEX 



235 



Oxford : 

Mayor and Burgesses of, writ to (1 380) 
on their discords with Merton hall, 
126. 

Corporation, the, 59. 

Mayor and commonalty, 69, 147. 

Mayors, list of, II. 

Mayor of, waited at K. Richard's 

coronation, 86. 
Mayor of, Tho. Baylly, 27. 

— Edmond Bennett, 169. 

— John de Bereford, 167. 
. — John Fitzalan, 73. 

— Richard Gunter, 139. 

— John Gybbys, 65, 146. 

— J. de Hampton, 205. 

— aid. Hartley, 27. 

— Nicholas de Kingston, 56. 

— John North, 197. 

— Peter, son of Torold, 83. 

— O. Smyth, 36, 44. 

— ... Sprunt, 18. 

— Stephen of Aynton, 69. 

— William de Luteburgh, 86. 

— William the Northerne, 18. 
Mayor's accounts, 132. 
Mayor's court, 38, 54, 134. 
Mayor's sergeant, the (1377), 17. 
Bailiffs and chamberlains of, 75. 
Bailiffs of, 18, 53, 56, 148, 201. 
Burgesses of, 129, 154. 
Chamberlains of, 51, 171, 173. 

— accounts of, 120, 200, 207. 
Town-Clerk of (1377), 17. 

— T. Legh, or Lech, 36, 44. 
City Surveyor, the, 84. 

— map of, 125. 
Wardens of the Keys, 92. 

List of City officers (1407), 92 n. 

City accounts, 19, 175. 
City charters, 71, 113. 
City Council books, 51, 54, 195, 196. 
Council, the Common, ordinance of,25. 
Council, decree of (1571), 133. 
Council house, 54. 
City court records, 183. 
City court rolls, 124. 
City rolls, 85. 
Hustings rolls, 121. 
City Lease-book, 18. 
City muniments, 111. 
City records, 33, 44, 144, 206. 
Rental of the City (1323), 71. 
Great book of City Wills, 85, 113. 
Small Red-book of the City, 65, 134. 
Calendar of Oxford documents needed, 
11. 

Boundaries of, 20. 
City buildings, 119. 



Oxford : 

City Public Library, 49. 

City Mill, 95. 

East Oxford, 205-207. 

North-West of the City, 84-92. 

Agas's Plan of, 1 et passim. 
"~*^Ear]y roadway in, 58. 

River navigation between London 
and, 24. 

Troubles between the City and 
Rewley, 95. 

City wall, 32, 33, 45, 46, 67, 68, 71, 
119, 125, 126, 133, 138, 141, 142, 
143 n., 146, 148, 149, 214. 

— survey from Folly Bridge to, 24-46. 

— towers upon, 79. 
City bastions, 201. 
City fish-ponds, 135. 
City gate, 32, 46. 
Ditches, 105. 

— Town ditch, 70, 204. 
Governor of Oxford, col. Draper 

(1650-51), 84. 
Military defences of, 23. 
Siege of Oxford, 112. v 
City improvement, 85. 
Dissertation on Oxford, 9. 
Historiola, or Historic of Oxford, 16. 
Petitions to Parliament relating to, 

25- 

— see also University. 

Oxford, see Jacob of Oxford, son of Mosse 

the Jew. 
Oxford, bishop of, land of, 99. 

Robert King, his house, 39, 40. 

John Underhill, 87. 

— archdeacon of (Walter), 15. 
Oxford almanac (1750), 87. 

Oxford Architect. Soc, Proceedings of 
123. 

Oxford Historical Society, publications 

cited, 9, etc. 
Oxford inn, or The Bell, 107. 
Oxfordshire, sheriff of (John Laundell), 

53- 

Oxmead wall, 93. 

Pady, Christina, wife of Jordan Rasi, 

messuage of, 195. 
Pady, or Padi, Philip, tenement of, 56. 
Pady, Ralph, 195. 

— his daughter Christina, 195. 
Pape, Thomas le, 173. 
Paradise square, 22, 75, 76. 

Parker, James, his Early hist, of Oxford, 

16,72,115. 
Parker, Matthew, archbp. of Canterbury, 

123. 

Parker, William (1434), 37. 
Parks road, 7, 128. 



2 3 6 



INDEX 



Parliament, petition to, on river naviga- 
tion (1301), 24. 

Parmentarius, William, his wife Wi- 
march (14th cent.), 107. 

Parmunter's (Parmuncer's) hall, 43. 

Parne (or Pirne) hall, 173, 195. 

Parsarina (Passerina ?), a hall, 121. 

Parsonage, the Old, St. Giles's, 115. 

Parson's Pleasure, ford at, 16. 

Pary's meadow (or the Physic garden) , 
31, 206. 

Pasc hall (Paschalle, Paschalhalle), 164, 
165. 

Passerina hall, 121. 

Pateryngton, see Robert de Pateryngton. 
Pates inn (Patesyn), 62, 63. 
Paul hall, 49. 
Pawmer, Richard, 9. 
Peckwater's inn, 199. 
Peckwater's inn corner, 193. 
Pembrigge, Hugh (1366), 88. 
Pembroke coll., 43, 48, 74. 

— chapel of, 73. 

— Macleane's History of, 50. 
Pembroke (Penyfarthing) street, 47, 48, 

74> 79, 8 4, I9 8 - 
Pencheryche, 19G. 
Pencridge, 190. 
Pencryche hall, 197^ 
Penkeriches lane, 188. 
Penitentiary Friars, 75. 
Pennard (Pennarght),Frideswide (1340- 

52), 85, 86, 88. 
Pennard, William, 65, 88. 

— his daughter Frideswide (1352), 88. 
Pennard's (Pennarth's) lane, 86, 87. 
Pennarth, Frideswide, see Pennard. 
Penniless (Pennelesse) bench, 59. 
Penyfarthing (now Pembroke) street, 47, 

48, 74, 79, 84, 198. 
Perilous hall (Perylusehall)j 115, 128, 
130. 

Perrott's rent-lists, 38. 
Persey, John, rector of St. Michael's, N., 
69. 

Personer hall, 135. 
Pery hall, 61, 158. 
Perylusehall, see Perilous hall. 
Peshall, Sir J., on the Martyrs, 123, 124. 
Peter, son of Torold, mayor, 83. 
Peter de Middleton, 129. 

— his son Nicholas, 129. 
Peynter, see John the Peynter. 
Peyntor's hall, 108. 

Philip and Mary, charter of, 1 1 1 . 
Philip II, king of France, 206. 
Philip de Eu (Ew, O), 122, 128, 177. 
Philip de Wormenhale, 129, 130, 171. 
Phillipps MSS., 141. 
Physic garden, 31, 206. 



Physic hall, 179. 
Pickedeyt, 20. 
Pie lane, 198. 
Pig-market, a, 175. 
Pig-market, the, 142. 
Pike inn, 198. 

Pilet, John (1230), 62, 163. 

Pilet (Pylet) hall, 167. 

Pilet school, 162. 

Pillory, the, 63,69, 105, 136, 152. 

Pillory, see William of the Pillory. 

Piper's inn (Pypersyn), 108. 

Pirie, Margaret (1349), 8 5- 

Pirie (Pirye), William (1331), 173. 

Pirye, see Pirie. 

Pittance hall, 198. 

Plague, the, 127. 

Plasterer, see Richard the Mason 

and William the Plasterer. 
Plato's well, 91, 97, 98. 
Plomer hall, see Plummer hall. 
Piomery's place, 140. 
Plough inn, 67. 

Plugenet, see Hugh de Plugenet. 
Plummer (or Plomer) hall, 140. 
Plummer, rev. C. , Elizabethan Oxford, 1 2 . 
Plummer, Richard (13th cent.), 130. 
Plymesrood, Thomas (1416), 29. 
Pointer, J., 123. 
Pole, see Richard atte Pole. 
Police station, house or hall once the, 
173- 

Polton's chamber (1407), 49. 
Pomcerium, 142. 

Pompey (Pompe), a tenement, 110, 153. 

Poop hall, see Pope hall. 

Poor-house, 105, no. 

Pope, Thomas (1555), 129. 

Pope hall (Poop hall), 43, 44. 

Porter, James (1427), 152. 

Porter (Portar), William, warden of 

New coll., 64. 
Portionists' or Postmasters, hall, 203. 
Portmanneheyte, meadow of, 11 7- 
Portmannimote, the, 15. 
Portmannimote hall, 91. 
Port meadow, 117, 118. 
Portmede, 133. 
Postboys inn, the, 172, 
Postern gate, 151. 
Postern at New coll., 213. 
Postmasters' hall, 203. 
Post Office, 49. 
Pound, parish, 105. 
Powell, Edmund (16th cent.), 100. 
— his wife Isabel, 100. 
Preachers Brothers, the, see Friars 

Preachers. 
Preachers' lane, 38. 
Preachers' pool, 21. 



INDEX 



237 



Preacher's pool, meadow near, 20. 
Preaching or Black friars, see Friars 

Preachers. 
Prestent, meadow, see Presthey. 
Presthey (Presthaye, Prestent), 30, 31. 
Priest's house, the, 48. 
Printing press, first set up in England, 

198. 

Prior, H. N., house of, 91. 
Priory mill, 41. 
Prison, the, 120. 

— near the Gildhall, 54. 

— see also Bocardo. 
Proscholium, the, 170. 
Prude, see Thomas le Prude. 

Pump (two-faced), near the Postboys 

inn, 172. 
Pye, Alice, 87. 
Pykard, Elias, 196. 
Pylet (Pyllets), see Pilet school. 
Pylet (Pilet), John (1230), 62, 163. 
Pylet (Pylate) hall, 167, 168. 
Pypersyn, see Piper's inn. 

Quadrivium, see Carfax. 
Quaking bridge, 79. 
Quarrystone hall, 35. 
Quartervois, see Carfax. 
Quarvex, see Carfax. 
Queen hall, 144, 145. 
Queen's hall, provost and scholars of, 
184, 185. 

Queen's college, 144, 147, 148, 178, 
183, 184. 

— Provost of, 189. 

— garden of, 182. 

— the old chapel and ante-chapel, 185. 

— the front quadrangle, 185. 

— survey from Cat street to, 181-188. 
Queen's college lane, 146. 

— survey from, to East gate, 188-192. 
Queen street, 50, 56, 58, 60, 79. 
Quilter, see John le Quilter. 

Rack, see Rack hall. 

Rack hall (Rekhall), 39. 

Radcliffe, Samuel, D.D., principal of 

Brasenose coll., 210. 
Radcliffe camera, 164, 169. 
Radcliffe library, 170. 
Radcliffe square, 169. 
Radford, see Laurence of Radford. 
Ralph de Swaclive, 108. 
Ralph the Writer, 203. 
Ram inn, 177. 

Ramsbury (Little Remesburyj,co. Wilts, 

103. 
Ramsey, 98. 

Rasi, Jordan, his wife Christina (Pady), 
195- 



Rath, see Robert le Rath. 
Rawlinson MSS., 173, 190, 212. 
Rawlyns, Richard, warden of Merton 

coll., 200. 
Reading abbey, 204. 
Recreation ground, New Hincksey, 13. 
Redehous, 182. 
Rekhall, see Rack hall. 
Religious orders, 11. 
Remesbury, see Ramsbury. 
Rewley (the Royal hall,Rois-leie,Ruley), 

21, 94, 99, 103, 115. 

— or North Osney, 97. 
Rewley abbey, 92, 94, 101. 

— remains of, 95. 

— abbot and convent of, 25, 113. 

— troubles between the City and, 95. 

— survey from Osney to, 92-96. 
Rewley corner, lashgate at, 95. 
Rewley house, 96. 

Rewley mead, 102. 
Rewley stream, 8. 

Richard I, king, born at Beaumont «» 

palace, 100, 206. 
Richard II, king, the mayor of Oxford 

at his coronation, 86. 

— writ of (1380), 126. 

Richard, earl of Cornwall, king of the 

Romans, 94-96. 
Richard, prior of St. Frideswyde, 174. 
Richard le Bruyn, 108. 
Richard le Cha (14th cent.), 36. 
Richard of Dadyngton, 128. 
Richard of Durham (1352), 57. 
Richard le Forster (Forester), 179. 
Richard de Garderobe, tavern of, 63. 

— his servant Stephen, 63. 
Richard de Garston, 44. 
Richard the Mason, 163. 
Richard called Maydeloc, 100. 
Richard de Overton, 129, 130, 168. 
Richard atte Pole, 177. 

Richard of Selewode, mayor, 148. 
Richard the Spicer, his suit with Osney, 
10S. 

Richard of Stanlake, 15. 
Richard de Staynton, 142, 187. 
Richard de Tekene (Tekne), 61, 160, 
172, 187. 

— his wife Joan, 61, 187. 

Richard de Tewe, master of St. John's 

hospital, 135, 191. 
Richard de Ypwell, 130. 
Riche, see Brimannus le Riche. 
Ridley, Nicholas, bp. of London, 70, 

— his martyrdom, 123, 124. 
Ring, Celtic Torque-, 90. 
River, see Adam of the Ryver. 
Rivers, the, 3, 26. 

Robert, abbot of Osney, 172. 



2 3 8 



INDEX 



Robert, prior of St. Frideswyde, 173. 

Robert, tbc presbiter, afterwards a 
Canon, 42. 

Robert de la Bache, 140. 

Robert the Bedell, 177. 

Robert of Cricklade, prior of St. Frides- 
wyde, 42. 

Robert de Fletham, 163. 

Robert of Hegham, lord, a justice 
(1301), 24. 

Robert de la Mere, 174. 

■ — his maid, 174. 

Robert d'Oilly, see D'Oilly. 

Robert de Pateryngton, 187. 

Robert le Rath (Rat), 130, 131. 

Robert of Samford, friar, 108. 

Robert de Spridlington (1331), 39. 

Robert of Watlington, 171. 

Robert de Wetewang, will of, 1 1 1 . 

— his son John, 1 11. 
Robert of Worminghall, 85. 
Robinson, F. E., 209. 
Rochester, 98. 

Rochester, bp. of, Tho. de Trilleck, 88. 
Roebuck (Rowbuck), 153. 
Roebuck hotel, 65. 
Roebuck inn, 152. 

Roger, bp. of Lichfield and Coventry, 
171. 

Roger, bp. of Salisbury (n 39), 30, 31, 
104. 

Roger of Aswardby, 155. 

Roger the Clerk, of Cumnor, 132. 

Roger de Lodelow, 157. 

Roger le Slater, 181. 

Roger le Waterman (1271), 135. 

— his son Henry, 135. 
Rois-leie, i. e. Rewley, q. v. 
Rokesburgh, John, master of Univ. 

coll., 160. 

Rokesby, John, master of Univ. coll., 
159- 

Rokesle, see Gregory of Rokesle. 
Rolls, Master of the, payment of rent 

to, 51. 

Roman settlement in Oxford, 116, 117. 
Romanger, Alan (c. 1200), 1 2 1. 
Romans, the, 14. 
Romayne hall, 170. 

Rome, a garden in St. Giles's, 5, 113, 
114. 

Rome, law-suit at, 105. 
Rosamund, Fair, embalmed corpse of, 
119. 

— burial place of, 118. 

— cross erected to, 118. 
Rose hall, 86, 88, 196. 
Rose inn, 182. 

Rose lane, 31, 126 n. 
Rose place, 33. 



Rossius, Joh., see Rous. 
Rothwell, vicar of (1356), 172. 
Roundabout stream, the, 15. 
Rouse (Ross), John, 16, 114. 
Routh, dr., president of Magdalen coll., 
136. 

Rowbuck, see Roebuck. 

Rowney's rebuilding of the Town hall, 

52. 

Royal way, 68. 

Royse, abbess of Godstow, 168. 
Rucothe, sir Fulk de, 153. 
Ruff, dr., house of, 190. 
Ruley, see Rewley. 
Runcival hall, 147. 

Runcival (Benceval, Bevesval) street, 
138. 

Russell house, 158. 

Russell, at the corner, tenement of, 160. 
Rydychen (Oxford), 16. 
Ryther, Augustine, engraver of Cam- 
bridge plan, 3,5, 6. 
Ryver, see Adam de la Ryver. 

St. Alban hall, or St. Alban's hall, 4, 

196, 202-204. 
St. Alban's, 98. 

Saint Aldate (Olave, Told, Tole, Old 

and Hold), name of, 72. 
St. Aldate's (Grampoole), 21, 25, 28, 

32, 33. 37, 38, 4 1 , 43, 47-49, 55, 132, 
139, 210. 
St. Aldate's church, 71. 

— Ducklington aisle in, 73. 

— chapel of St. Saviour in, 73. 

— Law library in, 73. 
St. Aldate's street, 172. 

— survey from St. Aldate's to the Castle, 
70-84. 

St. Andrew hall, 196. 

St. Andrew's church, 129. 

St. Bartholomew's hospital, 206, 207. 

St. Bernard, church of, ill. 

St. Bernard's college, 110-112, 128. 

— common room of, 112. 
St. Bodhoc, parish of, 75, 76. 
St. Catharine's house, 189. 

St. Catharine's street, see Cat street. 

St. Clement's, 11, 206, 207. 

St. Clement's church, 207. 

St. Clement's road to London, 207. 

St. Cross (Holy Cross), see Holywell. 

St. Cross road, 136. 

St. Cuthbert's (hall?), 195. 

St. Ebbe's, n, 33, 41, 71," 77. 

St. Ebbe's church, 22, 27, 49, 74, 75, 77, 

79,85. 
St. Ebbe's churchyard, 75. 
St. Ebbe's street, 47, 74, 77, 79. 
St. Edmondsbury, 98. 



INDEX 



239 



St. Edmund hall, 148, 152, 176, 185,189. 
St. Edmund hall (Little), 160-162, 176. 
St. Edmund's (?) church, 72. 
St. Edward's church, 74, 173, 174, 195. 
St. Edward's churchyard, 50, 194. 
St. Edward's hall, 194, 195. 
St. Edward's lane (now Boar lane), 173, 
193- 

St. Edward's parish, 177. 

St. Edward's school, 173. 

St. Edward's street, 195. 

St. Frideswyde, altar of, 30, 31. 

St. Frideswyde's, 66, 67, 91, 100, 104, 

105, 109, 114, 121, 153, i55- r 57» 

i73, J 92, 195- 

— priory of, 31, 42, 200. 

— cemetery of, 198, 201. 

— garden or grove of, 32,42, 169. 

— meadow or mead of, 30, 31. 

— tenement of, 37, 39, 85, 121, 164, 
166, 167, 174, 181, 192, 196. 

— toft of, 43. 

— St. Frideswyde's fair, 31, 104. 

— Cartulary of, ed. Wigram, 12, 30, 
66, 157. 

— charters of, 36. 

— confirmation charter to, 42. 

— grant to, 30. 

— manuscripts of, 62. 

— Register of, 31. 

— rental of, 159. 

— Prior and convent of, 146, 147, 182. 

— priors of, 30, 37, 122, 181. 
Richard, 174. 

Robert, 173. 

Wimond, 104. 

St. Frideswyde, see John of St. Frides- 
wyde. 

St. Frideswyde's hall (Frideswithalle), 
37, 77- 

St. George in the Castle, 92, 100. 

— church of, 102, 105. 
St. George's college, 87. 

— chapel of, 80. 

St. George's hall, 188. 

St. George's tower, 7, 8, 68, 80, 150. 

St. Giles' church, 103, 105, 114. 

— the University church, 115. 

— chapels and tower of, 1 1 4. 

— sundial on, 115. 

— chapel of St. Michael in, 103. 

— churchyard of, 7, 113, 115. 

— vicar of, 116. 

St. Giles', law-suits with, 105. 

— old tenements in, 106. 

— survey from St. Mary Magdalen to, 
102-115. 

— survey from, to Godstow, 1 15-120. 

— pond in, 113. 

St. Giles' road, 4, 8. 



St. Giles' street, 107, 112. 
St. Helen's passage, 133, 134, 144, 145. 
St. John, see John of St. John. 
St. John's church, 203. 
St. John's garden, 136. 
St. John's coll., 8,99, 100, 105, no, in, 
114. 

— chapel of, 1 1 2, 204. 

— ground near the gate, 106. 

— grove of, 128. 

— hall of, 202, 203. 

— second quadrangle of, 112. 

— President and scholars of, 105. 

St. John's hospital, 39, 64, 77, 109, 135, 
138, 140, 148, 149, 154, 157, 166, 183, 
184, 188, 189, 191, 192, 197, 206. 

— messuage of, 191. 

— school of, 176. 

— tenements of, 129, 192. 

— charters of, 130. 

— rental of, 38, 1 93. 

— Master of, 130, 189, 191, 197. 
(R. Tewe), 135. 

St. John's road, 116, 213. 

St. John's street (Johnnyslane, Jonys 

lane, now Merton street), 9, 190, 202. 
St. John's street (old road near New coll. 

chapel), 144. 
St. Katharine, see St. Catharine. 
St. Laurence church, N. Hincksey, 15. 
St. Laurence, hall of, see Laurence hall. 
St. Margaret's chapel, [i. e. St. Mary's 

chapel, Smith gate,] 127, 134. 
St. Margaret's church, 1 1 7. 
St. Margaret hall (La Margerethalle), 

121, 112, 131. 
St. Martin's, inn at, 178. 
St. Martin's church and parish, 53, 55, 

57, 59, 61, 62, 64, 74, 167, 172. 
St. Martin's (Carfax) church, 72, 79, 90,91. 

— St. Mary's chantry in, 135. 

— tower of, 36, 201. 

— parson of, 51. 

St. Martin's hall, see Merton hall. 
St. Mary's parish, see St. Mary the 
Virgin.' 

St. Mary's college, 67, 79, 88, 89, 145. 

— prior and students of, 89. 

St. Mary college (B. N. C), 210. 
St. Mary's college (now Frewin hall), 
162. 

St. Mary's entry (St. Maryentre), 135, 

159-162,165,175. 
St. Mary's entry (Little), 160. 
St. Mary hall, 174, 195. 
St. Mary hall lane, 197. 
St. Mary lane, 89. 
St. Mary's orchard, 169. 
St. Mary's street (High sr.), 172, 181, 

188. 



240 



INDEX 



St. Mary's tenement, 181, 182. 

St. Mary Magdalen parish, 106, 107- 

nr, 122, 124, 128-131. 
St. Mary Magdalen chureh, 70. 

— Balliol aisle in, 104. 

— crypt in, 103. 

— St. James' altar in, 103. 

— chapel of St. Mary the Virgin in, 
103. 

— altar of Our Lady in, 131. 

— St. Katharine's image and altar in, 
103, 104. 

— priest of St. Katharine at, 103. 

— figure of St. Thomas in, 104. 

— tower of, 105. 

— survey from, to St. Giles', 102-115. 

— survey from St. Thomas' to, 96-102. 

— churchwardens' accounts, 103. 

St. Mary the Virgin, parish of, 66, 127, 
143, 160, 165, 166, 171, 177, 179, i8i, 

182, 186, 187, 199. 

St. Mary the Virgin (church of), 5, 7, 58, 
79, 135, 167, 173, 174, 179, 200. 

— chantry of St. Thomas in, 147, 169, 

183, 196. 

— gild of St. Thomas in, 160. 

— service at, 136. 

— length of the Church, 8. 

— spire of, 8. 

— churchyard of, 161, 175. 

— rector of, 163. 

— churchwardens of, 1 8 1. 

— St. Mary's accounts, 169. 

St. Mary the Virgin, chapel of, Smith 

gate, 8, 133-135, 214. 
St. Mary of Winton, coll. of (New coll.), 

199. 

St. Michael's parish, North, 66, 67, 
152, 153- 

St. Michael, N., church of, 138, 9, 67-69, 
72, 139, 205. 

— tower of, 36, 68-70. 

— churchyard of, 69, 134, 139. 

— rectors of (J. Persey and R. Aston), 69. 

— sexton of, 175. 

St. Michael's parish, South, 24, 36-39, 

43-4 6 - 

— church of, 205. 

rector of (1 331), 39. 

parson of (W. Witteneye), 37. 

St. Michael's hall, 200. 

St. Michael's lane, 139. 

St. Michael's rental, 139. 

St. Michael's street (old), 67, (new) 67. 

St. Michael's street, formerly Wode 

street, 89. 
St. Mildred street, 152, 154. 
St. Mildred's, 74, 142, 153, 155-157, 

176. 

St. Mildred's church, 154, 156. 



St. Mildred's church, cemetery of, 155. 
St. Mildred's hall, or Pompe tenement, 
153- 

St. Mildred's lane, 66, 151, 155, 156. 
St. Nicholas, chapel of, called the 
Hermitage, 18, 19, 213. 

— Chapel close, 214. 

St. Nicholas, church of, see St. Thomas 

the Martyr. 
St. Nicholas' entry, 189. 
St. Nicholas' hall, 147, 184, 185. 
St. Nicholas' yard, 18. 
St. Olave's (?) church, 72. 
St. Old's, or the Fish market, 46, 49, 193, 

see St. Aldate's. 
St. Peter le Bailey, 65, 67, 72, 74, 77, 79, 

85. 

— church of, 84, 90, 174. 

chantries and chapels in, 85. 

chapel of St. Andrew in, 86. 

chapel of St. Clement in, 85. 

bell rung twice a day, 86. 

proctors of, 88. 

— churchyard of, 85. 

— seven cottages in, 87. 

St. Peter at the Castle, see St. Peter le 
Bailey. 

St. Peter in the East, parish of, 137, 
145, 183, 184, 188, 189, 192, 196, 
197, 202. 

— church of, 132, 134, 147, 148, 150, 
182, 185, 191. 

rector of, 132. 

the vicar's garden, 148. 

crypt of, 57, 81, 151. 

chancel of, 105. 

the south door, 1 50. 

muniment room in, 1 50. 

— — tower of, 36, 68, 150, 20T. 

turrets at the east end of, 134, 150. 

churchwardens of, 1 34. 

churchwardens' accounts, 151. 

— churchyard of, 213. 

— survey from Ship street to St. Peter's 
in the East, 1 38-1 51. 

St. Peter in theWest, see St. Peter le Bailey. 

St. Peter's lane, 181, 190. 

St. Stephen's house, 131. 

St. Thomas' chantry, see St. Mary the 

Virgin, church of. 
St. Thomas' hall, or Staple hall, 158, 

166, 167, 177, 195. 
St. Thomas the martyr, church of, 79, 

92, 96. 
St. Thomas' parish, 74. 

— survey from, to St. Mary Magdalen, 
96-102. 

St. Walery, see Thomas of St. Walery. 

Sale de Syrrae, 214. 

Salehyrst, see Thomas de Salehyrst. 



INDEX 



241 



Salesburgh, Richard (14th cent.), 140. 
Salesbury and S. Mary's entry, tenements, 

Salesurry (Salisyrry) a messuage, 160, 
214. 

Salesurry (Salisbyry) hall, 160, 161. 
Salisbury (Sale de Syrrae), see Sale- 
surry. 

Salisbury, hall and garden of, 160. 
Salisbury, bishop of, Roger (1139), 30, 
104. 

Robert Wyville, 103. 

Salisbury, earl of (1400), 23. 
Salisbury hall, see Salesurry. 
Salisyrry, see Salesurry. 
Sallow-hythe-eye, 30. 
Salodehythyge, near Cowmead, 20, 21, 
30. 

Salvation Army barracks, 83. 
Sampson hall, 199. 
Sanctuary field, Godstow, 119. 
Sandford lasher, 19. 
Sand hall, 135. 
Sandhull or Sandels, 18. 
Saracen's head, 190. 
Sarah Acland home, the, 116. 
Saresynshede (le), 191. 
Sarum, see Salisbury. 
Saucer, see Geoffrey le Saucer. 
Saucer hall, 17. 

Saundford, William (1368), 29. 
Saundresdon, Nicholas, his will (1399), 
51; 

— his wife Maud, 51. 

Savage, Henry, Balliofergus cited, 58, 

109, 121, 142. 
Savings bank, the, 54. 
Sawcer (Sawser), see Saucer. 
Saxons, the, 16. 
Say, William (1449), 189. 
Scharp, dom. (1445), 153. 
Scheldhall, see Shieldhall. 
Schidyard (Schydyard, Schedesyard, 

Shidesyrde, Shideyard, Shydyierd, 

Sid-therd, Silk-thread) street, 179, 

180, 195, 199, 200. 
School lane, 162, 167. 
School street, 142, 159. 
Schools, the, 52, 63, 154, 174, 180. 
Schools, the Bodley, 165. 
Schools, Greek and Latin, 115. 
Schools, the old, 141. 
Schools tower, the, 52, 166. 
Schools, University, 164, 165. 
Schools street, 142, 156, 160-164, 169, 

175. 

Schools street, old, 143. 
Schydyard street, see Schidyard. 
Schyrborn, see Shyrburne. 
Scissors, a messuage of the, 37. 



Sclater, see John le Slater and Roger 

le Slater. 
Scots, invasion of the, 84. 
Scyreburne, see Shyrburne. 
Seacombe (Sekomb), rector of (1343), 

36. 

Sealer, see John le Sealer. 
Seckanworth, 118. 
Segrim, tenement of, 71. 
Segrims, three, mentioned in Domesday, 
72. 

Segrym, Richard, tenement of, 71. 
Segrym, Robert, house of, 71. 
Seinter, see Oliver the Seinter. 
Sekomb, see Seacombe. 
Sekyl hall, 158, 175, 176. 
Seld hall, see Shield hall. 
Selewode, see Richard of Selewode. 
Selverne hall (Spicershalle), 77, 187. 
Sely, sir Benedict (1400), 23. 
Semer, Roger {c. 1295), 128. 
Semer, Thomas (1290), 128. 
Sessions-house, near the King's palace, 
81, 82. 

Setreton or Seterton, — (1404), 66. 
Setreton, Thomas (1403), 66. 
Setreton's (or Seterton's) lane, 66. 
Seven Deadly Sins, tenements of, 79, 86. 
Seven Deadly Sins lane, 86. 
Sewestvvichene, 66, 86, 87. 
Sewy, see John de Sewy. 
Sewy's lane, 62, 65, 66, 86, 89. 
Sewy's twychen, 66, 86, 87. 
Shad well, dr., alderman, of Frewin hall, 
89, 178. 

— his Catalog, munim. Oriel, cited, 

l6 3, 177, 195- 

Shaftebury, Alexander, 31. 

Shaftesbury's house, 31. 

Shaftesbury's lane, 126 n. 

Shakespeare, W., acts as godfather at 
Carfax church, 61. 

Shambles or Bocherow, the, 90. 

Shareshull, see Adam de Shareshull ; 
and William, son of Adam de Shares- 
hull. 

Shaw, John, bailiff (1378), 148. 
Shawe, John (1427), 139. 
Shawe, John, jun., 44. 

— his wife Sarah, 44. 
Sheephall (Shep hall), 199. 
Sheldehall, see Shield hall. 
Sheldonian theatre, 68, 133, 141, 143. 

— basement floor of, 125. 
Shelvingstole (Shulvyng stole), 43. 
Shep hall, see Sheephall. 
Shepen, co. Leicester, 86. 
Sheppard's row, 37. 

Shepreve, J., Life of dr. Claymond, 14, 
64, 102. 



R 



242 



INDEX 



Sherelake, see Shirelake. 
Shercva (Trentill bridge), 41. 
Sherweyt, near Cowmead, 20. 
Shideyard (Shidcsyrde), see Schidyard. 
Shield (Seld, Sheld, Scheld) hall, 144, 

145, 157, 158, 165, 191, 200, 205. 
Ship inn, the old, 139. 
Ship street, 67, 68, 141. 

— survey from, to St. Peter's in the 
East, 138-151. 

Shire-brook, 21. 
Shire-ditch, 28, 29, 33, 35. 
Shirelake (Sherelake), 29, 30, 210. 
Shoe lane, 65, 88. 

Shordich (Schordych), sir John de, 177. 

Shordich, see also Nicholas de Shordich. 

Shotover, stealing deer from, 174. 

Shotover hill, 207. 

Shulvyng stole, see Shelvingstole. 

Shydyierd, see Schidyard. 

Shyrburne (Schyrborn, Scyreburne), 

church of St. John the Baptist of, 

181, 183. 

— prior of, 181, 183. 
Sibford, 179. 

Sid-therd (Silk Thread), see Schidyard. 
Silver street, 129, 153. 
Simeon of Oxford, his son Henry, 166. 
Simeon, Henry, 76. 

— his son Henry, 76. 

Simon of Bolindon (Balinden), canon of 

Lichfield, 159. 
Simon the Bookbinder, 166. 
Simon the Goldsmith (Gildynsmith), 

163. 

— his daughter Dionis, 163. 
Siren inn, 57. 

Skelton, J., map by, 71, 100, 160, 164, 
211. 

Skelyng, or eskelynge, an outhouse, 54. 

Skeron, Robert (1430), 167. 

Skibbowe, see Skybowe. 

Skitling, John (1384), 64. 

Skybowe, Roger, 181. 

Skybowe's (Skibbowe's) tenement, 181. 

Slater (Sclater), see John le Slater. 

Slatter, see John the Slatter. 

Slaying lane, 34, 36, 46. 

Slaying lane well, 46. 

Small Red-book of the City, 65, 134. 

Smith (Smythe), John, house of, 27, 28. 

Smith (Smyth), John, lease to, 22. 

Smith, Oliver, brewer, mayor (1619 and 

1624), 36, 44. 
Smith, William, of Univ. coll., 61, 65, 

J 32, 156, 158, i59> ^2, 165, 175, 

187, 196, 198. 
Smith gate, 9, 105, 106, 124, 127, 130, 

I 3i, 133-135, 140, I43> 145, 147- 
149, 160, 210. 



Smith gate, Our Lady's chapel near, 8, 
214. 

Smyth (Smythe), see Smith. 
Snarcston, Tho., of Great Lynto, 107. 
Snareston, Thomas (1465), 124. 

— his son Thomas, 124. 

Solar (Soler, Soller) hall, see Sorrell 
hall. 

Somenore's inn (Someneresyn, Wy- 

thull's?), 62. 
Somenore's (Sommeners, Someneres, 

Somnore's) lane, 9, 139, 140, 143, 

165. 

Somenore's (Summer's or Summoner's) 

street, 141. 
Somerset, see Thomas de Somerset. 
Somerset, Thomas, bailiff (1378), 148. 
Sorrell hall (Solar hall, Soller hall), 62, 

192, 125. 

South bridge, 14, 22-24, 2 7, 2 8, 31, 35, 
42. 

— bequest for repair of, 27. 

— chapel at, 18. 
South Bridge street, 47. 

South gate, 23, 29, 38, 42, 44, 45, 72, 
205, 210. 

— meadows near, 27. 

— room over it, 71. 
South Newton, 154. 
South park, 207. 
South road, 42. 
South street, 47. 
South wall, 48. 
Spaldynge, William, 38. 
Spaldyng's court, 148. 
Spaldyng's tenement, 196. 
Sparrow, John (13 18), 121. 
Sparrow (Sparo) hall, 115, 121. 
Speed, John, 72. 

Speedwell street, 38. 

Spereman, Alexander (1350), 113. 

Spicer (Spycer), Isolda, 177. 

Spicer, John, tailor, 37. 

Spicer, John (1331), 177. 

Spicer (Spycer), John, son of John 

(1416), 29. 
Spicer, John (before 1465), 124. 
Spicer, see John le Spicer; Walter le 

Spicer ; William le Spicer. 
Spicer's eyte (Spicer's mead), 29, 31. 
Spicer's hall, 108, 111, 176, 177, 187. 
Spicer's inn, 61. 
Spicer's tenement, 108. 
Spitel, the, near St. Giles' church, 

116. 

Spitons eyte, see Spytonseyte. 
Spragot, Richard, mayor, 71. 
Spreakellsyeit, Berks, 18. 
Spridlington, see Robert de Sprid- 
lington. 



INDEX 



243 



Sprunt (Spront), John, mayor, 65, 66, 
91. 

Sprunt, John (1478), his tenement called 

Waterhall, 42. 
Sprunt, Walter, mayor (1402), 18. 
Sprunt's hall, see Water hall. 
Spycer, see Spicer. 

Spytonseyte (Spycerseyte), 20, 21, 29. 
Stamford, 159. 

Standford, Henry (1331), 39. 
Standish, the mathematician, 115. 
Standish's list of halls, 39. 
Stanlake (Stanlache), see Richard of 

Stanlake and Thomas de Stanlake. 
Stanlake hall, 166. 
Stanlee, see John of Stanlee. 
Stanton Harcourt, 1. 
Stanys, John, binder, 168. 
Staple (Stapull) hall, 164, 158, 200. 
Stapledon, Walter, bp. of Exeter, grant 

to Stapeldon hall, 140. 
Stapeldon hall, rector and scholars of, 

140, 144. 
Stapledon coll., tenement of, 166. 
Stapull (Steeple), see Staple hall. 
Stapull-ledyn-hall, now Laurence hall, 

139- 

Star-fort in ' Campus field/ 207. 
Star inn, 66, 89. 

Stationer, see Martin the Stationer. 
Staunden, see John of Staunden. 
Staunton, see John de Staunton. 
Staunton hall, 187, 209. 
Staynton, see Richard de Staynton. 
Steeple hall, see Staple hall. 
Stephen of Aynton (Adynton), mayor, 
69. 

Stephen, son of Henry, son of Simeon, 
31. 

Stevens' land, 148. 

Stevenson, J., editor of Abingdon 

Chronicle, 15. 
Stock, William, president of St. John's 

coll., 105. 
Stocks, in Holywell parish, 136. 
Stock well, or Stockwell mead, 30. 
Stockwell, Giles, 190. 
Stockwell, see Geoffrey de Stockwell. 
Stockwell hall, 165. 
Stockwell road, 97. 
Stockwell street, 97-99. 
Stodley (Stodeley, Stodele, Studely) 

priory or nunnery, 158, 181, 183, 184. 

— prioress and convent of, 153, 154, 
182,184,187. 

— prioress of, her tenement, 154, 165, 
196. 

Stodley's chantry, 64. 
Stodley's entry, 182. 
Stodley's inn, 176, 177. 



Stodley (Stodleigh), Henry, his son 
John (1293), 55. 

— see also Henry de Stodley. 
Stodley, John, 63. 

— his wife Agnes, 63. 
Stoke or Stock, 97. 
Stoke hall, 140. 

Stokes, Benedict (c. 1470), 86. 
Stokes, John (1477), 86. 
Stokes, John, warden of All Souls, 
182. 

Stokwellemede, see Stockwell. 
Stratford, John (1387-8), 52. 
Stratford at Bow, abbot of, 1 1 1 . 
Street, Mr. (1865), 75- 
Street from All Saints to St. Mildred, 
129. 

Stretford (West), William of, 168. 

Strodeys, 21, 30. 

Studely (Studley), see Stodley. 

Stump pool, 28. 

Stylyngton's messuage of, 196. 

Suffolk, Henry duke of (1552), 132. 

Summertown, 116. 

Summoner's street, see Somenore's 
street. 

Srappethuf, John (13th cent.), 153. 
Suterton, see John de Suterton. 
Suthbruggestrete, see South bridge. 
Sutton, Richard (1508), 159, 160. 
Sutton, sir Richard (1508), 160. 
Swaclive, see Ralph de Swaclive. 
Swanbourne inn, 172. 
Swan-on-the-hope, 178. 
Swan inn, 177, 178. 
Swans' nest, 76, 214. 

— the City's flock of Swans, 76 »., 77 n. 
Swindlestock (Swyndlestock), Siren or 

Mermaid inn, 23, 55, 57, 167. 
Swineshull (Swyneshull), co. Berks, 17, 
18, 20. 

Swineshull, see Thomas de Swyneshull. 
Swinfell, see Swineshull. 
Swyndlestock, see Swindlestock. 
Swyneford's entry, 200. 
Swyneshull, see Swineshull. 
Syons, small trees, 36. 
Syrra (Syrrie) hall of, see Salesurry. 
Syrrae, sale of, see Salesurry. 

Tabard inn, the (the Angel), 173, 174, 
191, 197. 

Tabard-on-the-hope (the Bear inn), 178, 
192. 

Tackley, parson of, see Mareschall, R. 
Tackley's inn, or Bulkley hall, jj8, 
115. 

Tamisia, branches of the Thames, 75. 
Tamworth, John (1467), 27. 
Tanner, John {c. 1310), 10 1. 



R 2 



244 

Tanner, John (15th cent.), 1 81. 
Tanner, Thomas, bp. of St. Asaph, 211, 
212. 

Taunton, co. Somerset, 177. 
Tavistock, 98. 
Tekene, John (1356), 172. 
Tekene (Tekne), Richard (1333-56), 61, 

160, 172, 187. 
Tekne, see Tekene. 
Tell Mill lane, 207. 
Templars, Knights, 108. 
Temple, Nicholas (1477), 86. 

— his wife Joan, 86. 
Temple Cowley, 207. 
Temple Mill lane, 207. 
Temple (Tempell) hall, 147. 
Terry, — , tenement of, ill. 
Tew (Tywe), see Henry de Tew. 
Tewe, Richard, master of St. John's 

hospital (1431), 135, 191. 
Thame railway, 16. 

Thames, the river, 5, 13, 17, 19, 20, 24, 

25> 2 7> 2 9, 3°> 34> 35> 37, 39> 4 2 , 7 2 > 

76, 83, 118. 
Thames street (now George street), 21, 

98, 106, 108. 
Thames water, 27. 
Thamise, the river, see Thames. 
Theatrical performances (16th cent.), 

54- 

Thomas, son of Wydo, 1 56. 

— his wife Agatha, 156. 
Thomas the Apothecary, 176. 
Thomas de Bedeford, 157. 
Thomas de Bradwel, 192. 
Thomas de Bristolle, 153. 
Thomas de Carlile, provost of Queen's 

hall, 184. 
Thomas de Dodeford, 107. 
Thomas de Hamme, bookseller? (1333), 

168. 

Thomas de Hengesey, 130. 
Thomas de Legh (Leye), goldsmith, 36, 
44- 

— his daughter and heiress Sarah, 44. 
Thomas le Marescall, 184. 
Thomas the Martyr, St., of Canterbury, 

96. 

Thomas le Pape (1277), 173. 
— ■ his wife Juliana de Chilrethe. 
Thomas le Prude, 153. 
Thomas of St. Walery (1180), 97. 

— his father Bernard, 97. 
Thomas de Salehyrst, bedel, 191. 
Thomas de Somerset, 64. 
Thomas de Stanlake, 166. 
Thomas de Swyneshull, 201. 
Thomas de Trilleck, bp. of Rochester 

88. 

Thomas le Vent, chaplain, 116. 



INDEX 

Thomas of Winchester, 157. 
Thomas de Wormcnhale, son of Philip, 
129. 

Thomas, John (1407), 49. 
Thommys, John, of Binsey, 25. 
Thorp, Percival (1434), 37. 
Three farms, the, 116. 
Three Tuns inn, 187. 
Timberyard (Merton fields), 32, 204. 
Tingcwiek (Tinchwick) inn, 166, 167. 
Tirwhit, see Tyrwhit. 
Titmouse lane, 79. 
Tittenhanger, co. Herts., 129. 
Toftes house, 186. 
Told (Tole), 72. 
Toldervey, house of, 135. 
Toll bridge, 118. 

Tombstones removed to All Saints', 61. 
Toral, Geoffrey (1259), 153. 
Torald, Peter and Robert (1259), 153. 

— family of Torold, 145. 
Torald, hall of, 143. 
Torald school, 143. 

Torald's tenement, cellar at the corner 

near, 163. 
Torbeville, Geoffrey (c. 1255), 181. 
Tornor, see Alwin le Tornor. 
Torold, see Torald. 

Tours (Towers), bp. of, (St. Martin,) 90. 
Tower, called Friar Bacon's Study, 2 1 . 
Tower hill, 43. 
Town ditch, the, see Ditch. 
Town hall (18th cent.), 50-52, 58. 
Town halls, the two (upper and lower), 
46. 

Town mead, 28, 31. 
Treadwell's gardens, 33. 
Tredagh, see Drowda hall. 
Tregorram, John (1465), 124. 
Trent, the river, 24. 
Trentill or Trensil bridge, 41 . 
Trentill hall, 41. 

Tresham, dr., sub-dean of Ch. Ch., 50. 
Tresham, dr. William, 194. 

— wall of, 193. 
Tresham lane, 50. 
Tresilian (Trysilian), sir Robert, 63. 
Trikyngham, see Elias de Trikyngham. 
Trillekesynne (Trilleckynnes), 88. 

— bailiff's account of, 88. 
Trill mill, 42. 

Trill Mill bow (Turnboo, Turnmull 

stream), 41, 42, 91. 
Trill Mill hall (Trullemull halle), 39, 
42. 

Trill Mill stream, 25, 27, 29, 31-33, 35, 

38, 40, 74-76, 214. 
Trillemille, see Trill mill. 
Trillocks inn, 87, 88. 
Trilmilbo, see Trill Mill stream. 



INDEX 



245 



Trinitarians, 146. 
Trinity chapel, 205. 
Trinity coll., 110, 119, 129. 

— garden of, 132. 

— grove of, 128. 

— old cottages near, 129. 

— postern gate near, 141. 
Trinity lane, 126 11., 205. 
Tristhorp, John (1461), 158. 
Trullemull halle, see Trill Mill hall. 
Trysilian, sir Robert, see Tresilian. 
Tu-brugge, 206. 

Turl, the (or Street of the Turl), 129, 
141, 153, 172. 

— Turl street, 125, 154, 175. 

— ' twirl ' or turnstile in, 129. 
Turnboo stream, see Trill mill. 
Turner, dr., of Merton (1629), 56, 204. 
Turner, W. H., Records of City of 

Oxford, 123. 
Turner, see Alwyn the Turner. 
Turneyt, 20. 

Turning gate, the, Turl street, 129. 

Turnmull stream, see Trill mill. 

Turnpike house, 21. 

Turris super pontem Australem, 22. 

Twirl-gate, the, 129. 

Twychen, the, 197. 

Twyne, Brian, 1, 9, 11, 18, 22, 26, 29, 
36, 41, 44, 51, 55, 56, 63, 71, 72, 85, 
86, 88, 91, 92, 111-113, IX 7> I2 4> 
131, i3 2 . !34, J35, i39> H°> J 4 8 - 
150, 154, 155, I57> 158, 161, 162, 
164, 165, 168, 173, 175, 177-179. 
191, 195, 196, 199-201, 204, 206, 
207, 214. 

— his Apologia, 10. 
Tyne, river, 24. 

Tynemouth, see John de Tynemouth. 
Tyttenhanger, co. Herts., 129. 
Tywe, see Tew. 

Tyrwhit (Tirwhit), Thomas, master of 
Balliol, 121. 

Underhill, John, bp. of Oxford, 87. 
Underwall, the, 4, 147. 
Underwall, Margaret, 39. 
Underwalls, the, 146. 
Unicorn hall, 157. 
Union Society, 66. 
United Methodist free church, 120. 
University, a, 114. 

University the, 109, 115, 118, 128, 136, 
159, 164, 165, 190, 207. 

— Chancellor and masters of, 191. 

— Chancellor and proctors of, 182. 

— Chancellor of (Hatton), 6. 

— Chancellor's accounts, 140. 

— Chancellor's books, 163. 

— Chancellor's court, 158. 



University, the, Chancellor's court, 
register of, 153. 

— the Chancellor's court, London, 51. 

— Chancellor's list of halls, 166. 

— Vice-Chancellor's accounts, 194. 

— Proctors' accounts, 193. 

— deputy Steward of (Croke), 40. 

— Bedels of, 44, 75, 192. 

— Congregation, Register of, 121, 187. 

— Convocation of, 77. 
Register of (151 1), 34. 

— old Convocation house, 168, 178, 
180. 

— Small hall of the, 158. 

— lease of Divinity Schools to, 142. 

— land of, 182. 
University Register, 140. 
University tenements, two, 191. 
University boathouse, stream near, 17. 
University coll., 66, 156-158, 160, 161, 

171, 176, 183, 187, 196. 

— old chapel of, 188. 

— masters and fellows of, 159, 160, 
186, 191. 

— fellows of, 155, 181, 188, 191. 

— muniments of, 116. 

— farm of, near the Causeway, 1 7. 

— tenement of, 172. 
University hall, 191. 

— master and scholars of, 145. 
University hall (Great), 187. 
University hall (Little), 158-160, 188. 
Urban hall, 200. 

Varney, Mr., 206. 

Vent, see Thomas le Vent. 

Vine hall, 77, 195, 199. 

Vintner, see Malger the Vintner. 

Vintry, the, 54. 

Vynehall, see Vine hall. 

Vyse, Richard (1449), 189. 

Wadham coll., 105, 127. 

— hall of, 131. 

— grove of, 128. 
Wadham walk, 1 14. 

Wadham, Dorothy, sale to, of the 
Augustine priory and fair (161 1), 
133- 

Wadham, sir Nicholas, of Merefield, 133. 

— his widow Dorothy, 133. 

Wafre, Mabel, abbess of Godstow, 
128. 

Waggoner, see Alfwyn the Waggoner. 
Waldri hall, 205. 
Walerand of Crikelade, 64. 
Wales, 155. 

Wales, the Prince of, at Frewin hall 

(i860), 89. 
Waleys, see Henry le Waleys. 



246 



INDEX 



Wall, see Adam under the Wall. 

Wall, the City, see tinder Oxford. 

Walsh, John (1400), 23. 

Walter, archdeacon of Oxford, 15. 

Walter of Beaumont, 130. 

Walter le Bost, 128. 

Walter de Clyve, the Mayor's sergeant, 

Walter le Deghere, 192. 
Walter de Grendon, 62. 
Walter de Hydebrugge, 184. 
Walter de Merton, his college founded, 
128. 

Walter le Orfever, John son of, 171. 
Walter le'Spicer, 177. 
Walter of Wythull (White Hill), lent., 
62. 

Waltham, Thomas, lease to, 2 2. 

Walton, John, abbot of Osney, 131. 

Walton farm, 116. 

Walton fields, 67. 

Walton, manor of, 102, 112. 

Walton street, 98. 

Walton Well road, 116, 117 n. 

Wanter's mill, 203. 

Warcheyn (Warche yn), a tenement, 37. 
Ward, Winkin de, see Wynkyn de 
Worde. 

Wardrobe, the, near South bridge, 24. 
Ware, John (1372), 157. 
Wareham, Edm. (1416), 29. 
Warham, see John de Warham. 
Warmewell, Geoffrey (1323), 43. 

— his wife Sara, 43. 
Warton, Jos., Life of Pope, 128. 
Warwick, countess of, Ela Longepee, 95. 

— monument to, 93. 
Warwyck, John (1439), 157. 
Water conduit, 58. 

Water gate, 75. 

Water hall, or Sprunt's, 17, 40, 42. 
Water-lakes, 18. 

Waterman, see Roger le Waterman. 
Waterman's Arms, St. Aldate's, 28. 
Wathington (Watlington), Robert, 103. 
Watlington, see Robert of Watlington. 
Wayght, John, 194. 
Way-under-the-Walls, the King's, 204. 
Waynflete, William, bp. of Winchester, 

190, 191. 
Wayside cross, 206. 
Webbe, John (1578), 132. 
Welch, C, librarian, Guildhall, London, 

56 n. 

Welchman's mead, 19. 
Well, in Holywell, 137. 
Well, in the Mound, 83, 207. 
Well hall (Wellehalle), 131, 115. 
Wells, dean of, — Burnell, 198. 
Wells, sub-dean of, 156. 



Wells, precentor of, 167. 
Went, John (1361), 179. 
Were (Aldwear), 97. 
Were, old, the Castle stream, 98. 
Were ford, 97. 

West gate, the, 70, 74, 76, 77, 79, 205, 
210. 

West Stretford, see John of West 

Stretford. 
Weston, see John de Weston. 
Westwood, prof., 116. 
Westwyke, see Wyke, West. 
Wetewang, apothecary or spicer, 108. 

— Whitewanger, Joan, 110. 
Wetewang, see Robert de Wetewang. 
Wheathampstead, abbot of St. Alban's, 

99. 

Wheatsheaf inn, 39. 

Wheatsheaf passage, 58, 173, 194. 

White, dr. (1565), 23. 

White, sir Thomas, alderman of Lon- 
don, 99, 110-112. 

White, William, master of Ball, coll., 
199. 

White, William, baker (1455), 85. 

— his son Thomas, 85. 

White Friars, the, 48, 100, 101, 103, 107. 

— their graveyard, 101. 

White hall (Whyte hall, Wight hall), 
4, 77, 84, 140, 174, 193, 195, 196, 
205. 

White hall (Great), 152. 

— (Little), 140. 

White halls, the two, 6, 153. 
White Hart inn, 67. 
White Hill (Wythull), 62. 
White house, 19. 
Whitemonks coll., ill. 
White walk (Wide walk), see Broad 
walk. 

Whitewanger, Joan, no. 

— and see Wetewang. 
Whitewhanger's (or Fowkes') tenement, 

1 10. 

Whittlesey, — , 2,4, 47, 64, 65, 82, 83, 
no, 141. 

' Whole in the Wall/ the, Turl street, 
129. 

Whyte, sir Thomas, see White. 
Whyte hall, see White hall. 
Wica, see Wick. 
Wicheton, 20. 

Wick, the (Eastwyke house), 17. 

— West or New Wyke, 17, 18. 

— Wyke house, 19. 

Wick (la Wyke), co. Berks, 17. 

— hamlet of Wyke, roi. 

Wick (Wica), near the Bridge of Ox- 
ford, 15. 
Wike, see John de la Wyke. 



INDEX 



247 



Wick farms (two), 14. 

Widdy kind or Winkin de Ward, see 

Wynkyn de Worde. 
Wight hall, see White hall. 
Wigram's Cartulary of St. Frideswide, 

12. 

Wilby court and hall, see Willonghby. 
Wildelond, see William de Wildelond. 
Wilkins the Goldsmith, 173. 
William called Oerl of Gloucester, 166. 

— his wife Rosa Balle, 166. 
William, abbot of Osney, 190. 
William, parson of Boclond, 166. 
William, son of Adam de Shareshull, 36. 
William of Aldebury, rector of Se- 

komb, 36. 
William the apothecary, 163. 
William de Bereford, a justice ( 1 301 ), 24. 
William the Binder, 163. 
William de Brampton, 107. 

— his wife Joan, 107. 

William of Charyngworth, prior of 

the house of Crutched Friars, 36. 
William de Colesbourne, 147. 

— his son John, 147. 
William de Coleshull, 65. 
W 7 illiam de Daventre, of Oriel, 130. 
William of Drokeda, 183. 
William of Durham, 159. 
William le Espicer, 177. 
William de Eu, 122. 

William le Franceis, 83. 

— his sister Alice, 83. 
William de Hampton, 155. 
William de Ho, 153. 

William le Iremonger, bailiff, 201. 
William de Loigenhull, tenement of, 
121. 

William deLuteburgh(a/?'ajNortherne), 
mayor, ob. 1383 ; 86. 

— his wife Margaret, 86. 
William of Montacute, sir, 30. 
William de Nadale, 187. 

William the Northerne, mayor of Ox- 
ford, 18. 
William de Osberston, 147. 
William of the Pillory, 136. 
William the Plasterer, 106. 
William le Spicer, 140, 177. 

— his son John, 140. 
William de Wildelond, 184. 
William of Worcester, 79, 93. 
William of Wykeham, bp. of Win- 
chester, 63, 88, 145-147, 185. 

— New college buildings designed by, 
151. 

— grant to, 144. 

William (once Kybald) hall, 196. 
Willis, Browne, letter to, 211. 
Willoughby(W T yliby, Wilby) court, 184. 



Willoughby (W T ilby) hall, 140, 183, 184. 
Willowsby, Robert (1507), 183. 
Wills, Great Book of City, 38, 44, 113, 
173. 

Willyams, John, knt, 99. 
Wilmond's tenement, 197. 
Wimarch, wife of William Parmen- 

tarius, 107. 
Wimmil lane, see Windmill. 
Wimond, prior of St. Frideswide, 104. 
Winchester, see Thomas of Winchester. 
Winchester (Winton), bp. of, Thomas 

Bilson, 114. 
William of Wykeham, 63, 88, 

145-147, 185. 
Winchester, warden of, see Brath- 

waite, dr. 

Winchester hall (Wynchestrehall), 157, 
158. 

Windmill, the, in St. Giles', 114, 182. 
Windmill (Wimmill) lane, 113. 
Windsor (Wyndser, Wyndsore), Miles, 

9, 14, 22, 41, 46, 114, 115, 153, 162. 
Windsor, see also John of Windsor. 
Windsor postern, 147, 148. 
Winkin de Ward, see Wynkyn de 

Worde. 
Winking lane, 198. 
Winsore, see Windsor. 
Winton hall, 156, 157. 
Withekey or Wythige, see Claviger, 

Adam. 

Witney, parson of (1353), 57. 
Witteneye, William (1377), 37. 
Wlpis hall, 149. 
Wode street, 89. 
Wodeton, co. Oxon, 38. 
Wodward, Edward (1496), 113. 
Wolsey, Thomas, card, archbp. of 

York, 46, 47, 49, 198. 
Wolsey's chapel, 48. 
Wolvercote (Woolvercott), 118. 

— church of, 137. 
Wood family, the, 56. 

Wood, Antony, 1, 9, 10, 18, 22, 24, 26, 
39, 41, 42, 63, 66, 77, 78, 83, 85, 87, 
88, 92, 98, 99, 100, 106, 107, in, 112, 
114, 115, 121, 131, 132, 135, 138, 
148, 149, 153, 161, 163, 167, 168, 
171, 177, 182, 186, 187, 190, 191, 
197, 211. 

— his residence, 203. 

— his MSS., 9, 12, 82, 99, 102, 121, 
133, 140, 144, 146, 158, 196. 

— Annals, ed. Gutch, 123. 

— Athenae Oxon., 9, 10. 

— City of Oxford, 1, 11, 12, 29, 43, 51, 
58, 75> 8 9> 9 X > 94> IOO > I0 4> J °9> 120, 
143, 153, 155. 161, 163, 165, 
171, 179, 183, 186, 190, 210. 



248 



INDEX 



Wood, A., his Colleges and Halls, 87. 

— Hist, of the University, 165. 

— Life of 33, 48, 52, 56, 84, 90, 170. 
Wood, Edward, mayor (1488), 79. 
Woodcock hall (Wodcokhall), 179, 

186. 

Woodstock, 124, 149, 150. 
Woodstock road, 116. 
Wood st., 67. 
Woodward, dr., 144, 146. 
Wool house in Pates yn, 63. 
Wootten's bank, a part of Battes inn, 
56. 

Worcester, bp. of, Thomas Cobham, 
180. ' 

Hugh Latimer, 70, 124. 

Worcester, see William of Worcester. 
Worcester coll., 102. 

— bursary, the, 98. 

— first chapel and library of, 99. 

— second chapel of, 99. 

— lake at, 94. 

— site and circuit of (1558), 99. 
Worcester house, 41. 
Worcester meadow, 95. 
Worcester street, 97. 
Wormenhale, see Philip de Wormen- 

hale and Thomas de Wormenhale. 
Wormenhall hall, 186. 
Worminghall, see Robert of Worming- 

hall. 

Worth, see Lucy de Worth. 

Wotton, John (1341), 34. 

Wren, Christopher, design of, 162. 

Wright, alderman, 129. 

Wright, Walter, D.C.L. (1555), 129. 

Writer, see Ralph the Writer. 

Wurthe, see Luke de Wurthe. 

Wyatt, mr., picture dealer, 175. 

Wyckam, see William of Wykeham. 

Wyghthull, Robert, 63. 

Wyght or Wyth's tenement, 196. 

Wyke, see Wick, and John de la Wyke. I 



Wykeham, see William of Wykeham. 
Wykeham, Geoffrey (1387), 145. 
Wykemead, 20. 

Wyleby, — (1252), grants to and from, 
64. 

Wyleby, Robert, 184. 

— his wife Agnes, 184. 
Wylibycourt, see Willoughby court. 
Wyllaby, see Willoughby hall. 
Wylmond, Robert (1448), 192. 
Wylmond's tenement, 192. 
Wylmot, John (I456), 73. 
Wymond (Wymund) the Linge-draper, 

190, 191. 

— his wife Agnes, 191. 
Wynchestrehall, 157, 158. 
Wyndsore( Wyndser ) , Myles,^ Wind sor . 
Wynewyk, John, vicar of Rothwell 

(1356), 172. 
Wynhale, Walter, D.D: (1447), 29. 
Wynkyn de Worde (Winkin de Ward), 

198. 

Wynmille, le, see Windmill. 

Wynton, see Winton hall. 

Wyse, Richard, master of St. John's 

hospital, 197. 
Wyth, see Wyght. 
Wythige, see Claviger, Adam. 
Wythull, see Nicholas de Wythull and 

Walter of Wythull. 
Wythull's tenement, 62. 
Wyville, Robert, bp. of Sarum, 103. 

Yate, see Henry atte Yate and Maud at 

the Yate. 
' Yate, Att,' family of, 72. 
Yeeld hall, see Gildhall. 
Yfeli, see Iffiey. 
York, 205. 

— document dated at, 43. 
York and Lancaster contest, 193. 
Ypwell, see Richard de Ypwell. 
Yren or (Eagle) hall, 195. 



OXFORD: HORACE HART 
PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY 



©yfort) Historical Society- 



PUBLICATIONS. 
1884. 

1. Register of the University of Oxford. Vol. I. (1449-63; 

1 505-7 1), edited by the Rev. C. W. Boase, M.A., pp. xxviii + 364. 
(Price to the public, without discount, and prepaid, 16s.) 

2. Remarks and Collections of Thomas Hearne. Vol. I. (4 July 

1705 — 19 March 1707), edited by C. E. Doble, M.A., pp. 
viii + 404. (16s.) 

1884-85. 

3. The Early History of Oxford (727-1100), preceded by a 

sketch of the Mythical Origin of the City and University. 

By James Parker, M.A. With 3 illustrations, pp. xxxii + 420. (2oy.) 

1885. 

4. Memorials of Merton College, with biographical notices of 

the Wardens and Fellows. By the Hon. Geo. C. Brodrick, 
Warden of Merton College. With one illustration, pp. xx + 416. 
(16s., to members of Merton 12.5-.) 

5. Collectanea, 1st series, edited by C. R. L. Fletcher, M.A. 

With 2 illustrations, pp. viii + 358. (16s.) 
(Contents : — a. Letters relating to Oxford in the 14th Century, ed. by H. H. 
Henson ; b. Catalogue of the Library of Oriel College in the 14th Century, 
ed. by C. L. Shadwell ; c. Daily ledger of John Dome, bookseller in Oxford, 
1520, ed. by F. Madan ; d. All Souls College versus Lady Jane Stafford, 
1587, ed. by C. R. L. Fletcher ; e. Account Book of James Wilding, Under- 
graduate of Merton College, 1682-88, ed. by E. G. Duff; /. Dr. Wallis's 
Letter against Maidwell, 1 700, ed. by T. W. Jackson.) 

1886. 

6. Magdalen College and King James II, 1686-88. A series of 

documents collected and edited by the Rev. J. R. Bloxam, D.D., 
with additions, pp. lii 4- 292. (1 6s., to members of Magdalen 1 2s.) 

7. Hearne's Collections [as No. 2 above]. Vol. II. (20 Mar. 

1707 — 22 May 1 710), pp. viii + 480. (16s.) 

8. Elizabethan Oxford. Reprints of rare tracts. Edited by the Rev. 

C. Plummer, M.A., pp. xxxii4-3i6. (10s.) 

(Contents : — a. Nicolai Fierberti Oxoniensis Academioe descriptio, 1602 ; 
b. Leonard Hutton on the Antiquities of Oxford ; c. Queen Elizabeth at 
Oxford, 1566 [pieces by J. Bereblock, Thomas Nele, Nich. Robinson, and 
Rich. Stephens, with appendices] ; d. Queen Elizabeth at Oxford, 1592, by 
Philip Stringer ; e. Apollinis et Musarum Eidyllia per Joannem Sanford, 
1592.) 

1887. 

9. Letters of Richard Radclifle and John James, of Queen's 

College, Oxford, 1749-83 : edited by Margaret Evans, with 
a pedigree, pp. xxxvi + 306. ( 1 5 s., to members of Queen's 1 os. 6d.) 

10. Register of the University of Oxford, Vol. II (1571-1622), 
Part 1. Introductions. Edited by the Rev. Andrew Clark, M.A., 
pp. xxxii + 468. (i8j.) 



s 



PUBLICATIONS {continued). 



1887-8. 

11. Register of the University of Oxford, Vol. II, Part 2. 

Matriculations and Subscriptions. Edited by the Rev. 
Andrew Clark, M.A., pp. xvi + 424. (i8j.) 

1888. 

12. Do. Part 3. Degrees. Edited by the Rev. Andrew Clark, M.A., 
pp. viii + 448. (ifs.) 

13. Hearne's Collections [as No. 2 above]. Vol. III. (25 May 

1710 — 14 December 1712), pp. iv + 518. (16s.) 

1889. 

14. Register of the University of Oxford, Vol. II, Part 4. Index. 

Edited by the Rev. Andrew Clark, M.A., pp. viii + 468. (i7-y.) 

15. Wood's History of the City of Oxford. New Edition. By the 
Rev. Andrew Clark, M.A. Vol. I. The City and Suburbs. With 
3 Maps and several Diagrams, pp. xii + 660. (25^., to citizens 
of Oxford 20s. ; the two Maps of old Oxford separately, not 
folded, is. 6d., to citizens is.) 

1890. 

16. Collectanea, 2nd series, edited by Professor Montagu Burrows. 
With one diagram, pp. xii + 518. (16s.) 

(Contents :— a. The Oxford Market, by O. Ogle ; b. The University of Oxford 
in the Twelfth Century, by T. E. Holland ; c. The Friars Preachers of the 
University, ed. by H. Rashdall ; d. Notes on the Jews in Oxford, by A. 
Neubauer ; e. Linacre's Catalogue of Grocyn's Books, followed by a Memoir 
of Grocyn, by the Editor ; f. Table-Talk and Papers of Bishop Hough, 
1 703-1 743, ed. by W. D. Macray; g. Extracts from the 'Gentleman's 
Magazine' relating to Oxford, 1 731-1800, by F. J. Haverfield. Appendix : 
Corrections and Additions to Collectanea, Vol. I. (Day-book of John 
Dome, Bookseller at Oxford, a.d. 1520, by F. Madan, including a ' Half- 
century of Notes ' on Dome, by Henry Bradshaw).) 

17. Wood's History of the City of Oxford [as No. 15 above]. 
Vol. II. Churches and Religious Houses. With Map and 
Diagram, pp. xii+550. (20s., to citizens of Oxford 16s. ; Map 
of Oxford in 1440, separately, not folded, gd., to citizens 6d.) 

1890-91. 

18. Oxford City Documents, financial and judicial, 12 68-1 6 65. 
Selected and edited by Prof. J. E. Thorold Rogers, pp. viii + 440 
( + 2 loose leaves for vols. 6 and 16). (12^-.) 

1891. 

19. The Life and Times of Anthony Wood, antiquary, of 
Oxford, 1632-1695, described by Himself. Collected from 
his Diaries and other Papers, by the Rev. Andrew Clark, M.A. 
Vol.I. 1632-1663. With 7 illustrations, pp. xvi+ 520. (20s.) 

20. The Grey Friars in Oxford. Part I, A History of the Con- 
vent; Part II, Biographical Notices of the Friars, together with 
Appendices of original documents. By Andrew G. Little, M.A., 
pp. xvi + 372. (16s.) 



PUBLICATIONS {continued). 



1892. 

21. The Life and Times of Anthony Wood [as No. 19]. Vol. II. 

1664-1681. With 10 illustrations, pp. xxviii-f- 576. (20J.) 

22. Keniiniscences of Oxford, by Oxford men, 1559-1850. 

Selected and edited by Lilian M. Quiller Couch, pp. xvi + 430. 
(17^., to members of the University 10s. 6d.) 

1892-93. 

23. Index to "Wills proved and Administrations granted in 
the Court of the Archdeacon of Berks, 1508-1652. Edited 
by W. P. W. Phillimore, M.A. (Issued in conjunction with 
the British Record Society.) pp. viii+200. (10s.) 

1893. 

24. Three Oxfordshire Parishes. A History of Kidlington, 
Yarnton, and Begbroke. By Mrs. Bryan Stapleton. With 
a coloured map and 2 sheet-pedigrees, pp. xx 4-400. (17J., to 
residents in the three villages 10s.) 

25. The History of Corpus Christi College, with Lists of its 
Members. By Thomas Fowler, D.D., President of the 
College. With 3 illustrations, pp. xvi + 482. (20s., to members 
of Corpus 12s. 6d.) 

1894. 

26. The Life and Times of Anthony Wood [as No. 19]. Vol. III. 
168^-1695. With 3 illustrations, pp. xxxii + 548. (21J.) 

27. The Register of Exeter College, Oxford, with a history of 
the College, and illustrations. By the Rev. C. W. Boase, M.A. 
Third edition, enlarged, pp. [8] + clxxxiv + 400. (Presented to 
the Society by the author : i$s., to members of the College 10s.) 

28. The Cartulary of the Monastery of St. Frideswide at 
' Oxford. Edited by the Rev. S. R. Wigram, M.A. With illus- 
trations. Vol.1. General and City Charters, pp. xx + 504 + 6 
pages (loose) of corrections to vol. 24. (21s.) 

1895. 

29. The Early Oxford Press, a bibliography of printing and 

publishing at Oxford, ' 1468 '-1640. With notes, appendixes, 
and illustrations. By Falconer Madan, M.A., pp. xii+366. 
(Separate copies can be obtained only from the Clarendon Press, 
price i8j-. The Society can only supply it in sets.) 

30. The Life and Times of Anthony Wood [as No. 19]. Vol. IV. 

Addenda. With illustrations, pp. xii + 322. (24^) 

1896. 

31. The Cartulary of the Monastery of St. Frideswide at 

Oxford. Edited by the Rev. S. R. Wigram, M.A. With illus- 
trations. Vol. II. The Chantry and Country Parish Charters, 
pp. xii + 488 + 8 pages of additions and corrections (loose) 

tO VOl. 25. (2I.T.) 



PUBLICATIONS {continued). 



32. Collectanea, 3rd series, edited by Professor Montagu 
Burrows. With illustrations, pp. xii + 450. (21.9.) 

(Contents : — a. Some Durham College Rolls, by Rev. H. E. D. Blakiston ; 

b. Parliamentary Petitions relating to Oxford, by Miss L. Toulmin Smith ; 

c. Poems relating to the riot between Town and Gown, 1355, by Rev. H. 
Furneaux; Tryvytlam de laude Univ. Oxoniae, by the same ; d. Wykeham's 
Books at New College, by A. F. Leach ; e. Correspondence of Henry Earl 
of Clarendon and James Earl of Abingdon, 1683-85, by C. E. Doble ; 
/. Dr. Newton and Hertford College, by S. G. Hamilton ; g. Charles Earl 
Stanhope and the Oxford University Press, by H. Hart.) 



33. A History of Pembroke College, anciently Broadgates 

Hall. By the Rev. Douglas Macleane, M.A. With 4 illus- 
trations, pp. xvi + 544 + 4 pages of Addenda to vol. 32. (21s., 
to members of Pembroke 13.9.) 

34. Hearne's Collections [as No. 2 above]. Vol. IV (15 Dec. 

1 71 2 — 30 Nov. 1 7 14). Edited by D. W. Rannie, M.A., 
pp. x + 466 + [2], with a plate. (1898, 21J.) 



35. Epistolae Academicae Oxon, a collection of letters and 

other documents illustrative of Oxford in the fifteenth century. 
Edited by the Rev. H. Anstey, M.A. With illustrations. 
Part I, pp. lii + 336. (21J.) 

36. Ditto. Part II, pp. vi + 389. (21s.) 

1899. 

37. Wood's History of the City of Oxford [as No. 15 above]. 

Vol. III. Addenda and Indexes, with illustration, pp. X + 476 + 
[4]. (21s., to citizens of Oxford 16s.) 

38. Old Plans of Oxford, by Agas, Hollar and Loggan. A port- 

folio containing 15 plates. (21s., to citizens of Oxford 16s.) 



39. Oxford Topography, an essay by Herbert Hurst, B.A. With 

sketch-map, pp. viii + 248. (A companion to No. 38: 21s., 
to citizens of Oxford 16s.) 

40. The Life and Times of Anthony Wood [as No. 19]. Vol. 

V, completing the work. Indexes. (21s.) 



A full description of the Society's work and objects can be obtained by applica- 
tion to any of the Committee residing at Oxford (Falconer Madan, Esq. 
{Hon. Treasurer), 94 Banbury Road ; the Rev. the Provost of Queen's 
College (Dr. Magrath); the Regius Professor of Modern History, Oriel 
(F. York Powell, Esq.); the Rev. H. Rashdall, New College; and Dr. 
Shad well, Frewin Hall, Oxford). The annual subscription is one guinea, 
and the published volumes as a set can be obtained by new members 
at one-fourth the published price (i.e. lOs. 6d. a year). Life Composition 
for new members (not being Institutions) is twelve guineas : after five years of 
subscription it is ten guineas ; after ten years, eight ; after fifteen, six ; after twenty, 
four. The Society counts compositions among its liabilities (in case it ceased its 
work) at the rate of one guinea a year from the date of effecting them. 



1897. 



1898. 



1900. 



Nov., 1899.